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REPORT 

ON THE PRESENT SYSTEM OF 



FOREST CONSERVANCY 


* 

IN THE 

STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

WITH 


■ Suggestions for future Management 

oo 


BY 

i 


H. C. HILL, 

Conservator of Forests, 11. Si's Indian Forest Service. 


, . 

SINGAPORE 1900 \ * 

3 





CONTENTS. 


Page. 

Introduction ... ■ ... * ••• ... i 

General Remarks ... ■■ ... ib 

Past Historv of Forest Conservancy ... ... ... 2 

Present Policy ... ... ... ... ... ... 3 

Suggestions for future Management ... ... ... 4 

1. The unalienated Crown Lands of each District, inasmuch as they all 

yield timber and forest produce should, I submit, be considered 
and treated as forests, whether reserved or unreserved. ... ib 

2. A special Forest Law should, in my opinion, be enacted ... ... ib 

3. Phe reservation of certain additional areas is desirable ... ib 

4. The reserves should be sub-divided by cleared lines or inspection paths 

into blocks of a manageable size, say of 500 — 1,000 acres each 5 

5. The protection of certain reserves from fire should be undertaken ... 5 

6. Wh ere Gutta Percha (Palaquium sp.) are found in the reserves they 

should be weeded, i.e. cleared of the over head cover of weeds or 
other tree growth, which is interfering with their development ... 6 

7. Plantations of Gutta Percha (Palaquium sp.) should be made in one 

„ or two selected localities . .. ... ... ... ib 

S, Yield and working — -All mangrove tracts should be worked on a sys- 
tematic plan of annual fellings fixed by area. The other reserves 
may well remain closed to the cutting of timber; but, meanwhile 
the most should he made of the timber found on unreserved 
Crown Lands (chiefly in the Dindings) ... ... ... 7 & 8 

9. All minor forest produce should be utilized, as far as there is a demand 

for it, whether found in the reserves or on the unreserved Crown 

Lands ... ... ... ... ... 9 

10. A certain number ol Rangers trained in forest work should be em- 

ployed, and I further suggest the appointment of a trained Forest 
Officer with experience, to inspect and advise as to the carrying- 
out of any works, and on all matters connected with the adminis- 
tration of the forests ... ... ... ... ib 


Appendix A. 

Minute on the staff required to protect the forests, Penang and Province 

Wellesley ... ... ... it 

Appendix B, 

Minute on the staff required for the protection of the forests in the Dindings. 1 1 

MAPS. 

(Showing reserves.) 

Penang and Province Wellesley. 

1 he Bindings. 

Malacca. 

Singapore. 




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INTRODTJCT NT. 


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Under instructions recei ed from the Colom Office (Letter No. 10,411/00, 
dated 3rd April, 1900,) I was directed to proceed to hingapore to discuss the existing 
forest system with the Officer Administering the Government of the Straits Settle- 
ments and after conferring with that Officer and the Resident-General of the Feder- 
ated Malay States to report whether, in my opinion, the present system of forest 
administration, conservation and development admit of improvement at a reasonable 
cost, and, if I considered any changes in the present system desirable, to suggest 
broad general rules, in accordance with which such changes should be carried out. 

1 was also asked to report what steps, ii any, were considered desirable tor 
developing the supply 0! gutta percha in the Colony and in the Federated Malax 

States. .... , 

In compliance with these orders 1 reported my arrival in Singapore on the 1 /th 
May, 1900. From that date till the 1st June, I was occupied in studying the reports 
published from 1883 and in making excursions to different reserves and parts of the 
island. On each occasion 1 was accompanied by Mr. H. N. Ridley, M.A., Director of the 
Botanic Gardens, and Mr. W. L. Carter, the Collector of Land Revenue 1 , went out with 

us on two days. . 

From the 2nd to the 14th June I visited Malacca and with Mr. Ridley spent 6 days 

in going round to the different reserves. ' 

^ We arrived at Penang on the i6th June. Under the guidance of Mr. C. Curtis, 
Assistant Superintendent of the Botanic Gardens 4 da ys were given up to visiting 
the reserves and parts of the island. From the 22nd to the 25th the reserves ot Pro- 
vince Wellesley were inspected and on the 26th Mr. CURTIS and I proceeded to the 
Dindings. Mr. Ridley left us at Bukit Mertajam on the 24th to return to Singapore. 
Five days were passed in the Dindings and on the 2nd July I reached the Perak road 
and took up the work in that State, having been met the day before by Mr. Douglas, 
the Acting Forest Officer of Perak. 

I desire to acknowledge, with many thanks, the cordial welcome and ready assist- 
ance in my work which has been afforded to me by the Officer Administering the 
Government, Sir J. ALEXANDER SweTTENHAM, K.C.M.G., by the Colonial Secretary, 
the Resident Councillors, and those District Officers whom f had the pleasure of meet- 
ing in the course of my tours and inquiries. Mr. Ridley’s knowledge of the reserves, 
and their composition, as well as his familiarity with all forest questions, enabled him 
to act as a most useful guide, and 1 am indebted to him and to Mr. Curiis for much 
of my information. 

General Remarks. 

The Colony known as the Straits Settlements consists of the three different Set- 
tlements, Singapore, Malacca and Penang, and the last named comprises the separate 
territories of Province Wellesley and the Dindings. While Singapore and Penang 
are Islands, Malacca and the other tracts are rectangular strips lying on the coast of 
the main peninsula. Province Wellesley is almost entirely, with the exception of the 
forest reserves, taken up for the cultivation of coco-nuts, paddy, sugar, tapioca or fruit 
and more recently of Para Rubber. Even the hills have been brought under the cul- 
tivation of nutmegs, areca-nuts and cloves. 

The island of Penang is similarly highly cultivated, but being more hilly, it has a 
much larger percentage of forest reserves, and a larger proportion ot land under 
spices and fruit trees. 

The Dindings on the other hand is almost entirely under forest, cultivation 
being limited to scattered villages or hamlets. 

Malacca is highly cultivated in part and its forests, outside reserves, are being 
rapidly cleared for the shifting cultivation of tapioca. 

In Singapore coco-nuts, pine-apples, indigo, pepper, gambier and garden produce 
are grown. the cultivation of both pepper and gambier was at one time much more 
extensive, and it has been said to have declined because of the scarcity of wood for 
posts on which to train the pepper and for fuel for cooking gamSjer. It is believed, 
however, that a serious fall in prices is alone accountable for the abandonment of the 
cultivation of these crops. 


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These brief general remarks may serve to explain that thi conditions, under 
which a system of forest conservancy can be applied, are by no means the same 
throughout the Colony. Permanent cultivation may in one part absorb nearly the 
whole of the land, while in another part only the shifting cultivation of such crops as 
tapioca and gamhier is possible, b is without doubt the practice of shifting cultiva- 
tion which has given rise to the belief in the minds of se**e people that part of the 
Colony, and Singapore more par! ularlv, has been den- d*of forest. This however 
is not really the case. There b been no actual dei Jation : for whenever land 
ceases to be cultivated a growth A ^rass, fern and soft woods quickly springs up on 
it. And, if this is not burnt o^er, tne forest soon re-establishes itself. This will be 
the more readily understood, if it n remembered : 

(i) 1 hat the mean annual temperature exceeds 8o°, and that the range of tem- 
perature is from 66° to 93° ; 

(~) that the annual rainfall is about 100 inches well distributed over the year, and 
(3) that the warm atmosphere is saturated with moisture to a high degree. 

But, on the other hand, if the newly abandoned area is burnt over by regularly 
recurring fires, the young tree growth is killed out, the soil rapidly deteriorates under 
continuous exposure and the grass known as lalang ( Imperata cylindrica ) takes 
possession. Once this happens constant fires prevent any improvement in the con- 
dition and the area becomes permanently covered with grass. Another bad effect 
of temporary cultivation is the destruction of the more valuable hard wood forest, 
and its replacement by a young growth of soft woods. This would be disastrous if a 
fair proportion of the virgin forest were not set aside as forest reserves, as has been 
done in Malacca. 

Past History of Forest Conservancy. 

Considerable attention had been paid to the conservation of forest lands in the' 
Straits Settlements prior to 1882, when the late Mr. Cantley, Superintendent of the 
Botanic Gardens, Singapore, was instructed to report on the forests and make recom- 
mendations for their better management. His report, published in 1883, sufficiently 
describes the progress made up to that time in protecting the forest lands at the 
disposal of the Crown, and it is scarcely necessary for the purposes of this paper to 
make further reference to the measures which had previously been taken to secure 
the maintenance of forest areas. They are described as “ 110 sufficient attempts to 
conserve the Government forest lands ” although they were clearly not without 
result, as is shown by the reservation of 37,500 acres, which had already taken place 
in Malacca. 

The recommendations made in 1883 are summarised in paragraph 112 of the re- 
port, and shortly afterwards effect was given to them by the creation of a Department 
and the grant of money to carry them out. 

The Director of the Botanic Gardens, Singapore, was in charge of the Depart- 
ment and he had the services of the Assistant Superintendent at Penang and of a 
second Assistant at Malacca. The establishment was entirely protective and consisted 
of Forest Guards, the seniors of whom in Singapore were styled Lance-Corporals or 
Corporals. 

From 1884 the felling of forests and the clearing of forest lands were prevented 
by the demarcation of reserves in Singapore, Penang and Province Wellesley, and in 
Singapore the planting up of certain areas, chiefly with exotic trees, was undertaken. 

In 1893-94 many plants of the Borneo iron wood — Lilian -Eusideroxylon Sc Ima- 
ger i — were introduced. 

From the rst January, 1895, in accordance with the recommendations of a Re- 
trenchment Committee the forests and their protective establishments were transferred 
from the charge of the Officers of the Botanic Gardens to that of the Collectors of 
Land Revenue. 

The work done and progress made during the years 1884-94 is briefly referred 
to in the reports made by the Gardens Authorities in the year 1894. Forest reserves 
had been selected and demarcated as follows : — 

Singapore ... ... 12,965 Acres. 

Penang and Pulau Jerejak ... 11,226 ,, 

Malacca ... ... 42,000 ,, 

and their protection from encroachment and theft had been assured, while tires were 
of less frequent occurrence. There was no doubt, as is claimed, much perseverance 
in re-afforesting, more particularly in Singapore : but the results in this direction have 
not been commensurate with the expenditure. Many thousands of plants were put 
out, but either the areas planted were not secure from fire or the plantations were not 

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sufficiently weedeo and tended for the plants to grow up and establish themselves. 
Moreover from the number of exotic species selected the plantations were mostly of 
an experimental nature. 

In Penang no attempt was made to artificially re-stock forest areas on a large 
scale. Mr. CURTIS writes that no planting wad done, partly on account of the ex- 
pense, but mainly becaus- Vre was reason to bei'eve that efficient protection during 
a sufficiently long period all that was require o re-stock the lorest. 

From 1895 up to the ( resent, existing rese ,s have been protected and some 
further reservations have been made, chiefly in the findings and Province Wellesley. 
No planting has been done and the reserves have been gradually closed entirely to 
the extraction of all timber and forest produce of all kinds. The Collectors of Land 
Revenue are responsible for the upkeep of the boundaries, protection and closure. 

Present Policy. 

There can be no two opinions as to the soundness of the policy which has secured 
to the Colony 88,336 acres of forest reserves, to be maintained permanently under 
forest growth. 

The reserves are distributed over the different Settlements as follows : — 


Settlement . 

Acres. 

Malacca 

... 49,478 

Singapore Island 

... 12,428* 

Penang Island 

... IO,I 22 t 

Province Wellesley 

... 6,308j 

Dindings 

... io,ooo§ 


88,336 


The appended Maps|[ and statements show the positions of the different reserves 
and their areas.. 

The reserves thus formed occupy more than 9 percent, of the area of the Colony 
which is 1,525 square miles ; and in Malacca they cover i2‘6i% of the total area of 
the Settlement. Certain additions will no doubt be made to the reserves in both Pe- 
nang and Singapore: and the area of reserves in the Dindings will eventually stand 
at a much higher figure than at present, when surveys are made and the areas come to 
be accurately computed. The progress made in selecting, suitably demarcating and 
protecting these reserves from encroachment and theft is highly satisfactory and 
creditable to the Government as well as to the Department which carried out most 
of the reservations, and to the Collectors of Land Revenue who have supervised their 
protection since 1895. 

Protection from fire has not been effective in some places and more attention 
should have been given to this important matter in Singapore, where experimental 
plantations, made at considerable cost, have been constantly burnt over and destroyed. 

I he improvement of the reserves by means of planting the more valuable indige- 
nous trees ( ( h ) of Mr. C'ANTLEy'S recommendations) has not been successful, or un 
dertaken upon right lines. The introduction of the more valuable hard woods into 
a mixed forest by planting is not easy; and, indeed, may be said to be impossible un- 
less the complete removal of the existing crop over more or less considerable areas be 
first undertaken, so as to admit of a complete young growth only springing up with 
the trees planted. 1 lie plants it is desired to raise may be delicate and shade requir- 
ing and it may be necessary to rear them by means of nurses or under a shelter wood, 
but even then their eventual development will depend on the gradual removal of such 
aids, and the area will come to be stocked with the planted species and such 
growth as may have sprung up with it. These considerations lead in most in- 
stances to the systematic planting up of compact areas, after the clearing off of 
whatever may be the existing growth. Exceptionally, as with teak planted by the 
Karens in Burma, means may be found to artificially increase the proportion of trees 
of a valuable species in a forest by dealing with isolated patches, but this is not the 
case as a rule and it may be accepted that, when costly planting is required, it should 
be arranged with the definite object of creating a new crop over a considerable and 

previously fixed upon area. The tract operated upon should be divided up into 

— — — — — — ~ — ■— ■ ■ __ > 

* Exclusive of Selitar extension. 

)i Pulau Jerejak 830 acres. ‘'y. 

? >1 Experimental Gardens 4 acres. 

§ Very roughly estimated. 

Attached to bound copies of Report only. 




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blocks by means of lines or roads or paths, that will serve to facilitate inspection, pro- 
tection, and the export of produce. 

The utilisation of timber and forest produce from the reserves is at present in 
abeyance, but whenever demands have been met from the reserves the timber and 
produce have been disposed of as from the unreserved Crown Lands. Under the 
Crown Lands Ordinance No. II 1886 and Rules 5* finder that Ordinance, 
licences to cut and remove timber 1 Crown Lands are nted on payment of rates 
laid down in a Timber Roll. Th me usually 2 5 % a orem. 

Hitherto the reserves have ' .1 dealt with and reported on separately from un- 

reserved Crown Lands. This enture to suggest is a mistake. All Crown Lands 
whether reserved or unreserved should in my opinion be treated as one and the same 
estate and be reported upon as such, different rules, rates, etc., being applied to the 
reserves. 

1 propose now to deal with the suggestions which 1 have to make for the further 
development of the system of forest conservancy in force, giving in each instance the 
reasons I have for the suggested action or change. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE MANAGEMENT. 

1. The unalienated Crown Lands o f each District , inasmuch as they all yield 
timber and forest produce should , I submit , be considered , and treated as 

forests , whether reserved or unreserved. 

1 his is the arrangement in Burma and 1 think it would tend to make reserva- 
tion more appreciated, if each District Officer understood that the Reserves are only a 
part of his forests set aside to grow up until such time as the demand on them and 
the value ol their production shall allow' of their being worked, and also that the 
remainder of the Crown Lands represent an estate, the produce of which in timber 
and minor products should be utilized to the utmost and made to yield revenue pend- 
ing their alienation for cultivation. This revenue would go far to cover the cost of 
protection of the reserves and it seems to be right for one account to contain both 
the revenue from one part of Crown Lands and the expenditure on the other part. 

1 here w'ould then be less desire to force sales and make 'revenue from the reserves. 
It is the Crown Lands as a whole that should be considered in balancing the account. 
In the event of a forest law being enacted all Crown Lands, and not reserves only, 
should come under it. 

2. A special Forest L aw should in my opinion be enacted. 

The reasons which have induced all countries with large forest estates to 
adopt a special law for their forests need not be enumerated here. I may merely 
state that although the legal title of the Crown Lands which are taken up as reserves 
may be perfectly clear, and no rights of user may exist over them, still it would be 
an advantage if a definite procedure were laid down and if power were given to a 
Settlement Officer to deal with alienated lands enclosed in the proposed reserves and 
to record rights of way and to watercourses. In some cases it may be equitable to 
create a right to the fruit of certain trees to which persons may lav claim. 

Then the acts prohibited within a reserved forest and the penalties for offences 
should be clearly laid down. Power should also be taken to regulate and control 
fires both inside a reserve and in its vicinity. In unreserved Crown Lands the power 
to make certain species of trees reserved and to take more special measures lor their 
protection would be useful in the Findings and possibly the reservation of certain 
trees would be a good measure in Malacca, with a view to their being spared in the 
clearings for tapioca. The general power held under Ordinance No. 11 of 1886 to 
deal with timber and produce is sufficient of course as far as it goes, but it is too 
restricted. Even now I venture to think that it is open to doubt whether under 
Rules 59-61 made under that Ordinance the double charges made in the Dindings, the 
one for licences to cut timber and the other as royalty on timber extracted are strictly 
legal. 

It is desirable also to have power to establish revenue stations, to which timber 
and produce shall be brought for the realization of Government dues, and to control 
timber and produce in transit until such time as the Government dues shall have been 
collected, and to provide for its release from control by marks or passes to show that 
its removal is authorised. This would simplify the collection of Government dues in 
the Dindings. 

3. The‘'reservation of certain additional areas is desirable. 

With a view to securing a permanent supply of Gutta Percha I strongly re- 


( 


V - ) 


commend the reservation of all areas where the trees (there are several species 
of Palaquium * yielding good Gutta Percha) are found growing naturally, or they 
can be planted with good prospect of success. Such an area is that in Penang to the 
North of the Government Hill Reserve and below an elevation of 1.000 feet at about 
which altitude the existing reserve boundary has b^en taken. Other tracts may pro- 
bably be found near the P ’ it Laksamana reserv' or between it and the Pantai 
Acheh reserve. Small area; e also available in ? ’acca near Batang Malacca and 
Nyalas in the Jasin District ; in the Tebong Muk of the Alor Gajah District. 

Bukit Langkap in the central District of Provinc .Vellesley may well be reserved. 

In Singapore the mangrove tracts on the North oi the island should be reserved 
so that a working scheme may be drawn up for the entire area of this class of forest. 
An additional reserve can probably be demarcated on the Bajau Hills near the 1 uas 
River and it is for consideration whether Pulau Ubin should not be in great part 
reserved. In the Dindings where I understand the policy of Government is to even- 
tually reserve some 20% of the total area, I am of opinion that a sufficient area has 
been taken up for the present, and that it will be better to wait till more land has 
been alienated and the trade in timber and forest produce has further developed for 
the conservation of any more extensive areas. A reserve may be formed on Bukit 
Undan opposite Lumut and Bukit Senaogir may be maintained permanently under 
forest but there is no urgency in regard to their demarcation. A survey of the exist- 
ing reserves, and indeed of the whole territory, is much needed ; and, when this is 
made, I am satisfied that the reserved area will be found to greatly exceed the esti- 
mates of it. The unreserved mangrove tracts may well be reserved, since as a rule 
they can only be utilized for the production of fuel, and with the Tanjong Burong 
reserve be worked under a systematic plan such as will be described under another 
heading. Every encouragement should be given to traders to come and purchase 
timber and produce from the extensive unreserved Crown Lands and, if there 
is any risk of the more valuable trees being completely workec^out, I would sug- 
gest that certain specific trees should be declared “reserved'’ such as Merbau ( Afze - 
lia palembanica ) Damarlaut { Shorea utilis ) Chengal ( Balanocarpus sp.) etc. 
The cutting of these could then be either entirely prohibited for a time or it could be 
restricted by placing a minimum limit on the size of trees to be felled and by charging 
higher rates. 

4. The reserves should be sub-divided by cleared lines or inspection paths into 

blocks of a manageable size, sa y of goo- 1 ,000 acres each. 

Phis would facilitate the clearing and patrolling of the boundary fines : but 
it would chiefly be advantageous in permitting a more minute inspection and examin- 
ation of the reserves than is at present possible. It is a hopeless task to search for 
gutta percha trees in, or gain any idea of the composition of, the large reserves in 
Malacca as they stand, whereas, if they could be dealt with block by block of reasona- 
ble size, it would be a simple matter. The fines or paths will usefully serve later on 
for the export of produce. 

5. The protection of certain reserves from fire should be undertaken. 

Wherever the reserves have been so demarcated as to enclose blanks over- 
grown only with ferns and lalang grass, or similar blanks within the reserves are 
traversed by roads, fires constantly occur and the blanks are not only made permanent 
but are enlarged by the encroachment of the lires on the forest growth. This state 
of things is chiefly confined to Singapore and Province Wellesley: and I think the 
reserves could be easily protected by means of fire-lines such as are extensively used 
in India. 

Where there is risk of fire a narrow fine 5' or 6' parallel to the boundary or two 
fines parallel to the road ( one on either side ) should be cut and cleared at a distance 
of 50' or even ioo', and the intervening grass be burnt under control once or twice a 
year as may be necessary. The grass cut from the narrow fines should be thrown to 
dry on the side to be burnt and to facilitate the burning and control of the fire, cross- 
lines may be cut across the fire-lines. 

Once the system were started, it would be easy to carry out and Forest Rangers 
could arrange to overlook and pay for the work. 

* I use this name for the g-enus on the authority of Major Prain, cm.s. 




6 


6. Where Gutta Percka trees ( Palaquium sp.) are found, in the reserves they 
should he weeded , i. e. cleared of the overhead cover of weeds 
or other tree growth, which is interfering with 
their development . 


So far as is known these t 

Penang 
Dindings 
Si ngapore 
Malacca 


*s are found in the 'wing reserves only : — 

Goven Hill reserve 
Ulu Br .eserve (new) 

Bukit Tirnah and Jurong reserves 
Bukit Sunggeh reserve 


and over very limited areas : but it is difficult to understand the absence of the tree in 
the large Malacca reserves of the Jasin District, and it would be reasonable to assume 
that a more careful search would result in its being found ; for it occurs in several 
places near them. But, on the other hand, it is claimed that the wild jungle tribes 
living there, having known and cut out every mature tree long ago, must know if it 
were to be found elsewhere than at that place in the Bukit Sunggeh reserve where 
they have pointed out 18 trees. 

Near Batang Malacca there is a wood with 26 trees and saplings, the largest 
being 30 feet in height with a girth of C3". Near Nyalas 65 trees and plants have 
been counted. At Tebong there are said to be 200 on an area of 19 acres the largest 
being about 1 '6" in girth. In the Batu Feringhi valley of Penang the trees and 
saplings are much more numerous and some of the trees are larger. 

The largest trees known in the Colony are one or two situated on the Northern 
boundary line of the Dindings and those in a valley adjacent to the Botanic Gardens at 
Penang. These latter are 20 or more in number and 2 or 3 seeded last year. One 
measures f 6 " in girth. From these trees Mr. CURTIS raised some 800 0/900 plants, 
500 of which have been put out in the Ayer Kroh reserve in Malacca. It would seem 
that the old parenf trees which have produced the young trees and saplings now found 
were entirely cut out between 1850 and 1870 when Gutta Percha was in great demand 
and that so clean a sweep of them was made that not a tree remains. The oldest of 
those at Penang are beginning to bear seed, and the object in view must be to foster 
all the natural growth that exists in order to lead a good number of trees on to maturity 
and seed-bearing. 1 am not in favour of any attempt being made to generally increase 
the proportion of the valuable gutta percha trees throughout the reserves by artificial 
means. It will be. safer and better to concentrate operations on one or more exten- 
sive but compact plantations. I would propose that every locality where the trees 
grow or can be found in any appreciable numbers should be carefully gone over. 
The areas are unfortunately all too small to make it a heavy piece of work. All trees 
six inches in diameter and over should be enumerated in classes as follows: — 


I Class 2' o" 

II Class C 6" 

III Class C o" 

IV Class 6 " 


in diameter and over 
2' o" in diameter 


)) 




1' 6' 
1 ' o'' 


do. 

do. 


and each tree painted with a broad ring of white paint. 

Each tree should be weeded by the felling, or killing by girdling, of trees over- 
topping it, interfering with its crown development or tending to suppress it. At the 
same time care must be taken not to make great openings in the canopy and thus ex- 
pose the trees too suddenly to an excess of light. Any healthy poles of 3" — 6 " in 
diameter should also have their crown freed and uncovered so as to admit of their 
development. 

Seedlings and suppressed stems, often 3 or 4 feet high, and quite thin, with a 
tuft or two of leaves may be removed to nurseries and gradually hardened off for 
transplanting in the regular plantations, which it is proposed should be made. 

7. Plantations of Gutta Percha ( Palaquium sp. ) should be made in one or two 

selected localities. 


Hitherto the work of planting up certain areas has not been carried out on any 
systematic plan. At the beginning various trees mostly exotics were tried in Singa- 
pore but owing to fires or other causes little or no trace of them is now found. 

In 1889 and 1892 some Para Rubber was planted, with which several acres are 
now found to be stocked in the Sembawang Reserve, and in the Ayer Kroh reserve in 
Malacca. Gluta 1 > eng has, Sterculia alata, Pithecolobium Saman, Artocarpus sp. 




/ 

Swie tenia macrophylk\, etc., were experimentally put out. The boundary lines and a 
protective fire belt were planted with Eugenia grand is which has grown well. Numerous 
plants of Dialium sp. were also planted. 

Later in 1893-94 some thousands of Eusideroxvlon Schwageri were raised and 
planted out, but these hx succeeded owing 'ssibly to want of funds to tend 

the plantation, and to tl ge which was n. at that time in the manage- 

ment. 

Some small areas hav. stocked in the A Croh reserve (Malacca) with 
Fagroea fragrans znd Afzelia palembanica. Rece' a small plantation has been 
made in the Bukit Timah reserve of Gutta Percha, Mcrbau [Afzelia palembanica ) 
and Balam ( Bassia sp.). 

At Ayer Kroh 500 Gutta Percha plants have been planted out. In my opinion 
it would be well to discontinue the experimental planting of all sorts of indigenous 
and exotic trees and concentrate efforts on the formation of one or two large planta- 
tions of the most valuable indigenous tree. From its scarcity in the Colony, the narrow 
limits of its habitat and the value to the world of its product there is no more valu- 
able tree than the Gutta Percha. The scarcity of any of the better hard woods or of 
woods suitable for construction need cause much less concern than that of Gutta 
Percha for the reasons, first, that the reserves still contain useful woods and, second 
that sea-borne timber will always be forthcoming to meet the requirements of the 
Settlements. Operations have been begun at Ayer Kroh where land is available for 
the purpose and where supervision wall be easy. The soil is perhaps not that which 
would be selected for choice, as it is chiefly formed by laterite and the Gutta Percha 
is found growing naturally on the granitic soils, often amongst boulders of the same 
rock with but little soil. Still I believe it will grow at Ayer Kroh provided its 
exigencies as a shade-loving plant are recognised and it is protected by a shelter 
wood of old trees or by nurses, where it is planted in younger forest [blukar). 
Though shade-loving and consequently very delicate when young, its rate of develop- 
ment will depend on its gradual exposure to direct sunlight by opening out space 
over-head for its crown. 

A second plantation should I think he started in Penang, where all the valleys 
and such land as can be obtained not above 1,000 feet may be planted with certainty 
of success from the Botanic Gardens round the Northern side of the island as far as 
Muka Head. It need hardly be said that no planting should be done where the tree 
occurs naturally. It would be well to undertake at each place the planting of at least 
a hundred acres a year, but unfortunately the difficulty in procuring seed and plants 
imposes a limit. Mr. Curtis made an excellent beginning last year in securing 
nearly i,coo plants, and it may be hoped that these trees will continue to bear seed, 
and that others may come into bearing. It may be anticipated too that the Perak 
Officers will find means to collect and supply seeds or seedlings in numbers. In any 
case it is essential that plants should be economised and made to go as far as possible : 
and those at Ayer Kroh have been rightly put out at 20 feet apart which gives 109 to 
the acre. I am disposed to recommend that the plantation be completed with alter- 
nate lines ofTembusu {Fagroea fir agrans) 6 feet apart, and with a Merbau ( Afzelia 
sp.) between each Gutta Percha plant. The Tembusu has been experimented with 
and is sure to succeed. 

The cost of these plantations should not exceed $25 or $30 an acre. 

8. Yield and working. All mangrove tracts should be worked on a systematic 

plan of annual fellings fixed by area. The other reserves may well remain 
closed to the cutting of timber ; hut , meanwhile , the most should be ■ 
made of the timber found on unreserved Crown Lands 
( chiefly in the Bindings). 

The mangrove swamps yield a valuable supply of firewood for which there is a 
very considerable demand, the price in Singapore having risen per 1,000 pieces from $6 
in 1883 to f$8 now, while the piece is said to have grown gradually smaller until its 
average weight is 5lbs. or less, instead ot ylbs. as it was estimated to bet by Mr. Cantley. 
The swamps can with difficulty be turned to any other purpose. The trees re-produce 
themselves from seed and the young forest is understood to grow up to a suitable and 
exploitable size in about 15 years. The areas have only to be mapped, divided into 
suitable blocks — each of which would provide a complete series of fellings — and each 
block marked off on the ground into 15, or better still 20 felling ?ve as (coupes) of 
more or less equal area. Lat h coupe can be sold by auction or otherwise. And if 
each coupe could be clean felled the arrangement wmuld be simplicity itself, but in 



8 


order to assure the reproduction by seed a certain number of $eed bearers must be 
left after the first felling. These should be as far as possible* Rhizophora and Brn - 
guiera sp. and number about io or 15 to the acre. The clear felling of the rest of the 
crop will give the necessary light for the development of the seedlings and as soon as a 
dense crop is established, after probably some 5 years the s jed bearers can be remov- 
ed. In this way each coupe wo’ d be gone over twic' ah an interval between the 
fellings — and 15 years would >se before the time ue to remove a second crop. 
This treatment has not within knowledge been a, d, but I feel confident of the 

success of it from what I have ery where observed o r.he natural reproduction. 

The only mangrove fore _s are in Singapore and the Dindings and these with 
those of Perak State (which alone are estimated to yield $280,000 worth of fuel a year 
supply Railways, local Steamers, Smelting Works and other industries. 

The closing of the reserves to the extraction of timber is in a general way quite 
the proper policy, so far as 1 am competent to judge. In Singapore but few of the 
reserves contain mature timber and then it is only in limited parts that it is found. 
The greater part is more or less young or only half-grown. 

The large reserves of Malacca, rich in good mature timber, lie side by side with 
extensive areas covered with similar forest which is being cleared and burnt and so 
the time has not yet come for the timber to be valuable. The more accessible Sungei 
Udang Reserve had all the mature timber worked out of it before it was reserved and 
it is mostly young and very promising. 

In the Bindings the unreserved lands yield more than there is a demand for. 

The only mature forests in Province Wellesley are those which cover the tops 
of the hills. Tasek Glugor, the largest reserve, is only gradually growing up and the 
grassy blanks are being slowly overgrown by masses of young Tembusu f ‘ Fagroea 
frag vans 

The main reserve in Penang is that which comprises Government Hill and the water 
catchment area, and it should be strictly preserved both in the interests of the water 
supply and in view of future requirements, as the hill becomes popular and is more 
generally resorted to and built over. Private holdings within the catchment area 
should be acquired. Such reserves as Pantai Acheh and Laksamana would yield 
some timber but it is hardly necessary to make an exception in their case. 

The workable forests are the unreserved areas in the Dindings the revenue on 
timber from which amounts to $9,000 a year, and is capable of further development. 
In the remainder of the Settlements a few hundred dollars a year will represent the 
value of timber sold from Crown Lands. 

This revenue is at present collected, in the Settlements generally, by means of 
licences issued on payment of rates laid down in a Timber Roll (scale of royalty 
schedule) and purporting to represent 25% of the value. The different trees are 
divided into 2 or 3 classes according to their values. In the Bindings, however, a 
different system is in force. Sawyers and wood-cutters pay a monthly tax of $3 each 
and a further royalty or duty, at the rate of 15% of the value of hard woods, and 10% 
of the value of Meranti ( Shorea and Hopea sp.) is levied on the converted timber. 

It is rather remarkable that the royalty so collected is approximately the same as 
the sum received from the tax on wood-cutters and sawyers. 

I have some doubt whether the tax on wood-cutters is provided for in the Crown 
Lands Act and Rules, and it is at best an awkward way of realising the value of the 
trees. Still it must be admitted that it has the advantage of being understood by the 
people. 

The Government dues on Charcoal may continue to be realised as at present by 
a monthly charge of Si per man employed on its manufacture, with the proviso on the 
licence that no tree of the reserved kinds is felled. 

The charge for a licence under the rates fixed in the Timber Roll, which vary 
for every six inches of diameter, has the inconvenience that a person taking out a 
licence must find it difficult to state correctly the sizes of the trees he is proposing to 
cut. 

The system in Upper Burma is to issue licences to fell trees, those for reserved 
and unreserved trees being in different form and colour, on payment of a fee for each 
tree and on condition that in addition to the fee paid for the licence, royalty at certain 
rates shall be paid on arrival of the timber at a certain place and that the timber shall 
not be converted or utilized or removed from that place until the royalty has been 
paid in full. The fees for licences vary from 4 to 15 cents for unreserved trees and 
are 32 cents per tree for reserved trees. The royalties charged on timber of the 
reserved kinds vary from $6 to $16 per ton of 50 cubic feet in the log and are 


( 


9 


double for converted Cipher. On timber of the unreserved kinds in Upper Burma 


they are ; 



For soecial 

Other 



timl 

woods. 


Logs -D ft. in girth and over 

&2. t 

* * • M 

§0.66 

each. 

Log 2 '-4 '5" in girth 

Posts i'o" to i'll* in girth 

i- 3 o 

0 33 
6.66 

per 1 oo. 

Poles below l'o v in girth 

... 1 

o -33 


Converted timber 

5-33 

i -33 

per ton. 


I would suggest, if my proposal to declare certain trees reserved be acted upon, 
that licences be issued at a fixed fee per tree and that royalty be levied at <jj>4 por ton 
on all timber of the reserved kinds in the round, and at per ton on all converted 
timber. For unreserved woods a similar scale to that above might suffice. 

Should the wood-cutter's tax be continued in the Dindings half the rates of royalty 
taken elsewhere might be prescribed for that territory. 

9. All minor forest produce should be utilized , as far as there is a demand for 
it , whether found in the reserves or on the unreserved Crown Lands. 

Such products as palms, canes (rotan) caoutchouc, wood-oil, resin, natural 
varnish, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits as well as seeds, creepers and grasses can not 
only be removed without doing harm to the timber trees and chief products, including 
even “ Gutta Percha” the trees of which should be known and tended: but often with 
advantage to the main forest crop. 

Their collection, as well as that of honey and wax, etc., may continue to be permit- 
ted on the present system of persona/ monthly tax both in and outside reserves ‘ but I 
recommend that double the rates charged for unreserved lands be imposed on those 
collecting in reserves and it would be well that licences for the reserves should be of 
a different colour from the others. 

to. A certain number of Rangers trained in forest work should be employed, 

and l further suggest the appointment of a trained Forest Officer with ex- 
perience to inspect and advise as to the carrying out of any works and 
on all matters connected with the administration of the forests. 

The Department, as organized prior to 1895, did much good work in connec- 
tion with the selection and demarcation of the reserves: but once this work was 
accomplished and the protection of the demarcated areas was the chief business 1 am 
of opinion that the Government acted wisely in handing over to the Collectors of 
Land Revenue and District Officers the charge of the torest reserves. The districts 
are all small, compared with what is known as a District in India, for there are ten 
Officers for 1,525 square miles. 1 he unreserved Crown Lands had all along been in 
charge of the District Officers, and living within their districts they were, and still are, 
the best and cheapest agency for conserving the reserves. There may be the tempta- 
tion to disafforest areas for which cultivators or planters are applying, but it may be 
assumed that the Government, which has determined on the reservation ol a tract of 
land with the conviction that it ought to be maintained under forest, is sufficiently 
alive to the necessity for a continuous policy, and aware that such policy where tim- 
ber trees are concerned must, to be of any use, extend over a century or more. 

In India the District Officer is responsible for the forests of his District, and the 
arrangement works well. I believe it is the only possible starting point for any rea- 
sonably economical system of forest conservancy in the Straits Settlements. A De- 
partment which consists of one, two or three highly paid scientific Officials and 20 or 
30 Forests Guards or patrols cannot be effective and its development on practical 
lines would be too expensive to be justifiable. District Officers have their Land 
Office subordinates [Forest Rangers they have been rather inappropriately termed 
by the Crown Lands Act) to overlook the protective establishment employed for the 
reserves and assist in the supervision of their work of boundary clearing and of pre- 
vention of theft or encroachment. The same officers of themselves or through local 
headmen (Penghulus) protect, and control the exploitation from unreserved Crown 
Lands. So far nothing more is require^ ^vond letting it be understood that all 


n 




IO 


Crown Lands (whether reserved or unreserved) are to be treated as a single estate 
and reported on as such, all revenue and expenditure from or on account of them 
falling under one head “ Forests . 

But wherever the forest reserves have to be more than protected ; where works 
of improvement are called for or ystematic exploitation F squired, then the District 
Officer requires the assistance of men with a spe' knowledge of forest work. 
A trained European expert wh aid relieve him of i of his responsibility, such as 
is employed in Districts in L is out of the quest Four such Officials would 
be required for the Colony. ) ve considered what can be done under the circum- 
stances and have come to the conclusion that a certain number ol Rangers trained 
to forest work must be employed to assist the District Officers wherever required. 
Such men can only be obtained from the Dehra Dun Forest School. They may be 
either Straits men, who, under such inducements as Government may think fit to offer, 
go to Dehra and obtain certificates or they may be private students who have obtained 
certificates and accept appointments. These latter would be either of European 
parentage born in India, Eurasians or English speaking natives. They would probably 
not accept less than $65 a month to begin with and look for prospects of promotion. 
The Burma Government offers such men appointments on Rs. 100 a month. If the 
proposals made in this report are acted upon, there will be employment for four or 
five Rangers certificated to be qualified for forest work. They can be used as follows : — ■ 

i. Singapore. To arrange for the working of the mangrove tractsand weed gutta 
percha trees in reserves. 

1. Malacca. To carry out the Palaquium sp. plantation and tend the naturally 

growing gutta percha trees. 

2. Bindings. One stationed at Lumut, the other at Bruas, to look after ail 

forest work, leaving the Land Revenue Ranger to attend only to 
alienated lands or the alienation of forest lands. For the present one 
man vice the Forest Inspector would suffice, but in that case he should be 
at Bruas and do both the forest and land revenue work in the North 
leaving the Land Revenue Ranger to do both forest and land work from 
Lumut. It is, I think, a waste of energy to have two men, a Ranger (land 
revenue), and an Inspector (forest), dividing the work over the whole ter- 
ritory. It would be better to have one man in the North and the other in 
the South each doing both the land revenue and forest work of his division. 

t . Penang. To plant gutta percha and weed and tend the naturally growing trees. 
(Mr. Curtis can probably manage without this man for the present.) 

Mr. Curtis, Assistant Superintendent, Botanic Gardens, Penang, may well con- 
tinue to be employed to superintend the Paiixquium plantations both at Malacca and 
Penan o-. He has already commenced the work in Malacca, takes a keen interest in 
it, andls well qualified to carry it out successfully. For this purpose he must visit 
Malacca and give considerable time in Penang to raising plants and laying out suit- 
able areas for" plantation. The actual work both at Malacca and, I think, at Penang 
should be carried out by the District Officers and their Rangers, Mr. Curtis merely 
inspecting, advising and helping in any way in his power. 1 would not burden him 
with the control of the Ranger, payment of coolies, etc. 

But, if forest conservancy is to be properly carried out on a determined and last- 
ing policy and it is only in this way that any real progress may be looked for — I am 

strongly of opinion that the Government must have the benefit of professional advice 
on the spot, and the works must be under professional inspection and direction. I 
propose therefore that a Forest Officer, trained in Europe and with 8 or 10 years 
experience in Burma, should be appointed and his services divided between the 
Colony and the Federated Stales. Such an Officer could be obtained on 3 years’ 
deputation from the Government of India, on payment to that Government of his 
pension contribution. 

There are some Officers in the Colony who would not unnaturally prefer to have 
one or more of their own men. recruited for service in the Colony, trained in Forestry 
and rendered fit for the appointment of Chief Forest Officer. This, however, after 
careful consideration on my part does not seem to be feasible for two reasons. Only 
a Cadet or quite voung officer could be chosen as a student to go through a course of 2 
or 3 years’ training, whether in France, Germany or at Cooper’s Hill, and such officer 
would lack the administrative experience without which such a post could not be 
properly filled. Secondly, if a suitable officer were trained, there would always be the 
impossibility of replacing him when on leave by a thoroughly trained and experienced 
locum teneks. It must be clearly understood that nothing will be gained by creating 
the appointment and tilling it by any but a professionally educated Foresterol some age 

and standing. 


(T 



1 1 


The salary of an (Tpeer deputed from India would have to be not less than §>500 
( Rs. 750 ) a month with compensation and other allowances. 

His Head Quarters might be at Kuala Lumpur or Singapore, but he would be 
required to devote a cc "in period of the year te inspections ol the forests and 
forest works of the Cplou 1 to report on them -he Colonial Secretary or Resi- 
dent .Councillors after cc t with the Land -nue Officers. He would be 

available for advice to the unent in regard matter connected with the 

forests or their forest policy. 

H. C. HILL, 

Lo.ise rva tor of Foi ests . 

Her Majesty’s Indian Forest Service. 

Singapore, ijth September, 1900. 


1 


. Cj 




\ 


/ % 




Appendix A, f A 

Minute on the Staff required to protect the Forests, Penang and Province 

Wellesley . 

It must be admitted that a Frrest Guard .will not mov'' about alone, and Guards 
must either be employed in coupP as in Singapore, or e" -uard must have a coolie to 
go with him. The latter is pr ’y the better anr iper arrangement, and the 
proposals for Penang appear 3 to be quite suita 

In the South West Distrii .e Forest Guards ha to do all the work of looking 
after timber and produce rem .c-d from Crown Lands under licences. Penghulus do 
this in Malacca. The new Forest Guard should probably have his Head Quarters at 
Balik Pulau and be in charge of Reserves G. H. /. in addition to the duty of controlling 
the timber and produce removed from Crown Lands, which brings in -1f)6oo to $1,000 a 

year. t 

The maintenance grant of $250 will I assume provide for 3 coolies — one lor each 

Guard. 

In the North East District the third Guard is very necessary and 1 would suggest 
his being placed at Batu Feringhi where an extension of the reserve to include a 
large quantity of Gutta Percha trees is about to be proposed. 1 he maintenance 
grant should provide for 3 coolies. Pulau Jerejak seems to require no special staff. 

Province Wellesley. 


In mv opinion it will suffice for the present if a new Forest Guard is provided for 
the Bukit Mertajam District, and each of the 3 Forest Guards is given a coolie to help 
him in clearing the boundaries and to go about with him. The maintenance grant m 
the North (Senior) District Office should be further increased so as to allow of the 
road through the Tasek Glugor reserve, and part of the boundary of the Ara Kuda 
reserve being fire traced : but this may wait till I have sent in my report and explained 
what 1 consider should be done. 

H. C. HILL, 
Conservator of Forests. 


Lumut, j Jothune, iqoo. 

Appendix B. 

Minute on the Staff required for the protection of the Forest in the Bindings. 
Following the arrangements in Penang that each Forest Guard should be assisted 
by a coolie, the number of Guards in the Dindings is sufficient. It is only necessary 
to provide a maintenance grant sufficient for the employment of, at present, six coolies, 
and later on probably seven coolies, say <$700 and $800.* 

The Guards would be stationed as proposed by Mr. WOLFERSTAN. 

2 at Lumut. 

1 at Pangkor. 

1 at Beting Luas. 

t at Bruas. 

1 at Bukit Segari and Telok Sera Kampong Acheh. 

1 at Sungei Rotan. 


The men at Lumut would have charge of 
Lumut Reserve 
Telok Muroh Reserve 
Tanjong Hantu Reserve 

and later probably of a reserve it is proposed to make in Bukit Undan, North of 

Lumut. r ^6 p in( jj n g S 1 am disposed to recommend the appointment of 2 Forest 
Rangers for forest work only, to be located 1 at Bruas, 1 at Lumut: and to be held 
responsible for all the timber working and produce extraction from Crown Lands as 
well as for the protection of the Reserves. The system of having a Land Officer 
(Forest Ranker) responsible for the extraction of timber and produce from Crown 
Lands and a Forest Inspector to merely supervise the protection of the reserves, does 
not commend itself to me. It would be better I think, with the present staff, to lave 
the two men in charge of all work in different divisions of the Dindmgs with their 
Head Ouarters a* Bruas and at Lumut. This question shall be dealt with more fully in 
my rep'ort, but in the meantime, if approved, the employment of six coolies might per- 
haps be sanctioned. ^ ^ jqij j 

Conservator of Forests „ 

Lumut , 30th June , /poo. _ 


* The coolie draws $8 a month and rice allowance, 


INDEX MAP 


* 


t 


OF THE 


MALAY PENINSULA 

To accompany Report on the Forest Administration in the Straits Settlements ty H. C. Sill Esqr. Conservator of Forests 



'fkotrMharv. 


fcompotig 


JLqJsubfik&Ut 


Pwhuentuuis T* 


TurtiebacU T . 


o Euinp0tU] Jtusc 


UlVl/JII 


Great Redan 


I‘ .Banting a. 


W 5 .uJo 


Inn-ri-n. 


Suf Oing If 


Berhala 


*?l LiiOv Rfd/mg 


I infl 


oohf. 


) 


RoJTiJtvarujp'h 


Tvint/anu ■ 3^ 


TanuKManu- 


SKurau. 


KEMAMAN \ 


<i. Robinson.* 

9.00 g&’M 


T9 Keatu) ^ 

X. ha^ut> / f 


Pula Berha to. 


tjyor th- C 


Chi ruutr S 


tlwiong 


'enyatl 


Middle C 


•VJRtttao* 


P.n.n.- 


Tituj ono Puling 


&TjHLaJtc&* 


Kw'lkj Jripi 

punjohY'^v ei. 


Little Dimting 


1 ’aii'j .rtiianfcajs 


S.Lemhirgk 


Chargoi' 

i&ihjLl.iftfd 


"ou jo rt<j TtmbcUntj 


BERN AM 


KmojIo. Berruzm, 


Tcc/gpuy vSj£.- 

n •• 


Ven&ti, 


KWAI.A SELANGOR 


JiyvcJla Po.h 


tCiw/npi 


TgMflERLOH 


’Kirirfis 


'itoAuiMin, 
- o 


Hi Titnbang 


?fc£ar >)c 


T kelUfidei 


Ifiampi 5ccru 

fhant&aiiyPlac?) 


NIEMG' R ! 

Kwala Pilahei^gv* 


Titmem, 1 


hiabonc; Point 

t’JUaisi.IIarbcur' 
'vJJiscoitj fttni 


tCAMAT 


AOjli L'llJ 
3 BT 


SiltwJj*-.Po\ 


I’anfatuj Casmmey ^ 


£ Sudai Co, 


mI IUM0GA 


Xurvtor 


Jiit Lungga. 
Uuk.ilTeru.fs 




S- Sedili Beitrrr 


Pulau Ruyat 


•Jepruiarig 


Buio Pu^UJ/j 

<!<£><= 


Pulau Beng kalis 


PukiTt KuwiJ> 


Sing £ifr ore. 


MAP NQ4 


Pulau 

Padang 


s> Jv PABatam < 


Scale of Statue Miles 


Miles 1 2 


Frepared in the Forest Survey Oflice^Bengal Presidency, Captain P. J, Gordon. I.S.C., Superintendent. 


by Mr, A, Descubes, Superintendent Forest Map Records. October 1900. 

Note.— The Geographical position of the soe-'al maps illustrating the Report are indicated on this map. 


Fhotozineographed at the Office of the Trigonometrical Branch , Survey of 


T dia, Dehra Dun, 


Regr. No. I). 022^ 


St. 1300 - 300 


i 

l 


193-S. 00 


E. 100’ 


No. 1 

MAP 

SHOWING FOREST RESERVES 


D 


H 


Ktcala 3fude 


PENANG ISLAND 

and in the 

PROVINCE of WELLESLEY 




Poriongfl 


£ 0 4 2 0 


Scale of Statute Miles 
1 2 3 


To accompany JLejiort on the Forest Administration in the Straits Settlements 
by JI. C. Hilt Esqri Conservator of Forests. 


Miles 


Tonjoug Fuchat Muka 




4 B»tu Ferinjgi 



Put** Trltui 


Tcmjong Tokong 


N. B 




rjx 



/ 


xP 






p. auTONa 



\ 





Tanjnng Gertak Sanggui 


Tanjang Jeiuit Tempty-ih 


/fVLAU W 1 MAU 


r PJLAU KfMfti 


REFERENCE TO FOREST NAMES AND AREA STATEMENT. 


PENANG 

Reference 


Area 

Letter 

Name of Reserve 

in 

on Map 


Acres 

A 

Pantai Acheh 

3208 

B 

laksamana 

466 

C 

Teiok^ahang 

380 

D 

Government Hill ... 

5185 

E 

High lands 

252 

F 

Penara Bukit 

233 

6 

Ginting Hills 

22 

H 

Btikit Gemuruh 

206 

1 

Relan Hills 

170 


Total ... 

10,122 

J 

Pulaii Jerejafc ... j 

830 


linn PnCPaniang 
% 



r*v=f> 




Qt* 


Kapnla Bat as 



Ay*fi 


T»w.e If 0 E 


Dakar Bubo 

hern 



r 

) GEORGE TOWN 




D I S T E 



M 


J? 


* 



Butter worth 





\ 


Fermatang Favh 


^ Fermat ang Ara ^ 


Bukit Merab 



Kwala Prai 



Or. f. 




ui 


Mertijvn 



Kwala 


pplau jere.iar 


s 


I 

lift Seraya OH. 

I 

i i 




QF.f. 

\ 

OF.*. 

Uuk't * Machang Bubo 


\ 


V 


JCuxtla Jajatei 


PULAU KRA 




if 



Bukit T*mbun 


~\ 


\ 


\s 


H 


/ 


Xfl 


PROVINCE OF WELLESLEY 

Reference 

• 

Area 

No. 

Name of Reserve 

in 

on Map 


Acres 

1 

Tasek glugor 

3055 

2 

Ara kuda 

562 

3 

Bukit Seraya 

112 

4 

„ Mertajam ... 

163 

5 

>i Juru 

525 

6 

„ Gajahmoti ... 

82 

7 

„ Gua Ipoh ... 

338 

8 

„ Panchor 

1471 


Total ... 

6308* 

* Exclusion of Experimental 

A R P 

gardens = 

3 2 03 


S 0 U T 



N 


l 


Sungai SakJip 

I\ S T ft I 


A 


ft?* 1 " 


PULAU ftURON 



f 




fed 


N. 5 


25 


Ksoala Krian 

■Jr 




i 


Nfbang Tab*) 


E. 100 


Regr. No. D. 938 . Pot. -Oct. 1900 ~3Q0 



Ml 

Bukh (^anchor 


K 


*0 


Prepared in the Forest Survey Office, Bengal Presidency, Captain P. J. Gordon, I.S.C., Superintendent, from a tracing supplied by H. C. Hill, Esq., Conservator of Forests. 

Thotozin cographed at the Office of the Trigonometrical Branch, Surety of India, Dckra Dun. October BhjQ. 


No. 197-S. 00 



REFERENCE TO FOREST NAMES AND AREA STATEMENT. 


Reference 
Letter 
on Map 


Name of Reserve 


p.s FR Ofl3TRR 

■!— .4 


BODBDAaT 


Kg. S. Kotan 


StOTWB 

>. . Stenting Baloh 


S. Betfip. 


Pertg: Serai 


Batu 


Stoiia/ 

e. 90 .&er 

|S.Ono 


ig/S. Tontong 


Akir Kerok 


Not surveyed, may be more nearly estimated at 10.000 acres, 


rengicalan Bharu, Tg. Arra-h 


Kampong Pantie Remix 


Pantie Memis\ 


Telok Men kudu 


Sungei. Glam 


Kg. Sungei Glam 


Pa sir Panjang 


Tanjong Bantu 


Grant Bluff i 
Tg.Labu.an Bili 


T. Scnangin 


Mudge Bluff 


-Q_V.il! 

-K Sungei Semilun 


North Wert islet !> 


T. Copea 


Qrtuiiopper ..let o 


North West Pt. t 


Sungei Gajah Mati 


SHOAL BAY 


Motts Pt. 


Kg. l)a ma r 


Kg. Acheh 


Mehsgao Pt, 


l^sng Island 


"J. BcMe 


p**ICKOR\ 

Ra jah Bay an g jfPv 


Turtle Pt 


Scalo oi Si&tnts Miles 


®Turt!e Roel 


T. Mura > 


I -pvTteage 

F 3- Stones 
I/amvt -Tun.it ion 


Tilgk Kechii>- 
. J TCmb Pt. 

z 

tf/Telok 
J*!l Qertortg A 


Li Kg- Mura 


To accompany Report on ihe Forest Administration in the StraiU Sett, 
by Jt. C. Bill Stqr. Conservator of Barest*. 


Pangkorl.aut 


Adam’s Bluff 


South Fast Pt 


T. Pengaring (' 


Store 


Sy monel's 

T. Ruhia'-^gittor, 

Petou KtuhQ. ^ugjrtHow 



17 0 


? MO* 

iementt 


Prepared in the Forest Survey Office, Bengal Presidency, Captain P. J. Gordon, I.S.C., Superintendent, from a tracing supplied by H. C. Hill, Esq., Conservator of Forests, 

Photo ; i n cog ra phed at the Office if the Trigonometrical Branch , Survey of India, Dekra Dun, October 1900, 

No. 198-S. 00 


Regr. No. D, 9! 57 , 


For. - Oct. iSOf' - so 3 




Ayer length 


Bukit, -Pul us 


LINGGI 


£3gk*t J Smart; 


Jr^BukU Ampnr 


Bukit Jehilong: 


~o ringgit 


L>usJ;t Kapar eukii Mimi 


'B’jkit dlhsn 


>Likit Bertam 


- ^3»uklt PI. bar.* 

\^8vwit T<mpuro'ftg^ 


Bukit Banian 


>BultU Rumtnl. 


-.Bukit Brno 


ADAH G SE3AN 


Ayer B.rikong 


AYER PAr-ABAR 


SUNGEI BEARD ILIR 


Kwala Linggi 


LINGGI 


Bukit. Ktedang 


'or.dok Kempaa 


KWALA SUNGEI BHAED 


SUNGEI B ; D ARU\\DLD 


PJ3ND0I KOMPAS 


Wi^ACCA 


SUNGEI//PETEI 


Chkitnj 


3 TEN G E i bHAB D TEH (hfcH 


ilfSukH Untopg 


BRINGIN 


PARIT MELANA 


CHABAU 


e-jkii Dob 


Rombia 


Fsvgiotan B’t] 


Bukit Mu fling 


BLIMBINft 


Krulxmg 


DURIANWUNGGAL 


Pay ah' 


SUNGEI 


TERRITORY 


Panchor 


Bukit Tlsl 


Gapani 


TANGGANBAT D 

/ TanggAWtu \ 


m /% 

yjNDAtf. 

iH Oart» f f 


<Uj P*ngk*Un'< 


BATU 


.ft Qhii mill 


r Sukf» Brefubui 


iBufcit Ratabei 


OF THE 


Mali™ 


Buka Kunt 


CTanjonif K!lng 


B*l«i PartJai’.gK 


{I’Jkrt Ssmatau 


Pukii 


Prlnggtt 


Anntiure to Report on the Forest of the Straits Settlements, by Nathaniel Cantley Esqr. 
Superintendent Botanical Gardens Singapore 


Ktebang Koohl! 


BukHjPiaiu 


/Bukit Duyang 


Dated 10th. November 1882 


Serindit 


Ohin* 


■Malacca Town’ 


with ForestTLessma as they novYeijut superposed in red 


ifc Bukit Un|»ng 


JOHOR 


Kandanc 


REFERENCE TO FOREST NAMES AND 
AREA STATEMENT. 


,Bijkh Lcr.itg 


T«lo4t Ma» 


Umbel 


Bukit KMtng 


Slrkum h 


Merl Ltn,vi 


Sungei Rauibei 


Sobstu 


REFERENCES 


(lovavmncnt 

~j 


m 

Forest Reserve Additions proposed by N. (-ant ley K<<|r: 

Pm-fud R^ifirr^a in lftS'4.-.- - 

fi., Tin in 1S9H 

p-sra-r?- 1 

Reference Number to Forest Rcserres in J S-'W — 

L. -re 1^1 

9 


7b. accompany Report on the Foreet Ailmnatratiun 

Reference 


1 Area 


No. 

Name of Reserve 

in 

in the Strait* Settlement* by H.O. Mill Require 

on Map 


Acres 

Conservator of Foreats 

1 

Bukit Bruang 

€174 


2 

Brisu or Sungei Siput 

5268 


3 

Bukit Panchor 

3356 

Seale of Statute Mika 

4 

Sungei Udang 

4352 

PoAmps^j- 6 * 2 . V - } f - _... 4-- * ■ MiitB 

5 

Ayer Panas ... 

3242 


6 

Merfiman ... 

6217 

Area of Territory 659 Square Miles, 

7 

Bukit Singeh 

9430 


8 

Bukit Sedanan 

7806 

JOHN F.A.MQ NAIft. MAJORE.A,A-I-C.E. 





9 

Batang Malacca 

3549 

Surveyor General, Strait * Settlement*- 

10 

Bukit Sebukor 

44 



Total ... 

43,478 


Regr. Nit- D. 958, For. - Not. 1900-310 


Bhvioxin cographed at the QffUe of the Trigonometrical Branch, Survey of Iriia , Behra Pan, November 1900. 


Drawn and typed under the supervision of Captain P. J. Gordon, I.S.C., Superintendent of Forest Surveys, Bengal Presidency, by Mr. A. Desoabes. Super 


mtendeat of Forest Map Records and Native Assistants, 


No. 209-S. 00 


from a tracing supplied by H. C Hill, Esq., Conservator of Forests, 




* 



S. Sa- rung gong 


Tanjong Langsat 


■<; W harf^-'P 
5 It. U. The SuItan-oL 
0 Residence or 


JOHOR BAKU 
JohorL-H . 


'J'M-iili >ln ’ 


KKAKJJ 

ivitisa 


P. Sarimbun 


t>JP. Cbombun 


m m 


Cis> " 

F. Tukang 


T. Nanas 


Tanjong Bateman 


ITnuni 


* MEKONG 


/** 

'UNGGOL 


JSanuik 


Pulau ''' 

y$a-ranygony (^\ 

Pulau Ketarri. 
‘^vNOGOjYg 

-;K-. s. Hlmau 


P. Sajahai 


'Kg. Fangkalan Paku 


Tg. Jeluiong 


Tanjong Bate Koyok 1 


P. Sunjvnpkong 


Bata Fateh. 


-CHANGI 


?Batu Kapala TuaA 


yianjong Changi 


!HU KANC 


inacgi 




g. BERIH 


Merbu] 


S. Pendaa 


»w. I 

CTEEANi 

.ESTATE' 


i^' /Mtmggong 
|V EiC.CburekT 7j 

sa-'ranggongX^ 


Kiisatv 


Tanjong Perleh 


'AMPINES S 5 TAT 


[ESTATE 


'Ayer Gemumh 


Telok Mats. Ikun 


/Padang Teh&kar 
Tanjong Mengkwang 


¥/ Oovi: ' 
WrickFxtlf 


'EP^SEVERENCE 
l\ ESTATE 


Powder Magazine 


Tyer-ajlil. I 


No. 4 

MAP 


1 U'WIUJ -> J \ 

■The Barra 


Kampoiig Sigtap 


Perepok 


IZJomor 


P. G finny /J 


Tanjong Penjuru 


P. Sembilan 


TANKING K\ TONG 


TAG JONG S.U 


Tanjong Gul 


PASIG 


P.Mincmu! Law 


rOTl: Office; 


ISLAND OF SINGAPORE 


angaixire 


P. Miaemut IMrat 


REFERENCE TO FOREST NAMES AND AREA STATEMENT. 


xPulau Seram 
3 1 % 

iKk TJVPa/tm Seburm Luar 
Pulau S churns Datum 


P.Miekol 


Pulau Ayer Chattxm 


Tanjong Ayer Jemba 


=*■* ' Kfieri«m«tta a c ■ 

— saVs/ 1 *y 

y, ^TANJONG ^r-PAGAU 
>►. HOCKS 

< I 
Pulau Brum 


'AMir fTv* 1 ' 

few 

Fpy&ileyu- 
Mt. JtabeaRwf|.- . sm. 


rer Merbau 


Bcrinver Pr,ini\/ r Jto 
Lot’s Wit a 


To. accompany Report on the Forest Administration 
in the Straits Settlements by H.C. Hill Require 


Pnlau Lout 


Cyrenii Shun i 


VAyy//?/W 


rjj^BarbaiH Itepai 


Conservator of Forests 


BLAKAM MATI 

.Pvuamile Magazine rP 


r' Da fa 


fT&Sultan Shoal 


Scale of Statute M ties 


.Furlongs 


Pulau Bvsh>g f 


Tanjong Pumpang^ 


Pulau Sa-kukoN^ 
P. Benge* 


Jtemjet Besot' 

P. Tembukal or Pen i Id. 

\ 

* fP. Sa-kijung Pelepah 


ELerosino Oil Tank 1 


B.EFERENCE8 


P. Btihjrii Krchil 


Mag. Var. in 1898-1.51 E. 

Altitudes referred to Mean Sea Level and for top of Signals 

0 * fr 

Government Offices Initial Station f Latitude 1.17 14*81 

j n't, 

Trigonometrical Survey ( Longitude 103.51 OB' 00 


Pulau Hatttufy 'l 


V. Sa-lcijanrj Banderaf> 
83 

P. Sober or The Sifters^ je, 6 ti John “ 


Pulau Saluk 


Pulau Jo-nj 


J * Semakatu 


Quarantine Stn: 


Belerek Sitdcnig 


Pulau Saaarokor 
V Middle I stand 


Pulau Nongsa 


> Pulau Sudong 


Pulau Selin y 


pulau Berffas 


P. Pawai or Alligator Td. 


PULAU BAIT AM 


P. Senang or Barn Id Y 


Pulav. Bfm Jin 


Rabbi t Td 8 


Coney Td. * Ueffles Light 


Reference 

No. 

on Map 

Name of Reserve 

Area in 

Acres 

Roods 

Poles 

I 

Bukit Timah •' 

847 

0 

00 

2 

Jurortg 

412 

0 

00 

3 

Randan 

2140 

3 

16 

4 

Ulu Pandan ... 

4 

3 

09 

5 

Rokit Panjang 

117 

2 

16 

6 

Bukit Timah Road 10th Mile 

13 

0 

28 

7 

Ohoa Ghu Kang 

49 

0 

00 

8 

f Url3 Mt * » * 

1601 

3 

32 

9 

Sunge' Murai 

314 

1 

05 

iO 

Suogei Buleh 

770 

2 

16 

fl 

Kraoji 

756 

0 

32 

12 

Sembawang ... 

1046 

3 

38 

13 

it* at* 

407 

0 

32 

14 

Kranji Road 13th Mile 

9 

2 

16 

15 

Changi 

1393 

0 

00 

16 

Seletar 

1429 

1 

08 

17 

Chan Chu Kang 

813 

3 

08 

18 

Aog Mo Kto 

2% 

0 

02 

19 

Sempang 

5 

0 

00 

2Q 

Seletar Extension 

... 

... 

... 


Total ... 

12,423 

1 

18 


District Boundary 


Municipal Limit 


Estate Boundaries 

101 "’** 

Main Hoad with Mileage 

. 8.M, 

Minor Itoads 


Cart tracks & Foot Path _ 


Bailway Line 

PH+Uf+Hm 

: 

O 

SSE 

X 

U-ll 

Trigonometrical Stn: with height 

Water shed limits of the Impounding) 
Reservoir ) 

Forest Reserve with N ambers 

Police Stations 

Villages 



\«\ 



jwMgLv 







Regr. Mo. XL 969 , For. Nov. 19 Q 0-310 


Philvxmcopraphed ut the Office of the Trigontmetriaal Branch, Survey of India, Dehra Dun. JPovember pjoo. 


Drawn, and typed under the supervision ot Csptaiu. P. J. Gordon, LS„C f , Superintendent of Forest Snirvys, Bengal Presidency., by Mr, A. Descubea. bbperintcndenL of Forest Map Records and Native Assistants, 


No. 210 -S. oo 


from a map executed by the Colonial Engineer and Surveyor General of the Straits Settlements in 1838 



S T R A I T S 


S E T T L E M E N T S 


Paper to be laid before the Legislative Council by Command of 

His Excellency the Governor. 


Reoort on the Forest Reserves of the Straits Setttements during 

the year 1901 . j 


SINGAPORE. 


I. The Reserves call for practically no report further than that as may bo gather- 
ed from the table below; they were periodically visited both by the Collector of Land 
Revenue and the Forest Rangers. 




| 

Number of 

No. of visits 


No. 

Name of Reserve. 

Area. 

visits by 

by Forest 

Nature of Reserve. 


C. L. R. 

Ranger, 




a. r. p. 



Hilly. Big jungle tailing off on the East 

1 

j Ruklt Timah 

847 0 00 

3 

16 






into scrub. 

2 

1 Jurong 

412 0 00 

2 

27 

Swamp and hill mixed, not ntuch good 
jungle. 

3 

, Pandan 

2,140 3 16 

1 

24 

Almost all mangrove swamp, a little la- 
lang scrub. 

4 

LTIu Pandan 

4 3 09 

6 

13 

A little patch of 25 years oid jungle on 




small hill. 

5 

Bukit Pan jang 

117 2 16 

2 

12 

Practically all lalang, with a crown of 
fair jungle on hill top and some wild getah. 

6 1 

Bukit Timah Road 




Small jungle on small hill. 


10th mile 

13 0 28 

1 

13 

7 ' 

Chua Chu Kang 

49 0 00 

1 

13 

Low-lying small jungle. 

8 

Tuas 

1,601 3 32 

2 

IO 

s 

Mostly mangrove swamp. Rest, except in 
one place, poor jungle. 

9 

Sungei Murai 

3M 1 05 

2 

Mostly mangrove swamp. Good jungle 
on one or two hills. 


10 

Sungei Buloh 

770 2 1 6 

1 

6 

Mangrove swamp and poor jungle. 

11 

Kranji 

756 0 32 

1 

19 

Do. 

12 

Sembawang 

| 

1,046 3 38: 

0 

12 

Hilly. Good jungle and scrub getting 
worse towards Chan Chu Kang. 

13 

Mandi 

407 0 32 

2 

*5 

Hilly, covered with bluker and scrub ex- 



* 

cept Bukit Mandi where the jungle is 
good. 



14 

Kranji Road, 13th mile 

9 2 16 

1 

3 

High land, scrub covered. 

15 

Changi 

1 

1,393 0 00 

I 

i 5 

Some fair jungle towards North and 



[ 


East, the rest very poor. 

16 

Selitar 

! 1,429 i of 

I 

1 

i 1 

Mostly poor scrub and mangrove. 

17 

Chan Chu Kang 

813 3 0? 

2 

10 

Several good patches of jungle ; the rest 
better than in many reserves. 

l8 

Ang Mo Kio 

296 0 os 

S 

13 

All small scrub and swamp growths. 

J 9 

Sempang 

5 0 oc 

1 

1 1 

Nice jungle on road side, swamp growths 
at back. 

20 

Selitar Extension 

Not knowr 

1 

8 

Mangrove swamp, poor scrub and lalang. 


2. The Western Division Reserves were, as in previous years, well looked after, • 
and the boundary paths widened to be a more efficient protection against fire from 
without, but those of the Northern Division were tended in a much less satisfactory 
manner. To keep the paths clean enough to be a real protection against fire more 
men are required possibly everywhere, certainly in Northern Division. 

3. There were, however, no fires of any importance — the chief causing the des- 
truction in February of 100 acres of lalang and brushwood in Pandan Reserve, in 
March of 150 acres of the same in Mandi and Sembawang Reserves, while in Selitar 


/ 


2 


and Ang Mo Kio Reserves smaller patches (of 5 and 2 acres) of lalang were burnt— 
and only two prosecutions in connection with the Reserves details as under: 


Amount of 

Cases. Fines. 


Northern Division 

( 7 ;■ , “ v r 

No. of Convictions Acquittals Indicted 

Recovered 

Eastern Division 

2 2 ... $20.00 

$10.00 

Western Division 

, p , * r * **• 

... 

Pulo iJbin 

» » • • * » 

. . . 


4. On the recommendation of Mr. IdiLL, land in Pulo Coin lias been no longer 
open to alienation and that perhaps entitles it to inclusion in the Reserves. A Forest 
Ranger and granite-checker was appointed. Permission was given to the Railway 
Department to take red earth from the Bukit Mandi and XI 1 1 th mile Reserves, but no 
wood of any value has been destroyed and no great difference made to them. 

5. For a very short time a Sub-Forester trained in India was employed here, 
but, though paid a considerably higher salary than other Government emplyes of like 
standing, he was so little pleased with the pay and prospects of service under the 
Straits Government that without futile delay he resigned his appointment and went 
back India- wards. 

6. There has been no destruction of getah trees this year, nor have any new 
ones been discovered. 1 lie few known trees have been fiecjuently visited and soft 
wood trees which overshadowed some of the Chan Chu Kang and Bukit 1 imah getah 
removed or girdled. 

7. No progress was made with the mangrove working plans, i he wood- 
dealers were too conservative to make any’ offer at all tor standing mangrove per acre 
or per block and would do nothing but ask for the old monthly pass at so .much a 
cutter, nor were there surveyors to spare for the work. Next year the Railway at 
least will want wood and another attempt should be made to get out working plans. 
It is to be hoped that Mr. Burn-Murdoch, the new Forest Officer, will then be able 
to advise as to this and generally as to the Singapore Reseives, 

8. There was no revenue derived from them during the year. 

9. The pay of the Forest Guards has been slightly improved, and the total 
expenditure for the year amounted to $1,106.26 as against $1,085.15 in 1900. 

W. LANGIIAM-CARTER, 
Acting Collector of Land Revenue . 


\ 



3 


PENANG. 


North-Eastern District. 


Block. 

District. 

1 Mukim. 

Lot. 

<ty 

Area. 

Total 

area. 


1 1 



a. j 

r. 

P • 

a. 

r ’l 

>• 


1 






1 






*5 

34 1 

425 

3 

06 






1 7 

134 

4*757 

3 

36 







1 7 

io, ip, 1 1 [I , 12, 1 3 1 








D. 

N.E. 


13 1 " J3 1V '35. 





^5602 

3 

26 


/ 


i 3 6 ’ l 37> iS 8 - 1 39 . 140- 

r 4 1 9 1 

0 

24 








141, 142, 143. 144, 145, 

! 










146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 











1 5 1 , 152, and 198. 

I 



-2 




E. 


16 

1 

252 

2 

36 

252 

2 

36 

F. 

» 

14 

1 

0 7 

1 

233 

2 

3i 

233 

2 

3 i 

Part of 


| 



• 





u | ) > 


13 

60 1 and 60 11 

18 

3 

32 

18 

3 

32 

Pulo 










Jerejak 

J) 

1 3 

362 to 383 inclusive 

[ 8s 7 

0 

oc 

887 

0 

| OO 




Grand ’ 1 'otal 

6,995 

1 

05 

6,995 

1 

05 


Pulo Jerejak Reserve was proclaimed by Government Notification No 720, dated 
the 23rd May, 1901. 

1. Mr. J. M. KlNDERSLEY was in charge of the Department till near tile end of 
July and Mr. R. SCOTT for the rest of the year. Several visits were paid by them to 
the Reserves during the year. The Forest Ranger paid altogether 83 visits. 

2. The staff employed was 3 Forest Guards and 3 coolies with several extra 
coolies during the latter part of the year. 

3. There were ten prosecutions instituted during the year. Five of these were 
for illicit cuttings, one case was dismissed and in the other four fines amounting to 
S$9o were imposed; five were for trespass in the Reserves, one defendant was fined 
§20 and the others were cautioned. 

There have been no encroachments on the Reserves, 

4. The. reserve boundaries are all cleared with the exception of about 3 miles 
from Western Hill to Pondok Payong Batu Feringghi. 

5. A (ire took place in Block D on the 27th of February and 20 acres of the 
reserve between Bukit Terbakar and Bukit Timah were burnt. 

G-etah. 

6. A piece of land (part of lot 10 Mukim XVII) in Batu Feringghi was selected 
by Messrs. Curtis and KlNDERSLEY for a getah plantation in June and the work 
of clearing started at once. 

By the end of the year 35 acres had been cleared and 22 acres planted — with the 
following results : — 



Planted. 

Died. 

Seedlings 

300 

30 

Stumps 

1,682 

600 

Para Rubber 

250 

30 

Kickxia Africana. .. 

12 

Rambongs 

6 

... 


2,250 

660 





4 

The trees were planted at distances of 20 feet apart by the advice of Mr. CUHTIS, 
the Assistant Superintendent of Forests. 

Several visits were paid to the estate during the year by the Collector of Land 
’ Revenue. An overseer has been engaged to see after it at a salary of $480 per 
annum and he has had coolies, varying in number from 10 to 2 1, under him. 

The following getah taban trees have been discovered during the vear : — ■ 


At Sungei Kechil 
Jalan Chempadak 
Jalan Lusong 
Titi Serai 
Getah Plantation 
Jalan Borat 


j 7 trees. 
671 

2 73 ■ 

645 „ 

7° 

^75 


2,5a 1 


Most of them are quite young, only seven of them being more than 4 feet in 
girth. 

The undergrowth from around these trees has been cleared away and they have 
been marked with white zinc. A register of them is kept. 

The following is a statement of expenditure for the year : — - 


Wages of overseer and coolies 
Tools and Miscellaneous Expenses... 
Passage of Forester Mr. E. G. BASTEN 


Spent at Balik Pulau 


... $956.86 
181.81 
... 172.45 


1,311.12 

161.20 

472.32 


The total expenditure by the department for the year is as follows 
Salaries of Forest Guards ... ... <1312.00 

Do. Coolies ... ... 349.42 

Rice Allowance ... ... 72.00 

Miscellaneous ... ... 20.00 


753-42 

Expenditure on "Getah ” ... 1,311.12 


12,064.54 


Land Office, 

Penang , 22nd February , / yo2. 


E. E. TALMA, 

Acting Collector of Land Revenue . 


South-West District. 

The names and areas of the Forest Reserves in this district are as follows 

A. 

Lot 132 Mukim 1 3,208 

>> ^74 >> 


A. Pantai Acheh 

B. Laksamana 

C. Telok Bah an g 
G, Genting Hills 


H. Bukit Gemuruh 
/- Relau Hills (part) 


{& 

{ & 


n 

n 

)) 

>> 

)) 


,11 


181 
247 

27 & 52 1 
iqo 

79k 75, 80T 

1 


f j 


43 


11 


I 

II 
II 

VII 

vnn 

IX j 

V 1 

X j 


465 

380 

21 


L=P 


r. p . 
o 08 


1 

o 


30 

36 

14 

06 

25 


Total 4433 0 39 




5 


2. An addition to Telok Bahang Forest Reserve for the purpose of forming 
a " getah taban ” plantation was sanctioned during the \ ear, but by the end of the 

year the block had not been surveyed. 

The Reserves were visited during the year as follows . 

Forest Reserve A on the 24th March, 16th June, 1 8th August and 8th December 
by me and, by the Forest Ranger, 24 times during the year. Forest Reserve B was 
visited by mp on the 15th of March, the 3rd May, the 1st September and the 3rd 
November, and on thirteen occasions by the Forest Ranger. 

Forest Reserve C was visited by mu on the 15th March, the 31st May and the 
2gth September and by the Forest Ranger 12 times. Forest Reserve G was visited 
by me on the 28th November and by the Forest Ranger twelve times. 

Forest Reserve // was visited by me on the 22nd March and the 9th June and 
19- times by the Forest Ranger. 

Forest Reserve / wars visited by me on the 30th June, the 15th August, the 15th 
September, the 29th October and the 20th December and 28 times by the Forest 
Ranger. 

4. The staff consisted of one Forest Ranger only part of whose time can be 
devoted to the Forest Reserves, one Forest Ranger’s man, three Forest Guards, 
three coolies employed during the whole of the year and a fourth employed for seven 
months. Besides thi§, occasional coulies were employed to assist in clearing paths. 
The paths in all the Reserves were kept in good order. 

5. Prosecutions. — There were two prosecutions in connection with Forest Reserve 
I ; this is the newest of the Reserves and the survey of its boundaries was only finally 
completed at the end of 1900 ; it was then discovered that there were two small long- 
standing encroachments on lots which had been included in the Reserves and the en- 
croachers were prosecuted, convicted and ejected. Two Chinese were also prose- 
cuted for picking chestnuts in this Reserve. There were no other prosecutions in 
connection with the Forest Reserves. 

6. There have been no fires during the year in any of the Reserves. 

7. No reports have been received of wood-stealing from the Reserves nor have 
1 seen any traces of it on my rounds. It is to be hoped that the increase in the staff 
which took effect during the year has rendered the commission of this offence more 
precarious. 

8. In the new block which has been added to Forest Reserve C the clearing of 
trees to give “getah taban ” trees room and light has been proceeded with. Three coo- 
lies are employed in this work who are paid by the Collector of Land Revenue. A 
few “getah taban ” trees bore fruit but it is extremely difficult to collect it, as bats 
appear to be very fond of it ; only about 150 seeds were brought in during the year. 
They were sent to Mr. Curtis. 

9. A e ‘ getah taban ” tree fell down during the year and I had it tapped and 
the getah with the dimensions of the tree were also forwarded to Mr. CURTIS. 


i$th February , 7902. 


G. A. HEREFORD, 

Acting District Officer 


PROVINCE WELLESLEY. 


Northern District. 

[ The areas of the two Reserves remained the same as in 1900. They are as 
follows : — 

Tasek Glugor ... ... 3,055 acres 
Ara Kuda ... ... 562 acres 

2. The Forest Ranger visited the Tasek Glugor Reserve 36 times and the Ara 
Kuda Reserve 31 times during the year, and the Forest Guard, who lives close to the 
Tasek Glugor Reserve, paid constant visits of inspection. I myself visited the Ara Kuda 
Reserve on the 7th of April, and the 28th July, and the Tasek Glugor Reserve on the 
2nd, 16th and 23rd of June, and the 7th of July. 

3. There were altogether 13 fires in the Tasek Glugor Reserve during the year. 



6 


by which about 500 acres of lalangand brushwood were consumed. There were also 
2 fires in the Ara Kuda Reserve, which spread overall area of about 50 acres. The fires 
in both reserves originated in the lalang, but spread also to the big jungle and consumed 
parts of that, as well as the lalang and scrub jungle. They occurred mostly during 
the dry weather in February, March and April, when there was an exceptionally long 
drought., and the lalang was so dry that the slightest spark falling upon it was suffi- 
cient to originate a fire. A public road passes through the Tasek Glugor Reserve 
and another road skirts the Ara Kuda Reserve, so that in all probablity some of the 
fires were caused by persons throwing lighted matches into the lalang as they passed 

b y- , 

4. In one of my visits to the Ara Kuda Reserve, I discovered a trifling encroach- 
ment of a few feet, made by some Chinese squatters, planting tapioca for Malakoff 
Estate. 1 called the attention of the Manager to the matter, and he promised to see 
that the boundary was strictly observed in future. 

5. There are some Getah Jelutong trees scattered about in the Tasek Glugor 
ReseiVe. From one of these the Forest Ranger collected a specimen of Getah, which 
I forwarded to Mr. Curtis, and lie very kindly sent it to England to be reported on. 
He afterwards informed me that the specimen had been valued in England at £ig.ios. 
per ton. 

6. There were no prosecutions for trespass or for cutting timber in the 
Reserves. 

L. M. WOODWARD, 

Acting Senior District Officer ., 

P. IV. 


1. 


Central District. 

The Forest Reserves at present gazetted are : — 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 


Bukit Seraya, Lots 679 and 680, Mukim 17 

Bukit Mertajam, Lot 855, Mukim 17 

Bukit Juru, Lots 542 and 454, Mukim 12 

Bukit Gajah Mali, Lots637-8, 654,606-7, Mukim 

Bukit Goa Ipoh, Lot 410 1 , Mukim 20 

Bukit Langkap, Lot 435, Mukim 19 

Bukit Goa Gempass, Lot 323', Mukim 19 

Kuba ng Ulu 9 T , T . - 

,, - ^ , > Lot 394 , Mukim 20 

Experimental Garden J 


6 and 7 were added early in the year. 


A. 

r. 

P- 

1 12 

O 

04 

162 

2 

01 

5 A 5 

O 

10 

94 

O 

3 i 

330 

3 

04 

189 

2 

10 

13 

2 

20 

3 

2 

03 


1,431 1 03 


The visits paid to the Reserves are shown in the following table : — 

By District Officer. By Forest Ranger 


1. 

Bukit Sera\ a 

j 

I 

5 

2. 

Bukit Mertajam 

O 

— - 

9 

3 * 

Bukit Juru 

2 

10 

4 - 

Bukit Gajali Mati 

2 

17 

5 - 

Bukit Goa Ipoh 

2 

12 

6. 

Bukit Langkap . . 

I 

8 

7 - 

Bukit Goa Gempass 

I 

4 

8. 

Kuban £ Ulu 

O 

O 

J 

5 


3. A Forest Guard was appointed for the first time and has proved useful in 
preventing encroachments. Owing to his appointment and the energy of the Forest 
Ranger more trespassers on the Reserves were summoned and fined. 

4. Two coolies were employed for two months at 30 cents a day to clear the 
boundaries of the Juru Reserve, which had become much overgrown. Now that 
there is a special vote for the Maintenance of Forest Reserves, the clearing of the 
boundaries can be carried on systematically. The boundaries of Bukit Langkap in 
particular require opening up, but there was some difficulty in obtaining Malay coolies 
owing to their dread of tigers. 


7 


5. There were 15 prosecutions for trespass on the Reserves, viz, : — 

Bukit Goa Ipoh ... ... 6 

,, Goa Gem pass ... ... 6 

„ Langkap ... ... 2 

,, Gajah Mati ... ... 1 

The fines ranged from $5 to $100, and the total realised amounted to $345. 

6. There were no fires of any importance. 

7. The Kubang lllu Experimental Gardens are still in the experimental stage. 
No use has been made of them. 


W. PEEL, 

Acting District Officer. 


Southern District. 

1. There is only one area in the Southern District containing 1,471 acres and 
2 poles, which has been set apart for the purpose of forming a Forest Reserve. 
This is situated on and round Bukit Panchor Hill and is contiguous to the Kedah 
Boundary. The Reserve is known as the Bukit Panchor Forest Reserve. 

2. The Reserve was visited five times by the District Officer during the year, viz : 
on 14th April, 28th June, 7th July, 1 6th July and 1 8th August, and eight times by the 
Forest Ranger. 

It is visited daily by the Forest Guard unless engaged in other duties and he 
keeps a diary of his inspections. 

3. There were four prosecutions for timber cutting in the Forest Reserve and the 
offenders were all convicted before a Magistrate. The culprits were all Chinese work- 
ing on the lands surrounding the Forest Reserve and the offences only amounted to 
pettv thefts of the smaller kinds of trees. The Forest Guard lives, however, too far 
from the Forest Reserve to be able really to keep an efficient check on such thetts 
arid it would be of a great advantage if a house could he erected for him near the 
Reservoir which would ensure his always being on the spot. 

4. There is a large stock of valuable timber on the island of Pulo Kra which is 
not included in any Forest Reserve. All this timber grows on Crown land and should 
be maintained as far as possible. Passes were formerly granted to the inhabitants of 
the island to cut some of the less valuable trees for the purposes of their houses, but 
during the middle of the year it was found that it was impossible to keep a check on 
the timber cut under cover of the pass ; thus a pass was granted permitting the cut- 
ting of the poorer timber but advantage was taken to fell the more valuable woods. 
As there are no Government servants on the island except the police it was very 
difficult to hinder this practice. All passes were therefore stopped : this led to an 
open system of theft of the timber. Timber was openly felled and brought into the 
village with the connivance of the police. In October a prosecution was accordingly 
instituted against three men for theft of Government timber from the island and they 
were all fined ; the conduct of the police was also brought to the notice of the police 
authorities and as a result all the police on the island were changed, and an entirely 
new batch quartered there. 

5. The chief use of the Bukit Panchor Forest Reserve appears to be that it 
covers the catchment area of the Bukit Panchor Reservoir which supplies the village 
of Nibong Tebal with water. It therefore affords an easy method of ensuring the 
purity of the water. The Reserve though it contains much valuable timber is too 
small to ever really afford much profit from the cultivation and sale of the woods 
growing therein. During the year a path was cleared round the whole of the Reserve 
and on the 18th August I walked right round the Reserve accompanied by the Forest 
Guard ; such of the Boundary pillars erected on the Boundary line between Kedah 
and this district as fall in the Reserve were found to be in good repair. 

6. There are still some kampong lands planted chiefly with durians and betel- 
nuts situated in the Reserve. During the earlv part of the year the owners of these 
lands, who are all Malays, were given by Government in cash half the estimated value 
of these lands in return for the surrender of their title deeds, and it was proposed to 
grant to them in lieu of their former titles in devisable and inalienable leases. It has 


now been decided to buy these lands outright and to offer to the owner as compensa- 
tion the remaining half value of the land and proceedings are now being taken with 
this view. The Malays, however, having been offered such favourable terms by the first 
arrangement, now strongly object to be wholly dispossessed of these lands and the 
latter will therefore have to be compulsorily acquired under the Ordinance. 

, - / t 

H. C. SELLS, 

District Officer , Nibong Tebal. 

0 


o 


r. 


The 
1900. 


during 

Ranger as shewn belovt' 


Forest 

They 


Bindings. 

Reserve of the Findings remain the same in number ( 8 ) 
were visited by the District Officer and Forest Inspector 


as 

or 


A. 

Tanjong Burong 

Area 

3,000 acres 

Visited by F. Ranger 
and I aspect or. 

1 0 

Visited by 

D. 0: 

B. 

Telok Sera 

5.000 acres 

8 

3 

2 

C. 

Gunong Tunggal 

1,225 a <-'res 

4 

D. 

i anjong Hantu 

r,Ooo acres 

5 

4 

E. 

Pangkor Island 

3,750 acres 

18 

0 

F. 

Lumut 

1.225 acres 

23 

1 1 

G. 

Ulu Bruas 

2,000 acres 

4 

2 

H. 

Telok Muroh 

3,000 acres 

11 

4 

2 . 

The areas given are guesses and 

should not be taken as 

at all accurate, 


the Reserves, with the exception of Lumut, Pangkor and Ulu Bruas, have not yet 
been surveyed. In the case of Lumut and Pangkor Reserves the areas given are 
probably correct within a few acres. Ulu Bruas Reserve has been surveyed but the 
work has not yet been plotted and the area is not known. 

3. Five prosecutions for trespass or illicit timber cutting in the Reserves occurred 
during the year, seven persons being involved. Fines to the amount of $145 were im- 
posed, of which $77.50 were recovered. One case from Pangkor of negligence by which 
some damage by fire was done in the Reserves near Pasir Boga was ‘ discharged for 
want of evidence as to the identity of the accused, and one case of trespass^in the 
Telok Sera Reserve was discharged on its merits. 

4. Except in the Tanjong Burong Bakau Reserve, I do not think that any illi- 
cit timber cutting goes on in the Reserves. In the Tanjong Burong Reserves, how- 
ever, much bakau is stolen. The reserve is separated from Perak Territory at 
Sungei Panchor only by the narrow river, and the Chinese fishing village of Sungei 
Hud on the Perak side supplies itself with firewood and bakau poles from the Re- 
serve almost with impunity. It is extremely difficult for the thieves to be caught in 
the act as the place can only be approached by water, and the Forest Guards are 
moreover afraid of the Chinese fishermen from the village rescuing any prisoners they 
may make. This occurred on one occasion in 1900 and one of the men con- 
cerned in that case was again caught stealing bakau in April, 1901. He was fined 
$50, but did not pay and went to prison for six months. Everything is in favour 
of the law breakers and there is no likelihood that timber stealing at this place will 
be stopped so long as the fishing village remains where it is. The rest of this Reserve 
extending down the coast as far as the Bruas River is free from the depredations. 

The theft of big timber in any of the Reserves is almost impossible and it is not 
worth the risk to steal young timber or jungle produce that can be as easily and more 
safely found outside the Reserve. 

5. The Staff of Forest Guards was maintained at a strength of 13 durum the 
year, viz., six at $9 per month and seven at $8 per month. Three men were stationed at 
Bruas (one at $9 p. m. and two at $8 p. m.) and the other teu were stationed in pairs at 
Sungei Rotan, Sungei Batu, BetingLuas, Pangkor and Lumut, one man at $9 p. m. and 
one at $8 p. m. at each station. This number of guards may be considered adequate 
for the work to be done at present. In 1902 it has been decided to add two more blocks 
of forest land to the reserves, viz.:- the Batu Uridan and Telok Senanyin Hills. This 
will necessitate an increase of the staff for this year. 

Many changes have taken place in the personnel of the Forest Guard staff. 
Some of the stations (Beting Luas and Sungei Batu for instance) are very isolated 


9 


and unpopular, and it has been at times difficult to induce the Guard to remain when 

sent to these places, , 

6, An additional Forest Ranger lor the Reserves to be stationed at Bruas at 

S6 5 per month was sanctioned for 1901 and Mr. A. HOWELL was appointed tempo- 
rarily on 5th April. He was transferred to Lumut on 23rd April ; his place at Bruas 
bein'" taken by WAN Chi, formerly Assistant Forest Ranger in the Northern District 
of Province Wellesley. The appointment has proved a very useful one and the 
present holder (Wan Chi) has done his work very satisfactorily, though his igno- 
rance of English makes written communication with him at times not as clear as it 
mi"ht be. He has combined the duties of Forest Ranger and Forest Inspector for 
fhe Forest Reserves at Bruas. 

y. Mr. Howell’S services as Forest Ranger, Lumut, were dispensed with on 
^ist July, and his place was taken by Mr. T. De SOUZA, Forest Inspector. The latter 
appointment was left vacant till the end of the year in order to see whether one man 
could not advantageously perform the duties of Forest Ranger and Forest Inspector, 
as at Bruas. The duties overlap to a great extent, but it was found that the extent 
of the district and the distances between the Reserves and other places to be visited, 
combined with the fact that much of the travelling has to be clone by boat and is 
therefore slow and uncertain, rendered the amalgamation of the two appointments 
undesirable. The vacancy of Forest Inspector was tilled up late in December by the 
appointment of S. ALLAGAPPEN, Assistant Forest Ranger, Bukit Mertajam, on 3 months* 
probation. 

8. In 1901 for the first time a certain amount of revenue, other than from the 
undesirable source of fines for illicit cutting was derived from the Reserves, Passes 
to cut jungle produce in the Reserves, (rotans, mengkuangs andbertams) were issued 
from September at double rates and the total amount of revenue so derived was 
§246.00. By far the greater number of the passes were for rotan in the Telok Sera 
and Bukit Segari Reserve. Passes for nibong were not allowed in the Reserves as 
the cutting and removing entails a considerable amount of damage to the young forest 
growth. This is not so much the case with rotan or mengkuang, where hardly any 
damage is done. 

g[ Two small fires occurred during the year in the Reserves — one at Pangkor 
near Pasir Boga in September and the other in December at Tanjong Hantu. The 
origin in each case was not discovered. In the former case about 25 acres of brushwood 
forming the fringe of the Reserve were damaged, but no trees of any value were in- 
cluded in the area burnt. In the fire at Tanjong Hantu the Reserve was just touched 
and no appreciable damage was done. This was due to a strong wind fortunately 
blowing the flames away from the Reserves and to a heavy downpour of rain which 
quenched the fire after it had been burning for about half a day. There are no 
houses in the vicinity of the spots where the fire seemed to have started ; they must 
have been caused by the careless throwing of a match by a passer by. 

10. The much needed survey of the Forest Reserves has been begun this year. 
A surveyor has been stationed here for the last six months of the year. He was 
occupied for some time in surveying a private estate at Bruas, but since the comple- 
tion of that work has been engaged exclusively on the Reserves. Ulu Bruas and 
Lumut Reserves have been completely surveyed with the theodolite and Pangkor 
with the prismatic compass. The work has taken longer than I anticipated. The 
very rough and hilly nature of the country makes chaining and measurement very 
slow work. It may be possible after survey to alter the boundaries so as to avoid 
the steeper hills and so as to have less. tortuous lines. If so, it would be advisable 
to do so. At present the task of patrolling and inspecting the boundaries is a very 
arduous one. 

r I. The proposed creation of new Reserves of all the bakau land in the Din- 
dings has been deferred till the country has been surveyed, A proper working plan 
of these Reserves with a view to their being economically exploited could not possib- 
ly precede a survey, and the proposal was premature. It would have killed the fire- 
wood trade and would have caused considerable loss of revenue if the bakau forests had 
been closed to timber cutters as completely as the other Reserves of ordinary forest 
land. 

F. J. HALLIFAX, 

Acting District Officer . 


D hidings, / 5th January , 1902. 


I 


IO 


MALACCA 


Central District. 

Forest Office, 

Malacca , nth February y 1^02 

Sir, — I have the honour to forward the Annua! Report on the Forest Reserves in 
the Central District. f 

2. The Central District includes the “Bukit Bruang” Reserve with extension 
and the “ Bukit Sebukor'’ Reserve. 

3. The “ Bukit Bruang ” Reserve was inspected on various Fridays by the 
Forester and myself; and the whole boundary has been gone round about 2-1 times 
The paths are kept clean and clear of all undergrowth. 

4. The staff consists of a senior and a junior Forest Guard, both of whom are 
nte lligent and energetic men. 

5. There was no prosecution during the year. Beyond the suspected cutting 
of bamboos on the edge of the Reserve, I saw no appearance of illicit cutting of wood 
in our inspections of the boundary. 

6. The nursery in the “ Bukit Bruang” Reserve at “Ayer Keroh ” contains 
several beds of Tembusu {f agree a Fragrans ), Merbau (A fee Ha palembanica) , Nibong 
( oncosperma ti gill arid) , Gelam {Melaleucas leucadendron ) Gombang {Dipterocarpus 
crinitus ) sown in 1901 ; also 19,000 odd seeds of Para rubber ( Hevea braziliensis) 
were sown ; about 500 rambong {Ficus elastica) cuttings and seedlings were raised 
during the year, about 500 Getah Sundih {Payena Leerii) seeds were sown and 10.500 
getah taban {Palaquium sp .) cuttings were bedded. 

In the Bukit Sebukor Nursery are a few beds of tembusu {Fagroea fragrans ) 
and about 2,000 Para rubber {Hevea braziliensis ) plants were raised and have since 
been put out in the said Reserve. 

7. We purchased 6,218 Getah taban {Palaquium sp.) plants and, through the 
kindness of the Acting Director. Botanic Gardens, Singapore, received 18, 1 60 plants 
of the same species for which we paid freight charges only. 

Of these 13,600 were put out direct into the forest at “ Ayer Keroh” and at 
20 x 20' this gives an average of 125 acres (nearly) planted with this important 
variety of Gutta percha. The rest were bedded in the nursery and will be put out 
during the current year. 

About 20 acres were close planted at 5' x 5" with valuable timber plants in 
lalang {Cylindrica imperata) covered ground in the Bukit Bruang Reserve ; and 
about 15 acres were planted with Para rubber {Hevea braziliensis) plants in the 
Bukit Sebukor Reserve at 15' x 15'. 

8 . Expend itu re : — 

Only in the case of Contingent Expenses were the annual votes exceeded and 
that by a matter of 34 cents only. The only items of expenditure that need be 
specially mentioned are : — 

$ els. 

{a) Salaries and wages of coolies and gardeners ... 2,415 87 

{b) Purchase of 6,218 getah taban {Palaquium sp.) plants.... 68 i 76 
(c) Purchase of 4,775 Para rubber {Hevea braziliensis) seeds. 42 25 

{d) Purchase of surveying instruments ... ... 180 35 

{e) Compensation and rewards ... ... ... 48 co 


13,368 23 


9. Revenue : — 

We started selling the material cut out in clearing for the planting of Getah 
taban {Palaquium sp.) plants, consisting of soft wooded and inferior species, in the 
month of August and at the close of the year realised $51.45 

By lease of the fruit trees in the “ Bukit Sebukor Reserve” 20.00 

Total $71.45 

1 o . M i seel l a n eo us : — • 

(i) Two ground fires occurred during the year. About 20 odd acres of lalang 
were burnt in March, destroying about 5 acres tembusu {Fagrcea fragrans) and 


other valuable trees planted in former years. The second fire occurred on the 17th 
of December and travelled over about 40 acres of lalang ground but did not reach 
any of the planted areas. Neither of these fires were serious in their nature and 
beyond warning the people to blame for them no action was taken. 

(ii) The only other point that calls for attention is that we employ 12 women 
at a reduced rate for cutting smaller secondary growth where necessary. 

1 have, &c., 

R. D. HUDSON,' 


Superintendent , Government Plantations and Forests. 


Jasin District. 

District Office, 
Jasin , 21st January , igo2. 

Sir —l h ave the honour to forward my report on the Forest Reserves of the Jasin 
District for the year 1901. 

2. There has been no alteration In the boundaries of the five Reserves during the 
year : their names and approximate areas are as follows — ■ 


Ayer Panas 
Merlimau 
Batang Mai aka 
Buk it Senggeh 
Bukit Sedanan 


3,242 Acres 
6,217 

3G49 j> 
9-43“ 

7,806 


yy 


Total 30,244 Acres 


3. The above were visited on the following occasions by the District Officer and 
Forest Rangers. 

Ayer Panas: — 

by the District Officer on 2nd May 
■ by the Forest Kanger on 8th March 

J n O 

by the Assistant Forest Ranger on 5th December 
Merlimau : — 

by the District Officer on 22nd December 
by the Forest Ranger on 19th November 

Batang Malaka : — 

by the District Officer on 4th May and on 5th November 
Bukit Senggeh : — 

by the District Officer on 26th April and on 17th December 
by Assistant Forest Ranger on 21st August and 5th Match 

Bukit Sedanan. 

by District Officer on 1st August. 

4. The Staff in charge of each reserve is as follows : — 

Ayer Panas, one Lance Corporal, one Guard. 

Merlimau, Do. do. 

Batang Malaka Do. do. 

Bukit Senggeh J r , , 

Bukit Sedanan j one Cor P° ra1 ’ ° ae Gaa 'd- 

5. [ here was only one prosecution during the year, against a Chinaman who 
was convicted of cutting timber in the Bukit Sedanan Reserve. 

6. The boundary fines of the Ayer Panas, Bukit Sedanan and Batang Malaka 
Reserves were kept well cleared. In the case of Bukit Senggeh on my visit in De- 
cember I found the lines somewhat overgrown in places. 1 he Guards in charge have 
an enormously long boundary to look after and have also been obliged to devote 

ome time to the Getah Reserves at Bukit Senggeh and Nyalas. 










I 2 



7. With regard to the Merlimau Reserve so large a part of the boundary passes 
through swamp that it is hardly possible to keep the lines clear, unless coolies are 
specially employed to do so. This is not, however, of very great importance as the 
swamp itself prevents all risk of encroachment. 

1 have, &c., 

S. CODRINGTON. 

Acting District Officer . 

3 


Alor Gajah District. 

District Office, 

Alor Gajah, 16th 'January, 1902. 

Sir, — I have the honour to forward the following report on the Forest Reserves 
of this District of the year 1901. 

Number and Area. 

2. The Forest Reserves are four in number : — 

Bukit Panchor area 3,356 acres 

Sungei Udang „ 4,392 „ 

Brisu & Sungei Siput „ 5,268 ,, 


^13,016 

Inspections. 

3. 1 he above Forest Reserves were visited on the following occasions : — 

Bukit Panchor by District Officer, loth May, 8th June, 4th July, 29th August, 

loth September, 10th December, and 29th December. 

Bukit Panchor by Forest Ranger , 25th April, 18th September, 18th, 19th and 
20th December. 

Sungei Udang by District Officer, 19th June, 16th October, and 19th December. 
Sungei Udang by Forest Ranger, 16th and 17th May. 

Brisu and Sungei Siput by District Officer, 7th May, 2 1st May, 6th, 18th July, 
24th September, and 17th December. 

Brisu and Sungei Siput by Forest Ranger, 2 1st, 22nd March, 15th, 16th, 17th and 
18th April, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 9th, 10th and nth May, 4th, 5th June, 12th and 13th 
December. 

4. The Staff at each reserve in 1901 is shewn below: — 

Bukit Panchor. — 1 Lance Corporal and 1 Guard. 

Sungei Udang. — 1 Lance Corporal and 1 Guard. 

Brisu and Sungei Siput — 1 Lance Corporal and 1 Guard at Brisu. 

1 Lance Corporal and 1 Guard at R. C. Kechil. 
Prosecutions. 

5. Tnere was only one prosecution during the year when a man was fined §50 
for burning lalang in the Brisu Reserve. 

Revenue. 

6. 1 he revenue from the reserves amounted to §287.60 mainly from the sale of 
Durians and Dukus in the Bukit Panchor Reserve. 

Expenditure. 

7. The expenditure on the reserves for the year has been — 

Salaries 

Clearing lines round Sungei Siput ^ 
and Brisu Reserves, etc. J 


768.00 

437.00 


§1,205.00 


* 

8. The paths and boundaries in the reserves at Bukit Panchor and Sunge* 
Udang have been well kept. 

9. New lines have been opened all round the Brisu-Sungei Siput Reserve and 
they are now in good order. 

10. A new Forest Station consisting of 2 Malay houses was built by the Public 
Works Department at the 25th mile Ramuan China Kechil and a Lance Corporal and 
Guard are now stationed there. 

11. The station at Sungei Udang is now uninhabitable and parf ot it has 
fallen down. I trust the Public Works Department will attend to this early this year 
as owing to lack of funds it was unable to do so in 1901. 

12. No trace of illicit timber cutting was discovered in any of the reserves during 
the year. 

13. A small area containing taban trees was discovered in Kemuning and was 
reserved. 


H. MARRIOTT, 

District Officer . 


1 / 


0 

Annual Report on Forest Administration in the Straits Settlements 

for the year 1902. L , ; 

Introductory 

The forests of the Colony were under tile charge of the Collectors of Land Reve- 
nue, Singapore and Penang, and the District Officers, Province Welleslev, Dindings and 
Malacca, assisted on technical matters in Penang by Mr. C. CURi’tS, Assistant Superin- 
tendent of Forests, and in Malacca by Mr. Gaguardi, a passed Dehra Dun student. 
The Chief Forest Officer visited each Settlement and many of the reserves and gave 
advice on some matters ; his duties in the Federated Malay States were however too 
heavy for him to spare as much time as he could have wished to the Colony and his 
illness in November and December prevented his completing the 3 months in the 
Colony which is stipulated. 

CHAPTER 1. 

Extension and Constitution of Reserved Forests. 

Alteration in Area. 

1. From returns submitted (Form /) it is seen that in Penang Island an area of 
34 acres was added to block D in North East district and an area of 236 acres to 
Tel ok Bahang reserve in the South West district. In Province Welleslev, the Ara 
Kuda reserve, 561 acres, was disafforested or thrown open to cultivation ; also 1,294 
acres ot the I asek Glugor reserve was abandoned, Having an area of 1761 acres to 
be maintained as a reserve. This was done on the advice of the Chief Forest Officer 
after he had visited both areas and considered the matter from every point of view. 
Most of the land abandoned was covered with “ lalang ” or rank grass and would 
have cost much money to reafforest, while cultivators were eager to take up the land, 
thus giving a better return to Government. No other alterations were effected in the 
area of Forest Reserves, 

This table shews the proportion of area reserved to area of the Colon v at the 
close of 1902. 



Area of 
Settlement 
Square Mile. 

Area of 
Reserved 
forests 
Square Mile. 

Area of 
u n reserved 
forests. 

Proportion 
of reserve 
to whole 

area. 

! 

i 

Penang 

1 07 

18.4 

Nil. 

17 % 

P r ov i n ce W e 1 1 esle v 

288 

7. 1 

Nil. 

2 . A 

Dindings 

265 

3 1 ■ 5 


11. 8 

Malacca 

• • » 

659 

74-5 

Nil. 

1 1.3 

Singapore ... 

206 

19.4 

Nil. 

9.4 


1,525 

1 5°-9 

1 


~~ T_ 


The Colony has thus an area of 10 2 per cent, of Forest Reserve which is very 
satisfactory, being in !act about the ideal amount, and will some day prove a source of 
considerable revenue. 


Demarcation. 

. 

See Form 3. 

2. The two small additions to the Penang Reserves were demarcated, and 
boundat tes kept clear, The cost is not shewn in tins form as it was incurred in the 
shape of payment to a regular staff of Forest Guards who also had other duties. In 
Malacca the boundaries were also kept clear by the staff of Forest Guards. The inform- 
ation sent in is very incomplete. 


s 


2 


Survey«. 

See Fo r m 4. 

c 

The small areas added in Penang were surveyed. In the Dindings the 
Forest Reserves were completely surveyed, but the results of the survey are not yet 
ready and the snaps not yet marie. 

CHAPTER II. 

Management of State Forests 

Working Plans. 

i. None have yet been made. The necessity has hardly vet arisen except in 
the case of Mangrove Reserves and in these in Singapore and the I findings the work 
should be put in hand as soon as officers have been found to fill the posts provided 
for. 

[n Malacca some of the Reserves may be worked in the near future under regular 
plans. These however cannot be made until we have good large-scale maps. 

Communications and. Buildings. 


See Form 6. ■ 

2. In Penang clearing of boundaries and paths wherever required was done at 
a cost of §214. 

In Malacca, Forest Guards' quarters were erected at Selarvdar at a cost of 8255.90, 
coolie lines at Bukit Bruang at FR 4 °> while were spent on repairs. In the Fede- 
rated Malay States we are building small houses for the Forest Guards a t from 8100 
to 8250, and this should be clone in the Colony when more revenue is received. 

Protection of Forests and Breaches of Buies 


g The stafl w as chiefly occupied in every Settlement in patrolling boundaiie* of 
reserves and keeping them clear. 

In Penang there were 13 cases of illicit extraction of timber or other forest pro- 
duce with r 1 convictions. 

In Province Wellesley there were 16 cases with 16 convictions. No damage 
was done by fire. In the Findings there were 43 prosecutions; the number of convic- 
tions is not stated but 8264.50 was received from fines by the Court. 

In Malacca there were S cases with 6 convictions, one case being compounded ioi 
820, The cases are few except in the Dindings where there are ( hinese timber cutters 
In Singapore 6 persons were charged and all convicted. 

Practically speaking there are no forest rules, the only law relating to the Forests 
at all is found in Ordinance No. X of 1883. The passing of a Forest Enactment and 
rules thereunder is now engaging the attention of the Chief Forest Officer. 


Sylviculture. 

Improvement of Forest Growth. 

4. Most of the Forests of the Colony are at present recuperating, having been 
reserved when in a very poor state. In Penang there is large forest on the hills, but 
the majority of the reserves in the Island were constituted chiefly with a view to the 
prevention of erosion of the soil on the steep hill sides, and to the preservation of a 
regular supply of water, rather than to a successful timber supply. In the Province the 
small area reserved consists chiefly of hill tops, except Tasek Glugor where there will 
soon be exploitable timber. 

In the Dindings and Malacca we find the best forest. In the former the reserved 
areas are all hilly except Tanjong Burong which consists of liakau (Mangrove). 
Nothing has been done to improve natural growth so far, except to allow the reserves 
a complete season of rest. 

In Malacca the best reserves are Bukit Sedanan, Batang Malacca, Bukit Singgeh 
and Merlimau. 1 hese forests contain large timber trees, chief of which are Rambei- 
Daun ( Shorea Acuminata ) Gombang ( Diptero-carpus Crimtus) producing a good wood 
oil, Resak [shorea). Kelat of several kinds, Jelutong [Dyer a Maingayi,) Kayu Gharu 
[Aquilaria Malaccensis) or eagle wood, used for incense. Medang [Crypatocaryci 
Griffithiand ), Tembusu [Fagraea Fragrans), Tampinis, Kumuning [Mairraya exotica), 
besides several useful varieties of canes. 


n 

0 


in Singapore the reserves contain little but secondary growth, and the Mangrove 
forests examined by me are still young and none the w orse of a further period of rest. 

In Malacca the natural reproduction of Tembusu and Tampinis is reported as 
very good. Getah Taban (Palaquium) is scarce, the only natural trees seen by me 
being near Nyalas. 

Cultural Operations. 

In Penang naturally grown seedlings of Getah Tafiaii were assisted by clearing of 
undergrowth interfering with their growth, in Block C. in the South West district. 

Artificial reproduction. 

See Form 8. 

In Penang about 5 acres were added bringing the area Up’ to 40 acres, in the 
addition to main Range D. 

In 1889-1900 planting of Getah Taban was commenced and carried on till 1901 
300 seedlings were planted from seed obtained from a tree in the Waterfall Gardens 
and were successful. 1,682 saplings were purchased by the Director of Gardens, 
Singapore, from Borneo and forwarded to Penang inboxes. 1 'hese and the seedlings 
were planted 20 feet by 20 feet in partial shade and where natural shade was in- 
sufficient para rubber was planted between the lines. The following table gives the 
result of these in 1902. 


Description of trees planted in Septem- 
ber -October 1901. 

No. of Trees. 

Reported 
; alive in Mav 
1902. 

Dead in 1902. 

Palaquium Getah seedlings from trees 
growing in Waterfall Valley, Penang ... 

300 

2^2 

j ■ 

48. 

Palaquium Sp. Sapplings without 
leaves sent up from Singapore Botanic 
Gardens 

1,682 

[ 

250 

1 > 43 2 

Para Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) 

250 


... 

Kickxia elastica (seeds from W. 

Africa). ... ... ... 

1 2 

186 

82 

Ram bong (Ficus elastica) 

6 

i 

... , : 

1 

1 

. . • 


In 1901 the trees of Palaquium in the Waterfall \ alley produced a good 
crop ol seeds which were collected from day to day and planted in boxes in the 
Waterfall Garden. As soon as these were 2-3 inches high they were potted off 
singly in live inch pots and grown on until the end of April when planting was 
recommenced by supplying the vacancies caused by losses in 1900 and further 
extending the plantation so long as plants were available. 


Description of trees planted April- May 1902. 


No. of 
Trees. 


Palaquium Getah seedlings from trees growing in Waterfall Valley, 
ripened 1901 ... ... ... ... ... J 1,890 

Para Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) planted in more open places to shade 
Palaquium ... ... ... ... ... ... y 00 

Kickxia elastica I Seeds from W. Africa in 1900 planted as an 
experiment) ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 o 


A 




0 


l 

# 4 


4 


In order to have a lew young trees under closer observation than is possible with 

Get ah Taban planted in those in the plantation commenced in 1901 at Batu Ferringgi 

Waterfall Gardens, i ,000 plants at twenty feet apart were planted in the Water- 

Penang. fall Valley on the eastern slope of the knoll on which formerly 

stood the Assistant Superintendent's house. 

Fifty of these are seedlings from trees growing in the V alley close by, and fifty 
are plants raised from cuttings by Mr. BlJRCHARD at Jndragiri in Sumatra. 

The fifty cuttings are planted to the south and the seedlings on the north, that is 
towards the higher ridge. 

The planting was done the first week in July, 1901, the blukar having been first 
thinned out but not sufficient to expose the plants to full sun. 

All, these plants were about one year old and 6-10 inches high when planted; 
they are now growing well. 

In order to find out the number of Getah Taban trees growing in the Batu 
Feringgi Reserve, a careful search was made with the following result. The following 
Table gives the number of trees at circumferences varying from 6 inches to 6 feet at. 
breast high. The total number was 3,907. 

Getah Taban trees growing naturally in Batu Feringgi Reserve tabulated accord- 
ing to sizes. 


No. of 
Trees. 

6 " 

1' 

i'6" 

2' 

3 ' 

/ 

4 

5 

6' 

Simgei Kechil 

J 7 


7 

2 

5 

1 

1 

1 


Jalan Chempedak 

dor 

310 

188 

58 

3 i 

8 

3 

2 

1 

Titi Serai 

634 

304 

197 

69 

39 

23 

2- 

. . . 


Jalan Burot 

8/5 

574 

199 

6 1 

27 

la 

I 



Jalan Lusong 

368 

233 

68 

aa 

12 

9 

2 

1 


Jalan Titi dua 

390 

251 

87 

30 

1 3 

8 

I 



Jalan Pondok Payong 

841 

576 

183 

5 o 

14 

18 



. . . 

Jalan Kabong Ah Tek 

54 

44 

5 

2 

I 

* 

2 

. . . 



Jalan Tinggi Basap ... 

39 

35 

4 

. . . 

... 


... 



Getah Plantation 

87. 

48 

,8 

12 

7 

2 

. . . 


* * * 


3,906 

2,385 

956 

317 

149 

84 

I 0 

4 

1 


This plantation was visited by the Chief Forest Officer in February, 1902. The 
failure of a great number of the transplants was undoubtedly due to the fact that 
the roots had been cut off too short. The work has been in the hands of the Land 
Officer assisted by an Inspector, Mr. CURTIS giving advice only from time to time. 
He will in future be in sole charge of this work. 

In Malacca 8 acres were planted up with Getah Suntlik (. Payend ) in Bukit Brining, 
and 125 acres of Getah Taban ( Palaquium ) upkept, 45 acres were also planted up 
with Tembusu, Rambong, Mahogany and Para, making an area of 70 acres. Getah 
Taban Plants were bought at a cost of §1,500 and put into the nursery. The Chief 
Forest Officer visited the plantations and is of opinion that no more transplants of 
Getah Taban should be purchased from other countries, but that if possible seed should 
be sought for and bought. In view of the extensive tracts of natuially grown Getah 
Taban in the Federated Malay States it seems inadvisable to plant this species in the 
Colony at a great cost and with put poor results. 

in Singapore, Mr. Rid LEY superintended the planting operations ; 14,000 trees, 
chiefly Gutta Perch a were planted. Some of the trees in the forest fruited, and seed 
was obtained. 

$592.13 was spent during the year. 

Experiments. 

In Province Wellesley 2 acres Lalangland in the lasek Glugor reserve was plant- 
ed up with Teak sown in situ from seed obtained from BurTna. 1 he seeds were sow 11 
6 feet by 6 feet. It is too early as yet to report as to the result. The climate anc 
situation are as favourable a- any that can be obtained in such southern Ltitudesi 
In Malacca Mahogany has been tried and is doing very well, planted' in •‘Liang 
blanks. 

ft 


r 

o 

Exploitation. 

As licences to cut trees were issued on the system of charging royalty according 
to diameter, and no cut limber measured, no figures are available. 

In the Dindings royalty or export duty is levied on measurements, but no figures 
have been supplied. It is hoped that the system of measurement of all timber cut, 
and the charging of royalty and export duty at a fixed rate per ton of 50 cubic feet 
may be introduced during 1903. This has been done all over the Federated Malay 
States with excellent results. The work of the Chief Forest Officer with regard to the 
Native States has been so heavy that it has been found quite impossible for him to 
introduce this system in the Colony during the year. The exploitation of timber is 
however comparatively trifling, whereas in the Native States it is very heavy and the 
first thing to be put in order. 

CHAPTER II J. 

Financial Results. 

See Form ii for Particulars. 

The following table gives:— 



t \ 




1 

Revenue. 

t 

Expenditure. 

f 

Surpl us. 

1 )efirit. 




c. 

$ c. 

$ c. * 

$ 

c. 

Penang 

648 

00 

U 338 GO 

, , , 

690 

00 

Province Welle sly 

487 

00 

i,i6o 00 


673 

00 

Dindings 

10.327 

2 1 

2-753 29 

7 >5 73 94 



Malacca 

M70 

13 

s o 34 46 


7 - 364 - 33 

Singapore 

61 1 

42 

Li 49 39 


.537 

97 

; 

1 3- 2 43 

76 

M .935 14 

7-573 92 j 

9-265 

3 o 


fn Penang the cost of staff is nearly covered by revenue, the deficit being due to 
planting and clearing of boundaries. 

In Province Wellesley cost of staff is covered by receipts, but cost of planting, etc., 
causes a deficit. In the Dindings there is a surplus of $>7,573.92, timber bringing in 
a revenue ol $6,566.21. This is very satisfactory and I have no doubt it will increase 
with an improved system of charging royalty and export duty. In Malacca there is a 
large deficit of $7,364, but this I hope will be remedied in the near future. The reason is 
that large amounts were spent on plantations and also that there were 2 European officers 
in charge at the commencement of the year, one on $2,400 with compensation the other 
on $780. T he former was transferred to the Native States on 15th February, 1902. 

1 he expenditure will be much reduced therefore in 1903, and a certain amount of 
revenue derived from the reserves which have hitherto been entirely closed. There is 
no reason why in a year or two the Colony should not shew a small surplus in i;s 
Forest accounts. I he nett deficit amounts to $1,791. 

Administration . 


I he staff of Forest Rangers were occupied partly on land work and parti) on 
iorests. This has been remedied and a scheme was submitted by the Chief Forest 
Officer to His Excellency the Governor for a permanent Forest Staff for the Colony, 
see appendix B. The staff of Forest Guards were chiefly employed in patrolling and 
clearing reserve boundaries. 'The general control has been in the hands of the 
Collectors of Land Revenue and District Officers. 


A. M. BURN-MURDOCH, 

C onservator of Forests „ 



A 


♦ 




Form No. i. 


Settlement. 


Singapore 


i 


No. o i 

Reserve. 

Civil 

District. 

Name of Forest. 

Area in Acres Area added 
on 1-1-1901. during year. 

1 

Excluded or 
Dis-affor- 
esjed. 

Area on 31- 
12-1902. 

No. & date of 
Notification j 
excluding 
land. 

i 


Ru kit Tima h 

847.0.00 




2 


Jurong 

412.0.00 




3 


P ndan 

2,140.3.16 




4 


Ulu Panda n 

4-3 09 1 




5 


Buk it Panjanw 

1 1 7.2 16 




6 


Buk ; t Tim ah Road 







roth mile 

13.0.28 




7 


Chua Chn Kang 

49.0.00 




8 


Tuas 

1,601.3.32 


Same. 


9 


Sungei Murai 

314.1.05 




ID 


Sungei Buloh 

770.2.16 


• 

* 

I I 

[ Kranji 

756.0.32 


e 


12 

Sembawang 

1,046.3.38 




13 

Mandi 

407.0.32 



* 

U 

: Kranji Rd, 1 4^ mile . , . 

9.2.16 




15 

j Changi 

1,393.0.00 




l6 

Seletar 

1,429.1.08 




17 

Chan Chu Kang 

813.3.08 




18 

Ang Mo Kio 

296.0.02 




19 

Sempang 

5.0.00 




20 

Seletar Extension 






Remark 





Settlement. 

No. of 

Reserve. 

Civil District. 

Name of Forest. 

Penang. 

1 

North East 

Block D 


2 


Block E 




Block F 




Part of Block /, 




Pulau Jerejak 

* 


1 1 

A 

South West 

Pantei Acheh 


B 


Laksamana 


C 

( | 

Tel ok Bahang 




Do. 


G 

' | 

Genting Hills 


H 


Bukit Gumoroh 

\ 

/ 


Relau Hills 


Form No. 


i 


Area in Acres 
on 1-T-02, 


Area added 
during year. 


No. & date of 
Excluded or Area on Notification 
Disafforested.! 3 t - 12-02 excluding 

land. 



( 



5.707 

232 

233 
18 

887 


34 


5.741 




232 

233 
18 

887 


382 dated 
22nd March, 
1902. 


3,208 

465 

380 

2 I 

205 



} 


3,208 

465 

616 


2 r 
205 


342 dated 
I2lh March, 
1902. 


Remarks 


Form No. i. 


Settlement. 

(' . 

jo > 

- 

c J. 
'y cl; 

Civil District. 

Name of Forest. 

Area in Acres 
on 1-1-1903. 

Area added 
duri nj_j year. 

Excluded or 
Dis-affor- 
ested . 

Area on 31- 
1 2 - i 902. 

No. & date of 
Notification 
excl ud i no 

0 

laud . 

Province 

Wellesley 


Northern District | 

* 

Ara Kuda 

Tassek Glugor 

, 

3 >o 55 


*561 

1,294 

1,761 

1,287. 

10th Oct. 1902 



r 

i 

Central District ^ 

Southern District 

Bukit Seraya 

Bukit Mertajam 

Juru Hill 

Gajah Mati 

Govt. Exp. Gardens 
Bukit Gua Ipoh 

Lot 435 

Lot 323 1 . 

Bukit Panchor 

1 12 
162 
417 

94 

3 

330 

189 

13 

1,476 



1 12 

r62 

Ad 7 

94 

3 

S 3 0 

1 80 

S 3 

1.476 

i 




Total 

6,412 


I -855 

4-55 7 



Remarks. 


Abandoned : Land 
covered with 
Lalang. 


* Proposed to be abandoned. 


Form No. i. 


Settlement. 

No. of 

Reserve. 

Civil 

District. 

1 

Name of Forest. 

1 

Area in Acres 

1 on 1-1-1902. 

1 

Din din gs 

' 


1 



A 


Tanjong Burong 

3,000 


B 


i Telok Serai 

5 ,ooo 


C 


' Gunong 1 unggal 

1,225 


D 


Tanjong Hantu 

r ,000 


E 


Pangkor Island 

3 , 75 ° 


F 


Lumut 

1,225 


G 


Ulu Bruas 

2,000 


H 


Telok Mu roll 

... : 3,000 




Total 

... 20,200 


Area added 
during year. 



j ; No. & date of 

Excluded or Area on Notification 
Dis-affcrt" J ^ ^ 2 - 1002 . excluding 

estecl. J " land. 



3,000 


Sv 000 

& 

1,225 


1,000 

3,750 

1,225 


2,000 


3,000 


20.200 





Remarks. 


r 



Form No. i. 



* 

QJ 




Settlement. 

No. c 
Rescrv 

1 

Civil 

District. 

Name of Forest. 

Area in Acres 
on 1-1-1902. 

Malacca. 






1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

Jasin 

District M 

r 

s. 

Ayer Panas 

Merlimau 

Bat an g Mai aka 

Bukit. Senggeh 

Bukit Sedanan 

3.242 

6,? 1 7 

3.549 

9.43« 

7,806 


6 

7 

8 

9 

AlorGajah i 
District 'j 

Bukit Panchor 

Sungei Udang 

Brisu and Ramuan China 
Sungei Si put 

a. r. p. 

3,356 3 29 

4,392 0 35 
2-591 2 09 

9U 2 19 


10 

1 1 

Central j 
District 1 


Bukit Bruang 
■Bukit Sebukor 

O' 

P* -P 

O O 

O O 

— 

I 


Total 

47,7 1 2 


Area added E *4 ud £ d or 
during year. 

Area on 31- 
12-1902. 

Mo. & date of 
Notification 
excluding 
land. 

Remarks, 

/ 

! 

3 , 2 4 2 

6,217 

3>549 

9 , 43 o 

7,806 


1 

! 


a. r. p. 

3,356 3 29 
4,392 0-35 
2,591 2 09 

9 1 1 2 19 




0 0 

0 0 

VO* 




47,712 




i 


O 












form no. 2. 

Statement shewing progress made informing new Reserves during the year -1902. 


Settlement. 


Penang. 

North East District 
South West District 


& 

Province Wellesley. 

Northern district 
Central district 
Southern district 


Bindings 

Malacca 

Singapore 


Area of reserves 
already finally 
gazetted on 

31 Dec. 19° l * 
Acres. 

Areas finally gazetted during year 

Total area finally 
gazetted 
at close of 
year 1902 
Acres. 

Areas proposed and not 

yet finally gazetted. 


Name of 
Reserve. 



No. of Noti- 
fication 
j in Gazette . 

Area of 
acres. 

Name. 

Area, 

Remarks-. 

! 7 >097 

4430 

Extension 
Block D. 

„ C. 

Tel uk Bata ngr 

0 

382/22 0 % 
342 

34 

236 

7431 

4,666 



■w 

t 2.3.02 



H, 5 2 7 



270 

n ,797 


3,616 

1,320 

1476 


1 ,761 
1,320 
1,476 

1 

\ 

Nyalas 

G, 

2,000 

‘ 4 - 

4 1,835 acres abandon- 
> ed during year. Ga - 
) zette Not. 1,287/10 £4 

6,412 


1 


4,55 7 

20,200 

47 , 7 i 2 

... J 



t 

20,200 

47,712 


FORM. No. 3. 

Record of Demarcation and Maintenance of Boundaries for / qo j . 


Settlement and name 
of Forest. 

Length of Boun- 

daries artiticially 
demarcated during 

year. 

Length of pre- 

viously existing 

boundaries 

repaired. 

Length riot 

repaired. 

Total length of 

artificially marked 

boundaries at close 

of year. 

Length still to be 

demarcated at 

close of year. 

« <u 

t— 1 u. 

3 ^ 1 ! o Expenditure. 

nj 0 ^ Z 

G C ^ “ n 

X 1 -C X 

O -V c 1 

^ ^ ‘C 

"in rt . 03 New 

n-S.I |1 S Work. Kefirs. 

-2 0 

43 G* CJ f-Q 

Remarks. 

Penang. 






1 

1 

- 

1 


M. F. 

M. F. 


! M. F. 


M. F. | M. F. 


North East District 


Nil. 


37 - 4 -* 


8.3 45.74 


South West District 


... 


• • ■ 




A. Pantei Acheli 

... 

94 

Nil. 

94 

Nil. 

5 - 4 i i 5-°4 


B. Laksamana 


6.5 


6.5 


6.5 


C. Telok Bahang 

2.7 

5 -° 


5 -o 


7 * 7 - 


G, Genting Hills 

• * * 

0.6 


0.6 


0.6 

1 

H . Bukit Gumuroh 


5.2 


5.2 


5.2 


/. Relau Hills 

* • * 

4.6 


4.6 


4-6 


Total 

2.7 

3*-7 


^ 9 - 3 i 


13.7^ 862 



* 


FORM No. 3. 

Record of Demarcation and Maintenance of Boundaries for 1902. 


Settlement and Name 
of Forest. 


g 

c 

ca 


be 


c « 


oe 

u 

r C 

-o 

V 

a— 

rt 

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cS 


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be - rc c, 
c <- 

' '/■ e ’G 


-i-J i—r 1 

be t 

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no CD 
•— * CJ f 

c 

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£ « w 

be S It 

c ... ^ 

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ca jb 0 

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— i a; Jx 

D § 5 

-2 O P « 
jd cr u 

Cm O 

P ■■■! 

PROVINCE WELLES FEY 


M. F. 


M. F. 

' 



M. F. 

M. F. 

Northern District — 








Tassek Glugor 


6.3^ 


6 - 3 i 


* • « 

6 - 3 i 

Central Distr ict — 








■> Buk it Seraya 


2 .\h 


2.1 .V 



2.1 h 

Bukit Mertajam 


4.0 

c 

4.0 

c 


4.0 

J uru Hill 

a. 

41 

£•* 

4.1 

*> 

0 

0. 1 

4.2 

Gajah Mali 

c 

0 

2 .( 4 - 

c 

22 

2,0^ 

r— 


2 . 0 \ 

Govt. Exp. Garden 

£ 

o- 3 ? 

4 -> 

n 

°* 3 t 

-4— < 


0.34 

Bukit Gua Ipoh 


8.0 


8.0 



8.0 

Lot 435 


2. i 

*■ 

2.1 

• • ■ 

2.1 

Lot 323 I. 


0.5 


°-5 


* ■ • 

0-5 

Southern District — 








Bukit Panchor 


1 1.5 


1 r o 


or 

T 1 .6 

Total 


4 i- 4 ! 


4 I - 4 f 


0.2 

4 i- 6 f 


Fx 


New 

Work 


o 


Settlement 
and Name of 
Forest. 


Malacca. 

Bukit Singgeh 


/ 




/ 


Form No. 3. 

Record of Demarcation and Maintenance of Boundaries tor 190 2, 


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53 03 




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3 i_ 

■m 

{S o 

*-* c 




o £ t 

- -c ^ 

<2 or. 




3 I—* r" 

o 2 O 
-3 cr\£ 


•— QJ 

-c 

. rs 

rt ^ 

4-1 r~ 

C r- 

<■ — ' 

r- o 

« 


Expenditure. 



Remarks 




h 



s. 




FORM No. 4 . 

Statement oj A yea Surveyed mid Unsuvve'fed during the year 1902. 


By Survey Department. , 


Surveys by Chain and Compass or by local Offices. 


Settlement. 

With interior 
details. 

Boundary Surveys. 

Cost. 

Name o( Forest With interior 

details 

Boundary Surveys. 

Area remain- 
ing to be 
surveyed. 

Cost. 

Previous. 

During 

year. 

Previous. 

During 

year. 

Previous 

During 

year. 

r> • „ During 

Previous, b 

year. 

V 

j 

Previous. 

Du ring 
year. 

PENANG. 

Acres 

: 

A cres 

A cres 

Acres 






i 


North East District 




Soc f h West District 


5.637 

252 

233 


887 


Province Wellesley 
Dindings 
Malacca 
Singapore 


18 


D Govt. Hill 
E High land 
F Penara Bukit 
Part of Relau Hill 
Pulau Jervjak 
A Pantai Acheh 
E Laksamana 
C Tel ok Bahang 
G Genting Hills 
H Bukit Gumuroh 
/ Relau Hills 

All 


FORM No. 6. 

Communications and Buildings 1902. 


New Work undertaken during year. 


Repairs executed during 

year. 



1 buildings. 


Roads and Paths. 

Lengt h 
of road. 

Expen- 
diture 
incu rred. 

Total 
expend- 
ed on 
New 
Work. 

Buildings. 

I 

Roads and Paths. 

Total 

Expenditure 
on Re pairs. 

5 F ‘ — * ' 





1 






Description of 
building. 

0 

Expen- 

diture. 

'? C. 


M. F. 

$ c. 

* 

Nature of 
Repairs. 

Expen- 

diture. 

8 c. 

Nature of 
Repairs. 

Length 

repaired. 

Expen- 

diture. 

f c. 

•S c. 

I’enang 

Province Wellesley 

Din dings 


Forest Reserved 
C. Tcluk Ba- b 
tang J 

2 7 

noL 

known 

. , . 

... 

■ 

• 

• ■ • 

clearing 
boun darv. 

not 

known 

214 00 

2 i 4 00 

Malacca Forest') 

Guards Quarters >■ 
Selandar ) 

255 90 




2 5 5 ( )° 

Repairs to For- ) 
est Guards > 
Quarters \ 

138 99 

... 



] 38 94 

( 0 0 \ i e s O u a r t e r s ) 
bukit Bruang t 

IgO OO 


% 


1 40 00 

Repairs coolie ) 
lines j 

JO OO 




70 OO 

Singapore 





... 

m 

' • * 





















FORM No. 7 . 

Register of Breaches of Forest Rules for 1903. 


■ • » : 5 *1 

... , . , , , . 

Of 

.E 

New leases of the 

year. 

C/i 

<L> 

r/} 

cc 

Disposed of during yea r. 

0 

tfi 

- 

V 

* ■ 

('■ Vt r 1 •*> * • \ i » ■ 

,*'*•* r * • ' , 

Settlement and District. 

r > v , . 1 

« 

Cases penc 
from 190 

Theft of 

timber and 

minor pro- 

duce. 

Other 

offences. 

> 

> 

a ; 

, c 

■x . 

rr f. 

O CD 
— f r* 
w ct 

r 1 

13 

2 

r~ 

ct 

r 

W 

Convic- 

tions. 

Acquittals. 

. .1 

.1— > 

ct 

or: 

C 

•rl (2 

12 rt 

oL ^ 

_ Remarks. 

K . V ■ 

Penang ■ . 

Nil. 

[2 

1 ■ 

T3 

f 3 

T I 

2 



Province \\ ellesley 

Nil. 

16 

. . . 

10 

16 

l6 

. • - 

. » . 


Din dings 


43 


43 • 

43 

8 


- . . 

* * * 

Fines $264.50. 

Malacca- 

... - 

7 

1 

8 . 

7 

6 

i •• 

• - — 

. . . 

. . . 

1 rase compounded $20. 

Singapore 


9 


6 

6 

. . . ■ 


. . . 







\ 





FORM No. 8. 


A rea of Plantations, 


Area in acres. 


of year. 


Settlement and District. 

Name of 
Reserve. 

Kind of 
Plantation. 

3ii 1 st Janu- 

Added du- 

On 31st 
December 

Receipt. 

Charge. 

I 



a 1 y 1 902 . 

ring year. 

i 

1902. 

1 

Penang. 


% 

acres. 

acres. 

acres. 



North East District 

Block D. 

Getah 

35 

about 5 

40 

Nil "j 

842 

South West 

» • • 


* • • 




. . . 

Total. 



35 

5 

40 


842 

Province Weu.esle.y 


T eak 

Nil 

■ 1 



57 l 

Northern District 

Tassek Glugor 

2 

7 

1 

Central do. 

Southern do. 

! ... 


Nil 


. . . 


‘ * • 


Nil 





Dindings 

* 


• . • 

... 

... 


Malacca. 

Alor Gajah 



Nil 

Nil 



1 ••• 


Jasin 

Central 

Bukit Bruang 

Getah Percha 
Getah Sundeh 

1 2 5 

Nil 

Nil 

3 

125 

8 

Nil 

Nil 

4 ^ 93-35 



Tembusu 

2 5 

45 

70 

Nil 




Merbau 




• 


Mahosan 
Para & Ram- 








bong &c. 


1 





Remarks. 


■DC 


Included wages of coolies. 
Gardeners. Mandor and 
ihe cost of plants which 
latter works out to more 
than $1,500. 


I 


Jk. 






Revenue. 


I. Revenue on Timber and other Forest pro- 
duce removed from Forests by Government 
Agency. 

Total I ... 

If Revenue on limber and other produce 
removed from the Forests by consumers or pur- 
chasers. 

a. Timber 

, % 

b. Charcoal and firewood 

c. Bamboos and Canes 

d. Other produce 


Total JI ... 


SINGAPORE. 

FORM No. 

Summary of Revenue and Expenditure , 9 0i 


47 8 32 
54 00 
23 00 
56 10 

61 1 42 


S c. 





I Salaries, uniforms etc., ol the For- 
est Guards 


1 049 34 


J 




Revenue. 


Revenue on Timber and other 


PENANG 'North East and South West Districts 

FORM No: it. 

Summary of Revenue and. Expenditure i go 2 . 
Expenditure A. 


$ c. 


Eorest produce removed from Forests 
by Government Agency 

j ■. > ■ ■ 

(') 

Total I. ... 


\ 2 ) 
(3) 

U. Revenue on limber and 
other produce removed from the 
Forests by consumers or purchasers 
a. Timber 

564 OO 


h . Charcoal and firewood 

40 OO 


c . Bamboos and Canes 

* • 4 


d. Other Produce ... 



e . Fines Collected in Police 
Courts 

O 

r\ 


Total II. 

648 00 



A. Conservancy of Works 

'urchase of Stores, tools and 

plant 

)ther Works 

tearing and Maintaining 
Boundaries of Forest Reserves 


l ota] A . 


Expenditure B. 


Total A. 
and B. 


JR 


c. 


8 00 
310 00 


1 13 oo 


B. Establishments 
G Salaries of Forest Subordi- 
nates 

(2) Special Allowances 


867 00 
40 00 


-S c . 


43 ' 00 


Total B. 


907 00 ; 1,338 00 


20 


province Wellesley. 

FORM No. u, 

S " mm *v of Revenue and Expenditure igo*. 


Revenue. 


I. Revenue on Timber and other 
Forest produce removed from Forests 
by Government Agency. 

dotal I. ... 

II. Revenue on Timber and other 
produce removed from the Forests 
by consumers or purchasers. 

a . Timber 

* # * 

0. Charcoal and firewood 

c. Bamboos and Canes 

d. Other Produce 

e. Fines recovered 

Total II. 



I 12 00 


Conservancy of Works 
Maintenance of Forest Reserves 
Improvement of Forest Reserves 
Clearing boundaries 


375 oo 


487 00 


T otal A . 





740 OO 


Expenditure B. 


To al 

A. and B. 


% c - 

c. 

stablish ment 



aiaries : — 



alarv and Rice Allowance of 3 



Forest Guards 

420 00 


1 

V/' 


Total B, ; 

— ™ — — . i 

420 00 

I,l6o OO 


10 




DINDINGS. 


FORM No. ii. 


Summary of Revenue and Expenditu re TQ02. 


Revenue. 

1 

. 1 I. 

Expenditure A. 


“S * * 

Expenditure B. 


Total 

A. and B- 


$ c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 

| c. 

■s I. Revenue on Timber and other 


A . Conservancy of Works 


B. Establishments 



1 ' orest produce -removed from For- 


Maintenance of Forest Reserves, 

| 

(Y) . Salaries of Subordinate Staff 

1,860 00 


ests by Government Agency. 

• * • 

Clearing boundaries etc. 

45 8 2 9 

(2). 15% Dindings allowance on 


- 





above salaries *••• 

279 OO 


Total I. 


. • " * * f s 

■ 

(3) Rice allowance 

156 OO 


II. Revenue on Timber and other 

• 

' ' ‘ r , 

' . 

* 



produce removed from . the Forests by 




v 

* 

‘ ■ 


consumers or purchasers. 

■ 

t 




<S\ 

a. Timber. 

6,566 21 






h. Charcoal and firewood 

1 ,q 1 1 00 






c. Bamboos and Canes. 

• » *. 





& 

d. Other Produce 

I ,121 50 



- - 



e. Rent of Fruit Farm (1902) ... 

464 OO 

\ 





/ , Fines recovered in Police 







Court 

264 50 

* * * r* * 


■ 



Total 11 . 

10,327 21 

- -Total A. , ... 

1 

458 29 

Total/?. 

2,295 OO 

2,753 29 


CP 


Revenue. 


I. Revenue on Timber and other 
Forest produce removed from Forests 
by Government Agency. 

Removed by P. W. ID. no Re- 
venue collected 

Total 1 ... 

II. Revenue on Timber and other 
(.'“Orducfe removed from the Forests by 
consumers or purchasers 

a. Timber 

b . Charcoal and FDrewood 
• ' c. Bamboos and Canes 

d. Other Produce 

Total II 



- Malacca. 

Form No. 

Summary of R evmtte and ExpmdUure 



Expenditure. A. 

Expenditure B. 



~ _ 

•1 * 

Other Charges. 

$ c. 

\ 


Personal Emoluments 

^,202 00 

Expenses of Getah Plantations ... 

2,6 65 20 



Maintenance of Nursery of Forest 




trees &c.. 

-13 55 

10 02 


Maintenance of Forest Reserves ... 

449 60 



Transport 

324 90 

1 0 02 


Contingent expenses 

51 2 j 



Temporary Rice Allowance 

22<S oO 


3,202 OO 


5,33 2 46 


IsJ 



I 



\ 



APPENDIX B . 


Sterling Salaries for the Forest Department Straits Settlements. 


Settlement. 

Sanctioned title. 

Grade. 

j 

i 

Present 

salary. 

Sanctioned 

salary. 

Triennial 

Increments. 

Remarks. 

— — — — 

Straits Settlements 

Conservator of Forests 

! 

* * * 

£75° 

£800 

2- of £ 1 00 

^ paid by the Straits Settlements Government. 

Penang 

Superintendent ot 
Forests and Gardens 



> * 


Mr. Curtis receives an allowance ot $50 per mensem 

.Malacca (l) 

Forest Ranger 

I grade j 

£120 

£150 

2 of £30 

over and above salary as Superintendent ot Gardens 
non -pension able. 

Pensionable. 

Dindings (i) 

Do. 

II grade 

$960 

i /,120 

1 2 of £$o 

! bo. 


Sanctioned Dollar salaries for the Forest Department Straits Settlement s 


Singapore (1) 

Forest Ranger 

III grade 


$960 

None 

Pensionable. 

Penang (1) . 

Do. 

VI grade 


54o 

2 of $60 

Do. 

Malacca (1) 

Do. 

Do. 


540 

2 of $60 

Do. 

Dindings (i) 

Deputy Ranger 

I grade 

• ■ - 

420 

2 of $60 

Do. 

Singapore (1) 

Do. 

II grade 


300 

2 of $60 

Non-pensionahie. 

Malacca (2) 

Foresters 



240 

2 of $30 

Do. 

Penang (2) 

Do. 

Do. 


240 

2 of $30 

Do. 

Dindings (1) 

Do. 

Do. 


240 

0 

CO 

0 

M 

Do- 

Province Wellesley (1) 

Do. 

Do. 


240 

2 of $30 

Do. 

Malacca 

Forest Guards (6) 

. . . 


144 

4 of $24 

Do. 

Penang 

Do. 4 

... 


144 

. . , 

Do. 

Province Wellesley 

Do. T 



144 

, » . 

Do. 

Dindings 

Do. 6 


... 

144 


Do, 

Singapore 

Do. 10 


$84-120 

• 

Do. 

Malacca 

i Forest Guards 10 



-*$96-120 


Do. G. S. 6307/02. 

Province Wellesley 

Do. 1 

1 

’■ •- 

I 

... 

$1 20 


Do. 

. 


A. M. BURN-MURDOCH, 

Co nservator oj Forests Federated Malay States 

and Straits Settlements 


s T R A ITS S E T T L E M E N T S. 


p aper to be laid before the Legislative Council by Command of 

His Excellency the Governor 


* 


Annual Report on Forest Administration in the 
Straits Settlements for the year 1903. 


CHAPTER I. 


Extension and Constitution of Reserved Forests. 

I. Alteration in Area. 


i. The a tv as are shewn in Form t of appendix to this Report. The area in Singa- 
pore remained ^unchanged. 

In Penang and Province Wellesley no change occurred, the area reserved being- 
sufficient. 

In the Dindings about 1,200 acres of the Tanjong Burong Reserve were given up for 
Padi cultivation, the Mangrove Forest on the area being cut under licence in the ordin- 
ary way before cultivation takes place. To compensate for this a block of Mangrove 
Forest near Batu Undan was added, Teluk Senangin Reserve is shewn for the first 
time in the report. The areas in Ulu Brnas, Lumut and Telok Muroh Reserves were 
supplied by the Survey Department and the alterations in area shewn in Form 1 are 
therefore merely due to correct survey, the areas shewn hitherto having been merely 
estimated, not to any actual alteration in area. 

In Malacca an area of 494 acres was excluded from the Bukit Panchor Reserve 
and alienated for Tapioca cultivation. 

The total area of reserved forest in the Colony is 94,558 acres. 

2. This table shews the proportion of Reserves to total area in each Colony, the 
average being 10.14 per cent., practically the same as in 1902. 


Colony. 


Singapore ... 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley 
Dindings 
Malacca 


Area of 
Settlement. 
Square Miles 


206 


395 

265 

f»59 


C5 2 3 4 5 


Area of 
Reserved 

1 Forest 

Square Miles. 

Area of 
| Unreserved 
j Forest. 

i 

Proportion 
of Reserve 
to whole 

area. 

19.4 

Nil. 

9-4 

25o 

1) 

6.4 

36.1 

> ! 

13.6 

737 

D 

a* 1 1 - 1 

1547 

1 

JJ 

10.14 




Bv reserves however is meant simply areas which are set aside and demarcated 
for forest conservation, as these areas have never been legally notified as reserves un- 
der any Ordinance as has been the case in all other countries where forest management 
receives attention. 


J 


II. Reserve Proposals. 

3. In Malacca an area of 2,468 acres near Nyalas was proposed as a reserve and 
demarcated, this work in the Colony may now be said to be complete as no further 
available areas are to be found and the percentage of reserved forests is sufficient. 

III. Demarcation and Repairs to Boundaries. 

4. In the Dindings the boundaries were all kept clear by men on daily labour 
wages, the cost however is not stated. The Batu Undan Reserve extension boundaries 
were not completed. 





2 


In Penang 65 miles of boundary lines were kept clear at a cost of $300 and in 
Province Welleslev 22 miles for $150 about $5 n-r mile. In Malacca 98.5 miles of 
boundary were kept clear by Forest Guards and 8 miles new boundary cleared by 
contract at a cost of $200. Particulars are shewn in Form 3. 477 Notice Boards bear- 
ing the words “ Forest Reserve” in English and Malay were placed round the boun- 
daries in Penang at about J mile apart and too in the Province Wellesley. 

Surveys. 

5. In the Dindings, Ulu Bruas, Lumut and Telok Muroh Reserves were surveyed 
and tracings supplied, other areas were also taken in hand but not completed. 

In Malacca the Nyalas Reserve was surveyed, an area of 2,468 acres, by the Sur- 
vey Department, and a boundary survey of Merlimau and Aver Panas Reserves was 
made by Mr. GAGLIARDI, the Forest Ranger. See Form 4. 


CHAPTER II. 

Management of State Forests. 

Working Plans. 

6. A Rough Working Plan for 32,771 acres in Malacca was drawn up by the 
Forest Ranger and is now under consideration of the Conservator of Forests. It 
provides for division of this working circle into 60 compartments each with an average 
area of 550 acres, the plan being to cut out all marketable trees of 7 feet in girth and 
over, in 2 coupes each year, thus going over the whole area in 30 years, isolated 
trees however being left as seed bearers. It is not yet possible to give a reliable 
forecast of the amount of timber which the area will yield annually, but in compart- 
ment No. 1 Ayer Panas block 550 acres in area 546 trees have been marked for fell- 
ing and in compartment No. 1 in Merlimau of the same area 1,417 trees, of all kinds. 
Taking the average yield as 2 trees per acre we should get about 4,000 tons of timber 
per annum at a very low estimate. As however rate of growth of the specie^ con- 
cerned is not known the prescription for fellings will be for the. first 30 years kept at a 
very low figure, so as to be sure that the capital of the forest is not being encroach. 'C 

UP ° l 7. The necessity for a certain amount of felling however is obvious for the 
reason that there are many over mature trees in the forests which are deteriorating 
and which will in time lose all value. 

In Penang and Province Wellesley and Singapore the forests are not yet ready 

for exploitation. _ , . , 

In the Dindings the necessity for exploitat’mg the Reserves has not yet arisen, 
there being a sufficiency of timber elsewhere, but certain reserves are annually ex- 
ploited as regards Canes and Jungle Produce. 

Paths and Buildings. 

8. In Province Wellesley a Forest Station and Forest Guards’ Quarters were 
erected for Woo at Tasek Glugor. 

In the Bindings See Form 6. 

Protection of Forests and Forest Offences. 

9. Forest Law.— No Forest Ordinance has yet been passed in the Colony, and 
the laws are very inadequate. Proposals for new. Forest Rules in the Dindings were 
sent up by the Conservator of Forests and have since come into force. 

10. In Singapore there were 2 cases both resulting in convictions. 

In Penang there were 13 cases of prosecution for illicit timber cutting wit 1 6 
convictions and 7 acquittals, and fines to the amount of $195 recovered.. 

In Province Wellesley only 4 cases were taken to Court resulting in 3 convic- 
tions and I acquittal. . , 

In the Dindings there were 69 cases, mostly of cutting timber or firewoo u 

out a pass. 

There were 168 accused, 92 of whom were Chinese and 16 Malays. 

Seventy-two Chinamen and 14 Malays were convicted and §726.40 rea im. in ,n W 

In Malacca there was an increase in the number ol cases, there being 19 conv 
Cons out of 25 cases. 


r 


3 


ii In Province Wellesley about 3 miles of the boundary of Tasek Glugor Re- • 
serve was fire traced. A cleared line has been cut and evergreen bamboo planted 
along one side of it for part of the distance. This is necessary owing to frequent 

“ Lalang ” fires. ' J 

Improvement of Forest Growth. 


( i ) Natural Reproduction. 

12. In the Dindings, Mr. BORGES, Forest Ranger, who was trained at Dehra Dun 
Forest School, has made many useful inspections and observations on the forest. He 
reports that there are very few hard wood trees in the pole stage but plenty seedlings 
and small saplings. Natural regeneration is reported as good. The reserves contain 
a oood deal of Ebony [M aba Bnxi folia). "As regards Mangrove it has been found 
that there is more mature forest than was hitherto supposed, wherever extraction is 
at all difficult. Near the mouths of streams and creeks over felling has always occur- 

1^, In Malacca the Forest Ranger, Mr. G'AGLIARDI, reports that the natural re- 
production of the following species was good. Tembusu {Fragrosa fragrans), Tampi- 
nis (. Sloetia Suit roxylonf Mcrapu (Jlopea and Chorea of various species). No 
Getah Taban ( Palaquiurn ) trees were observed in flower or in fruit. There are 225 
Taban trees in the Jasin district and 505 tn Alor Gajah, 


(ii) Artificial Reproduction and Cultural Operations. 

14. See Form 8. 

In Penang. The area of the Getah Taban plantation at Batu Feringgi which 
stood at 40 acres at the beginning of the year, was further increased by about 10 acres. 
1,09s Taban trees were planted, a few of which were used as supplies where vacancies 
had occuried. The plants have growm well, the tallest, of those originally planted in 
1889 and 1890 being breast high. The Kickxia and Rambongs have not done so well, 
the ground evidently being too dry for them, The same remark applies to the few 
Para Rubber which were planted as shade for the Getahs. 

Description of trees planted in 1903. 



No : of trees . 

Palaquiurn Getah seedlings. 

878 

\ y „ stumps. 

217 


1,095 


A further 10 acres of jungle has been opened up and partly bolded in anticipation 
of planting during 1904. 

15. Teak . — The experiment of grown ng Teak in the Province at Tasek Glugor 
is only moderately successful. The two acres planted in 1902 have been weeded on 
2 occasions. About half the number planted died, and were replaced. A curious 
feature of the plantation is the irregularity of growth shown ; in some cases the young 
plants are five feet in height w r hich leaves as big as Rhubarb — whilst growing next to 
them under apparentlv the same conditions are plants only a few inches high. It is 
very doubtful if it will' ever pay to plant Teak through lalang grass. This plantation 
was visited by the Conservator of Forests during the year. 

16. In Malacca no addition was made to the area of Gutta Percha ( Palaquiurn ) 
plantations, which remain at 125 acres, and 8 acres of Getah Sundik ( Payena Laeni ), 
This is not a regular plantation. The young plants are put out in the forest under 
shade, the undergrowth being cleared. Blanks w r ere filled in during the year from the 
nurseries. 

Plants purchased during the year 2,492 ; total number received from 1st April, 1901, 
to 31st December, 1903, 60,000. Number now alive in the forest is only about 7,000, 
and 2,400 in the nurseries. This is not satisfactory, and I am satisfied that the fault 
lies in the fact that the plants are many of them half dead on arrival. See remarks 
of Conservator of Forests in the Annual Report for 1901, page 4 ’ * 11 which he does not 
recommend the purchase of any more transports should be purchased from other 
countries, and that if possible seed should be obtained. It is possible that the locality 
is not suitable to laban. d he whole area was cleared of undergrowth to give more 
room to the Taban. 




4 


i y. In Singapore. The plantation of Gutta Percha, about 30 acres was upkept 
during the year. 

(iii) Experiments. 

< 

18. Experiment . — Mr. CURTIS’ system of Marcotting tvith the help of bamboo 
pots and also with coconut fibre instead of the bamboos was tried. The first experi- 
ment was successful in the case of tour plants but the latter up to date have hot 
thrown out any roots although they look promising. The planting of Tembusu, &c. 
was done in “Lalang” with very good results. A few of the Para Rubber trees 
were tapped at “ Bukit Sebukor ” and the price realised was for the clean rubber 
4s.5et.l3s.7d. 

Exploitation. 

19. One thousand and fifty-five {1,055) Licences were issued in Penang and the 
Province during the 'year to cut timber firewood, Kassovvs and Bertams bringing in 
a revenue of $846.55. In every case these were cut outside the Forest Reserves. 
Most of the poles cut classed as timber, were used for fishing stakes— a number of 
the larger sizes however being used for the construction of houses. Form V shews the 
classification. The licences were issued by the Collector of Land Revenue and the 
District Officers but the work of supervising and checking the cutting was carried 
out by the Forest Staff. 

20. In the Dindings felling fees amounted to $1,983, and sawyers fees to $1,949, 
this gives 661 cutters and 649 sawyers, an average per month of $55. 

$3,135.80 was paid on timber as royalty, but no returns are available for tonnage 
extracted. Under the new system since introduced such returns will be available for 
1904. The estimated amount of timber cut is however 2,000 tons. 

21. Bakau (Mangrove) realised $9,486.30, an enormous increase on former years, 
the chief reason being an influx of Chinese cutters who came to the Dindings from 
Perak owing to restrictions in cutting at Matang, also because the fee for cutting was 
smaller. This was remedied on October 1st, 1903, the fee being raised to $5 per man 
per mensem, and the number of cutters reduced. Of this amount $1,969 was realised 
by the Mangrove felled in Tanjong Burong Reserve (see para, r) $126 was collected 
on charcoal, and $369 for kongsi licences, the charge being $r per mensem for each 
kongsi as rent for temporary occupation of Crown land. 

22. Rotans realised ,$408 and miscellaneous Forest produce $5 r 4- 

23. In Malacca passes were issued to cut and remove timber and royalty charged 
according to diameter, a very faulty system. $r,5or were realised on timber $617.21 
on firewood and charcoal, $294,88 on Bamboos and Canes, $76.20 on India Rubber, 
and $942.24 on other Forest Produce. See Form 10. 

24. In Singapore, timber realised $532.50, firewood and charcoal $888, bamboos 

and canes $13.50 and the produce $53.90. 

Financial Results 


See Form 1 1 for particulars. 


— 

Jr 

Settlement. 

Revenue, 

1902. 

Revenue 

I 9°3- 

Expenditu re. 
1903. 

Surplus. 

Deficit. 



$ c. 

$ c/ 

$ c. 

$ c . 

Singapore -- 

61 1 

1,487 90 

5,094 48 

... 

3,606 58 

Penang and 
Province Wellesley 

IT35 

1,060 55 

3,°44 36 

■ » • 

1,983 81 

Dindings 

10,327 

20,759 55 

3-795 46 

16,964 09 

* * * 

Mslsccs * • • 

1,170 

3,659 17 

7,4 7° 79 

. . « 

3,811 62 

<1 

i3, 2 43 

26,967 17 

19,405 09 

7,562 08 



25. The Revenue for Dindings however includes $2,062 revenue derived from 
fruit farms, etc., while I do not think should be included in forest revenue. ^ In 1902 
the total deficit for the Colony was $1,791 while in 1903 there is a profit of $7,562.08, 
due to the Dindings revenue. Both Singapore and Malacca however have shewn an 


increase the former temporary, the latter permanent and likely to increase. Malacca 

expenditure has dropped from $8,534 in 1902 to $7,47° and y et more useful work has 
been done than for some years past. This is partly due to saving on salary of the 
Superintendent of Forests who was transferred to the Federated Malay States 
Government in 1902, February. 

The above figures include J-rd share of the salary of Conservator of F orests 
$2,870.61 and Jrd of Pension Contribution $855.99. 

The latter charge will not be continued in 1904 owing to the fact that the 
Conservator of Forests has permanently joined the service of the Colony and Feder- 
ated Malay States. 

E s t ablishment . 

26. In Singapore the forest work was undertaken by the Collector of Land 
Revenue with the assistance of a Deputy Ranger. The appointment of Ranger III 
Grade at $960 not yet having been filled owing to the want of a suitable candidate. 

27. In Penang the work of the Forest Department was taken over by Mr. 
CURTIS, Superintendent of Gardens, who received an allowance for the extra work 
entailed. Mr. Curtis unfortunately fell ill in February and was obliged to retire from 
the service which is a great misfortune for Government. Mr. Fox replaced him soon 
afterwards. 

28. Mr. BORGES was appointed as Forest Ranger II Grade on July 29th in the 
Dindings and has shewn himself a useful and energetic officer, taking an interest in 
his forests. The District Officer, Dindings, is practically in charge of the forests and 
has done much to further the efficiency and utility of the Department during the year. 
Mr. Abrams was appointed as Deputy Ranger VI Grade, Penang, and also a VI 
Grade Clerk. The Deputy Ranger, Penang, Mr. RENGANATHEN was convicted of 
extortion and dismissed the service. Four boatmen were added to the staff for patrol 
duty. 

29. In Malacca the forests were managed by Mr. GAGLIARDI under the 
Honourable Resident Councillor, the licence work of the Department being done by 
the Collector of Land Revenue and the District Officers. Mr. Gagliardi did good 
work in surveying and examining Forest Reserves, and submitted valuable countings 
of tree which are the first of the kind made so far, and are to be found in Appendix 
B to this report. 

The subordinate staff are reported to have worked well. 

30. The title of Conservator of Forests was adopted for the Chief Forest Officer 
on 1st January, 1903, as being usual wording in other parts of the world. Mr. A. M. 
BURN-MURDOCH held the appointment throughout the year, still on deputation from 
the Indian Forest Service. He visited each Settlement during the year, spending 42 
days on tour in the Colony besides a certain portion of his time in work in office on 
Colonial matters. 

His visits to the Colon v were as follows : — 


January 

Singapore. 

April 

Singapore. 

June 

Penang and Province Wellesley. 

August 

Dindings (6th to 12th). 

0 

) 5 * ■ * 

Malacca (23rd to 25th). 

} » * * * 

Singapore (26th on Federated a 


business). 

September 

Singapore (visited Bukit limah). 

October 

. . . Malacca. 

November 

Penang. 


A. M. BURN-MURDOCH, 


[a lav States 


Conservator of Forests , 

Federated Malay States & Straits Settlements. 


6 


APPENDIX A. 


Dimension at Breast height. 

Enumeration Survey of 55 acres of 5 acres each in the Ayer Panas 

Reserve. Nos. 1 to 9. 


Species. 

6" to 1 2 " 

( [ C 

12" to 18" 

18" to 24" 

Over 24" j 

Total. 

Kelat 

523 

0 149 

29 j 

36 I 

737 

Nyato 

232 

63 

21 

J 3 

329 

Merahti c 

172 

90 

37 

74 

373 

Medang 

578 

i 5 ° 

36 

1 1 

775 

Penaru Batu 

115 

13 

7 

2 

i 37 

Sendoh Sendoh 

..f 62 

36 

22 

1 1 

! 3 r 

Kranji 

3 1 

14 

4 

It 

60 

Petali ng 

107 

18 

*3 

4 I 

142 

Merbau 

2 

3 


. . . 

5 

Rem bah Daun 

24 

16 

T 3 

47 

100 

Men sa vvah 

... 1 



5 

5 

Tembusu 

4 

i 

. . . 

... 

5 

Penak 

• • * • » * 

. . . 

. . . 


. . . 

Serayah 

... ... 

1 

. . . 

4 

5 

Penagah 

6 

8 

. . . 

1 

15 

Bilian 

... ... 

• . . 


... 

* * • 

Chen gal 

13 

1 1 

1 1 

23 

58 

Kledang 

Miscellaneous 

25 

• •• j 4,039 

12 

1,067 

i 

373 

2 

296 j 

40 

5,775 

Totals 

• •• , 5,933 

1,652 ; 

567 

540 j' 

8,692 


APPENDIX B. 

Valuations Surveys, Merlimau 4 — 10 acres Coupes. 


Names. 

6 " to 12" 

12" to 18" 

18" to 24" 

Over 24" 

Remarks. 

Rembah Daun ... 

6 

9 ' 

8 

49 ! 


Meranti 

47 

32 

26 

55 

• 

Nyato ^ 

4i 

25 

i5 

10 


Kledang 

6 

14 


8 


Medang 

92 

65 

12 

7 


Kranji 

10 

14 

6 

8 


Jelutong 

i5 

i3 

2 

4 


Bilian 

. . . 

3 

5 

2 


Serayah 

7 

* • » 

1 

9 


Chengal 

4 

1 

3 

* • ■ 


Penaga Batu 

33 

21 

3 

... 


Petaling 

108 

55 

17 

9 


Kelat 

289 

66 

1 1 

4 


Men sa wall 

* . . 

• * 4 

• » • 

4 


Lalau * • • 

1 

6 

4 

1 


Penagah 

. . . 

1 

• * • 

... 

Tembusu 


1 

1 


Merbau 


• . » 

i 

. . . 


Sendoh Sendoh 

2 

• * • 

1 

4 


Resah 

. • . 

• * . 

• • • 

... 


Miscellaneous 

1,685 

65 1 

17 1 
* 

! 5 J 


Totals ... 

2,346 

1 

977 

287 

0-5 



Settlement. 


Singapore 


♦ 


Form No, i. 


No. of 

Reserve. 

Civil 

District. 

— 

• 

Name of Forest. 

1 

Area in Acres! 
on 1-1-1903. 

Area added 
during year. 

Excluded or 
Dis-affor- 
ested. 

Area on 31- 

12-1903- 

No. & date of j 
Notification 1 
excluding 1 
land. 

Remarks. 

r 

i 

Bukit Timah 

847.0.00 





S_/ 

2 J 


Jurong ... 

412.0.00 






3 


Panclan 

2,140.3.16 






4 


Ulu Pandan 

4 - 3-09 




- 


5 


Bukit Panjang 

1 1 7.2.16 






6 


Bukit T i m a h R 0 a d 









jotli mile 

13.0.28 






7 


Chua Cbu Kang 

49.0,00 






8 


Tuas 

B601.3.32 



Same. 



9 


Sungei Murai 

314.1.05 






IO 


Sungei Buloh 

770.2.16 






I 11 


Kranji 

756.0.32 






12 


Sembawang 

1,046.3.38 




■j 


[ 3 


Mandi 

407.0.32 


* 




14 


Kranji Rd. 14th mile ... 

9.2.16 






15 


j Cbangi 

1 i 393 -o.oo 






16 


i Seletar 

1,429.1.08 



-< 



17 


Chan Chu Kang 

813.3-08 






18 


Ang Mo Kio 

296.0.02 






19 


Sf m pang 

5.0.00 






20 


Seletar Extension 

. • • 


i 






Total ... 

12,428.1.18 



12,428.1.18 




Form No. i. — Continued. 


» I. i ...... . i„ i* 


Settlement. 

No. of 
Reserve. 

Civil District. 

i 

Name of Forest. 

Area in Acres 
on 1-1-1903. 

Area added 
during year. 

Excluded or 
Dis-affor- 
ested. 

Area on 3 1 - 
12-1903. 

• 

No. & date of 
Notification 
excluding 
land. 

Remarks. 

Province 

Wellesley 


Northern District 

Tassek Glugor 

* 

L/6r 



Ij6l 

r> 




Central District \ 

Southern District 

Bukit Seraya 

Bukit Mertajam 

Juru Hill 

Gajah Mati 

Govt. Exp. Gardens ... 
Bukit Gua 1 poh 

Lot 435 

Lot 3231. 

Bukit Panchor 

112 

162 

417 

94 

3 

330 

189 

* 13 

1 ,476 


J 

1 12 
162 
417 

94 

3 

33 ° 

1 89 

13 

L 47 6 




! 


■ Total ... 

4.557 



4-55 7 




Settlement. 


Penang. 

i) 




J OkM No. I, — Continued. 


k i\ 

w > 

•Si 

O 72 1 
5 ^ : 

_ __ 

Civil District. 

j 

Name of Forest. 

1 

Area in Acres 
on 1-1-03. 

Area added 
during year. 

Excluded or j 
Dis- 
afforested. | 

Area on ! 
31-12-03 

No. & date of 
Notification 

excluding 

land. 

Remarks. 

I 

o 

North East 

Block D 

Block E 

Block F 

Part of Block /. 

Pulati Jerejak 

5 > 74 l 

252 

233 

18 

887 

1 

, | 


5 » 74 1 
252 

233 

18 

887 


• 

A 

B 

C 

G 

I-I 

v. 

South West 

! 

Pantei Acheh 
Laksamana 

Telok Bah a no- 
Do. 

Genting Hills 

Rukit Gumoroh 

Retail Hills 

3.2o8 

465 

380 

236 

2 I 
205 

^51 

• ' • 


3,208 

465 

} " 6l6 

2 1 

205 

151 

• 





1 B 797 



IR 797 


: . r" > 


W*“V 'PM- 


1 

Settlemen t, 

r\ 

i 

No. cf 
Reserve. 

- 1 

— < u 

.> i: Name of forest, 

u .« 

Q 

Bindings 

1 

A 

Tanjong Brtiang 


B 

Tel ok Serai 


C 

1 Gunong Tunggal 


D 

| Tanjong Hantu 


E 

j Pangkor Island 


! F 

Lurxiut 


G 

Ulu Bruas 


H 

Telok Muroh 


I 

Batu Undan 


J 

Telok Senangin 



Total 


* 


b orm No. i. — Continued. 


Area in Acres 

Are& added 

Excluded or j 
Dis-affor- j 
ested. 

[ 

Area on 

No. & date of 
Notification 

on 1-1-1903, 

during year. 



31-12-1903. 

excluding 

land. 





c 

3.000 


1,200* 

0 

0 

30 

.2 

• • • , 5 )00O 

... 1,225 



5,000 

1,225 

c£ 

,% 6 

-M c 

... 1,000 
3.750 

26 


1,000 
- 3)7 7 6 * 

O (7j 

12 £ 
f 1 . —< 

«- 

... 1 1,225 

13 


1,238* 

0 ^ 

O 

... 2,000 

1,250 

750* 

C/3 „ 

... 1 3)000 


674 

2,326* 

‘5 

S> p 

* « • . • 1 ■ 

S.ooo 


5,000 

0 0 

• • • i 

1,000 


1,000 

2 u 

r*i 


Remarks. 


■^Alienated 


^Corrected area 
^'Corrected area 
^Corrected area 
"Corrected area 


Settlement. 


Malacca. 


Form No. i Con United. 


No. of 
; Reserve. 

Civil 

District. 

i 

f 

2 

Jasin 

3 

District ) 

4 


S 

[ 

i 

AlorGajah ( 

> 

District ( 

3 

1 

M 

i 

Central f 

2 

District i 


J 


j 

Name of Forest. 

Area in Acres 
on 1-1-IQ03. 

Area added 
during year. 

Excluded or 
Dis-affor- j 
ested. i 

Area on 31- : 
12-1903. 

\ T o. & date oh 
Notification 
excluding 
land. 

Remarks. 


“ ~ — ’ — — — 




— — ■ 


Ayer Panas 

Merlimau 

Bukit Senggeb 

Bukit Sedanau 

Batang Malaka 

/. o'Qa 

3 C 42 
6,217 

9 A 3 o 

7,806 

3-549 



1 

h 2 4 2 

6,217 

9.43° 

7 ,806 

3*549 



Sungei Udang 

Bukit Panchor 

4,392 

3,356 


494 

4.39 2 

2,862 


r < *o ii Aia 
A TMY nJIC 

nated in 1903. 

Brisu, Ramuan China') 
and Sungei Siput ... J 
Bukit Bruang 

Bukit Sebukor 

3 , 502 

6,174 

44 



3. 5° 2 

6,174 

44 


r O 

Total 

1 









47,712 


494 

1 

47,218 






»C"i p — i*. ,-^MtiurAaKK4l •■mwu. e .v i nff JirrfatMfc. ~« 


Settlement. 


Penang. 

North East District 
South West District 


Province Wellesley. 

Northern District 
Central District 
Southern District ... 

Dindings 

Malacca 

Singapor e 

» 



ns 


Form No 2. 


Statement shewing progress mad: in forming new Reserves during the year 1903. 


Area of reserves 
already finally 
Gazetted on 

31 Dec. 190 , 

Area finally Gazetted during year. 

Total area finally 
Gazetted 
at close of 
year 1903. 

Ar s prop<: 

yet finally 

ed and n 

Gazetted. 

Name of 1 
Reserve. 

No. of Noti- 
fication 
in Gazette. 

1 

Area of 
acres. 

Name. 

iTV 

Area. 

7.-367 


! 


- - ■' ■ t 

7 ,& 


n 

4430 




443 ° 



1 G 797 




11,797 


■* 

l 

' 

. 

1.7b 1 

I 



k— 1 

C\ 

1 ^- - 



1,320 




1,320 



1,476 




1,476 



4.557 


1 .. 


4.557 



I ' — — 

20,200 

Batu Undan 


S.ooo 

20,200 



42,7 12 

Telok Sen an- 

■ 






oin 


1,000 

42,712 

Nyalas 

2,46^ 

12,428-1-18 

* » * 



12,428-1-18 




Form No. 3. 

Record of Demarcation and Maintenance of Boundaries for , 9 °3- 


] 

. 

Settlement and Name 
of Forest. 

. I 

Length of Boun-j 

! daries artificially | 

! demarcated duringS 
year. 

1 

Length of pre- 

viously existing 

boundaries 

repaired. 



Length not 
j repaired. 

1 

Total Length of 

artificially marked 

boundaries at close 

of year. 



Length still to b cl 

demarcated at 

close of year. J 

Length of nat ural 

boundaries not re- 

quiring demar- 

PROVINCE WELLESLEY 


M. F. 

M. F. 

1 

M. F. 


M. F 

Northern District — 





1 


Tassek Glugor 


6 -34 


6 3A 


. . . 

Central District — 







Bukit Seraya 




2 ii 


... 

Bukit Mertajam 




4 0 


, , , 

Turn Hill 

y 

4 1 

— 'Ft 

ro 

4 1 

_■ 

0 t 

v_ajah Mali 



d\ 

2 0 2 

• « — 1 


Govt. Exp. Garden 


, . . 

/ 

0 3 i 

i 

! 

* * * 

Bukit Gua Ipoh 


... 


8 0 

1 

I 

. * . 

Lot 43 s 




2 1 

i 

. . . 

Lot 323 I. 


. . . 

' 

0 5 


I 

Southern District — 







Bukit Panchor - 

J 

1 1 5 


) 11 5 


0 i 

1 

Total 


22 ii 

19 

! 41 4! 

1 

I 

j 

0 2 


Expenditure. 



Remark 

O 


Record of De/nan 


Settlement and Name 
of Forest. 

Length of Boun- 
daries artificially 

J 

demarcated during 
year. 

Length of pre- 

viously existing 

J m o 

boundaries 

repaired. 

Length not 

repaired. 

Penang. 





M. F. 

M. F. 

M. F. 

A. Bukit Pantai Acheh 


6 4 


B. Bukit Laksamana 


8 o 


C\ Bukit Telok Bahang ... 

# * * 

7 o 


J). Government Hill 


21 O 

—',71 

B. Highland 

o * * • 


i 4 

r-4 

B\ Penara Bukit 


4 4 


G, Bukit Genting 


X o 


,, 1’ulau Bentong 

* * • 

5 4 


/. ,, Relau 


4 0 


J, Pulau Jerejak 


• « • 


Total 

1 


65 0 

7 27r 


I' ORM No . 3 . — C on ti lined, 
niton and Maintenance of Boundaries for iqoj. 


Total length of 

artificially marke< 

boundaries at clos< 

’ of year. 

Length still to be 

demarcated at 

close of year. 

•Length of natural 

l boundaries not re- 

quiring demar- 
cation. 

Total length of 

Boundaries. 

Expenditure. 

New 

Work. 

Repairs. 

t 

| 






M. F. 


M. F. 

M. F. 


$ c. 


. - * 

8 a 

0 0 

14 0 





... 

8 0 



I 



7 0 






34 0 






1 4 





. . . 

4 4 





♦ * • 

1 0 





* 1 • 

S 4 



... 


1 1 9 

5 4 



— 


5 4 

S 4 



7 2 2 ^ 

... 

13 7 

•e- 

00 


' 


Remarks. 


r 


/ 




I’orm No. 3 -Continued. 

Record of Demarcation a nd Maintenance of Boundaries for , 9 0 3 . 


Settlement 
and Name of 
Forest. 

Boun - 

ially 

during 

o 

t ti 

£ 4 

> C 

3 * 

U 0 W 

i 

h of 

arked 

t close 

Length still to be 
demarcated at close 

1 of year. 

Oj ! 

1- OJ 

5 *- « 

3 0 2 

'0 

Expenditure. 


Length of 
daries artific 
demarcated < 
1 year. 

— £ 

< c b£‘S 

— Cu 

T. ‘a 0) 
to « u 

c ■*! « 

cj . 

*“ rt 

( 

Length nol 
repaired. 

1 

Total lengt 

artificially m 

boundaries a 

of year. 

Length of 1: 
boundaries m 
quiring dema 
tion. 

Total length 

Boundaries. 

New Repairs. 

Work. 

1 

Remarks. 

Malacca. 

Singapore, 

M. F. 

8 o 

M F. 
98 5 

No 

Nil. 

record, 

M. F. 
106 5 

but all bo 

Nil. 

undaries 

Not Known i 

kept in order. 

M. F. 
106 5 

t j 

200 j 

The approximate length of boundaries of all 
Malacca is here sh^wn. The boundaries were 
kept in repairs by Forest Guards. No addition- 
al expense except in the case of the “Nyalas," 
New reserve was incurred. 


Form No. 4. 


Statement of A rea Surveyed and Unsurveyed during the year / goj . 


Settlement. 


With interior 
details. 


By Survey Department. 

~ ‘ , * 1 

Boundary Surveys. 


PENANG 
North Fast District 


Soutli West District 


Province Wellesley 


D hidings 

o 


Malacca 


Singapore 



Previous. 


A cres 


1 tyring 
year. 


A cres 


18 

3,208 
465 
380 
2 1 

205 

151 


a. r. p- 
1 ,237-3- 1 5 
749 3- 2 5 
2,326.0.00 


3 , 775 - 3-24 

A cres 
2,468 


1 2,428 


2,468 


Cost. 


Survey 
co m - 
pleted 


Name of Forest 


Surveys by Chain and Compass or by local offices. 


With interior Boundary Surveys 
details 


Previous 


D. Govt. Hill 

E. Highland 

F. Penara Bukit 
Part of Relau Hill 
Pulau Jerejak 

A. Pantai Acheh 
E. Laksamana 
C. Telok Bahang 
G Genting Hills 
H. Bukit Gumoroh 
/. Relau Hills 


Lumut 
Ulu Bruas 
Telok Muroh 
Telok Sera 
Tanjong Hantu 
Pangkor Island 


las 

Ayer Pan as 
Merlimau 


During p re vious. Durin S 


year. 


year. 


Cost , 

Area remain- 
ing to be 

surveyed. Previous, during 

year. 


Acres 

3,242 

6,217 

9j459 


■s* 


Form No. 6 . 


Com mi 


munications and /? •> 

ana buildings n 



New Work undertaken during year. 


Repairs executed during year. 






1 ' 

Total 
expend- 
ed on 
New 



_ 




Buildings, 


- *. ■ 

Roads and Paths. 

Length 

■ 

Expen- 

diture 

Buildings 


Roar 

s and Paths. 

Total 

Expendit ure 
*on Repairs. 



oi road. 

Work. 



________ 

— 



Description of 
building. 

Expen- 

diture, 



incurred. 

Nature of 
Repairs. 

Expen- 

diture. 

Nature of 
Repairs. 

1 

Length 

repaired. 

Expen- 

diture. 

s 

Penang 

$ c * 

• ■ • 


$ c. 



$ ^ 

Protecting 


9 C. 

$ c. 



\ 






Forest Re- 
serve from fire 







• 





by diggingout 




Province Wellesley 
Forest Station and 

* * * 

... 

. . . 




• ■ ■ 

Lalang along 
side 

M 

3 

235 00 

235 00 

Guards Quarters > 

500 00 




500 00 





a? 


Tassek Glugor ) 





* - * 

. « • 



... 


Forest Station 

1 ,000 00 




* 



- 




Bukit Panchor * j 

. . . 


* . . . 

1,000 00 



... 




Two Forest Depart- ^ 








Maintenance 
of boundaries 




ment (Kolek) > 

boats J 

11 7 SO 





Replacing- Bertam 


& paths of For- 
est Reserves, 









Walls with planks 
Forest Guards Quar- 

1 49 90 

in the Din- 
dings 


572 54 

722 44 







ers 






Malacca 







. . , 



* . . 


Singapore 


. . , 

* * * 

. . . 


... 

• ■ * 

4 ^ 




li 

*<6i 7 y> 



' 1 

1,500 00 


149 90 



807 54 

957 44 


* This was erected by ,he P. W. D. 





Settlement and District. 


Penang 

Province Wellesley 


Bindings 

Malacca 

Singapore 


Form No. 7. 

Register of Breaches of Forest Rules for T903. 


Cases pending 
from 190 

1 

New cases of the year. 

Grand total cases. 

Disposedof d 

uring year. 

Pending at close 

of year. 

Theft of 
| timber and 

1 minor pro- 
duce. | 

1 

! 

Other 

offences. 

1 

Total new 

cases. 

i 

Convic- 

tions. j 

f 

f 

If 

j 

Acquittals. 1 

1 

■ 

13 


13 

13 

6 

7 


. . . 

4 

... 

4 

4 

3 

1 

& 


9 i 

19 

1 10 

1 10 

88 

22 


* • * 

25 


25 

25 

l 9 

6 

• * ■ 

■ * a 

2 

1 



2 

2 

2 




Remarks. 


00 


Fines $195.00. 

„ $ 19.00 

f „ Inflicted $842.00 
\ „ Realised $726.40 


$35 Realised in Fine. 



p 


Settlement and District. 

Name 

of Reserve. 

Kind of 
Plantation. 




Para Rubber 

Singapore 


Sembawang 
Bukit Timah 

■ , 

Guttapercha 

Mahogany 

Merbau 

/ 

\ 






I 


Form No. 8. 



vo 


-5 




Form No. 8 . — Continued. 


A rea of Plantations. 


Settlement and District. 

1 

Name of 
Reserve. 

Kind of 
Plantation. 

Area in Acres. 

of year. 

Remarks. 

1 

on i st Janu - 1 
ary 1903. 

^dded dur-j 
ing year. 

On 31st 
December 
1903. 

Receipt, 

Charges. 

Penang. 



acres. 

s ! 

acres. 

acres. 


$ c. 


* 

North East District 

Block D. 

Getah 

40 j 

lo 

50 


209.25 


South West 

... 


• * * 

. . . 

* * • 

... 

. . . 

• 

Total. 



40 

- 

10 

5 ° 


209.25 

- 

m 

Province Wellesley. 


Teak 







Northern District 

Tassek Glugor 

2 

1 

2 

• ‘ ' 

93.60 

Weeding and Supplies. 

Central do. 

. * . 

• * * 

* • • 


. . . 




Southern do. 

« • « 

» • * 

... 

* • * 


. . . 

• * • 

" 

Malacca. 









Alor Gajah 



« 1 • 

. . . 




1 

J asin 

Central 

Bukit Bruang 

Getah Percha 

!25 


125 

... 4 

1,165.04 

Included wages of Garden- 



Getah Sundeh 

8 


8 

... t 


ers. coolies and a charge 


> 

i Tetnbusu 

! 7 o 





of '$307.29 for purchase 



Mahogany 

j 7 0 

* • • 

7 0 

• • ■ 

■ t ♦ 

of plants. 










State. 


Singapore 


District. 


Sempang 

« < > 

Kranji 

S. Sarangong Kechil 

i * • 

S. Tampenis 
Sembawang 


S. Tambuan 
S. Mandi 


S. Jurong 

Fulo Damar Da rat 

S. Air Tawer 
S. Benni 
Pengkang 
S. Blukar 
I S. Brit 
' S. Tuas 
S. Sonoko 
j S. Seletar 
S. Buloh 
S. Ponggol 
■ S. Tenggeh 


f °Rm No.' io. 

Outturn of Minor Forest, traduce. 




Description ot 
produce. 


Resam 

Nibong 

Mengkuangs 

Rattan 

Nibongs 

Do. 

Mengkuangs 
Resam 
Mengkuangs 
. Do. 
Resam 
Rattan 
Ni bongs 
Mengkuangs 
Resam 
Mengkuang 
Nibongs 
Resam 
Mengkuang 
Do. 
Resam 
Mengkuang 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Nibongs 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 


l] y purchase 


> ers. 

I Quantity. y a ] 


2 75 


70 

20 


1 20 


30 


50 

60 

210 

60 
1 00 


$ 

1 

27 

1 

1 

7 

2 

0 

1 

2 

9 
o 
6 

12 

4 
o 

0 

3 

1 

3 

1 

1 

0 

1 
o 
o 
o 
o 

5 

6 

21 

6 

10 


Tree grants. 


ue. 

c. 

50 

50 

So 

00 

00 

00 

60 

20 

10 

30 

60 

00 

00 

So 

60 

60 

00 

20 

00 

80 

80 

60 

20 

60 

60 

90 

60 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 


Quantity- Value* 


£ 


Total. 


Quantity. Value. 


275 - 


70 

20 


120 


30 


50 

60 

210 

60 

100 


I 

I 

27 

1 

1 

7 

2 

0 

1 

2 

9 

o 

6 

12 

4 
o 

0 

3 

1 

3 

1 

1 

0 

1 

o 

o 

o 

o 

5 

6 

21 

0 

10 


c. 

5 ° 

50 

50 

00 

OO 

OO 

60 

20 

IO 

3 ° 

60 

00 

00 

50 

60 

60 

00 

20 

00 

80 

80 

So 

20 

60 

60 

90 

60 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 


Remarks. 


By monthly Passes 

Pass good for 2 months 
By monthly Passes 


to 


> 

& 


fORM No, 10 .——Continued. 
Outturn of Minor Forest Produce . 


State. 

District. 

Description of 
Produce. 

By Purchasers. 

Tree grants. 

Total. 

Remarks. 

Quantity. 

1 

Value. 

Quantity. 

Value. 

Quantity. 

Value. 




, ■ , ! 

$ c. 






Malacca. 

Alor Gajah 

Ataps 

470 bidangs 

1 41 



470 bidangs 

1 41 

( 

■ • 


Binjai 


1 00 



t,88o sticks 

x 00 




Damar (torch) 

l,88o sticks ! 

2 35 




2 35 




Durians 


207 00 




207 00 




Duku 

A. 

2 00 




2 00 




Getah Gerip 

31 catties 

2 32 




2 32 




Do. 


4 50 




4 -So 




Kabong fibre 


13 50 




i 3 5 ° 




Ramtua trees 


# . . 

10 trees 

1 80 


1 80 




Roots 


0 25 




0 25 




Tapioca 


183 00 




183 00 




Para Seedlings 

160 

5 60 




5 60 



■ 

Rotans 

1 ,000 

3 00 


„ ■ 


3 00 




Do. 


9 00 




9 00 




Bamboos 


3 00 




3 00 




Wood Oil 

1 1 5 Gallons 

2 76 




2 76 




Do. 


73 10 




73 10 




Miscellaneous 


10 86 




10 86 



T * 

Jasin 

Rotans 

99,678 

285 88 



99,678 

285 88 

t 



Damar 

248 A piculs 

1 , 



248. 1 , piculs 





Getah Gerip 

1 56 catties 

• t » 



I 56 catties 


* 


Jasin & Central 

Miscellaneous 


628 65 




628 65 





Totals ... 

C 439 18 

... 

| 1 80 

1 

1,440 98 






toHM No. Io. — Continued. 
Outturn of Minor Forest Produce. 


State. 

District. 

Description 
of Produce 

By Purchasers. 

Tree grants. 

Total . 

Remarks. 

Quantity. 

Value. 

Quantity. 

Value. 

Quantity. 

Value. 





~ 1 cT 

- — 



W' 

$ c - 


Bindings 

r 

Cutting fees 


'083 00 




1,983 00 



Timber -[ 

Sawyers 


1 >949 00 




1,949 Oo 



1 

Kongsis 


369 00 




369 00 



l 

Timber duty 


3,135 80 




3T35 80 




Firewood 


9,486 35 




9,486 35 




Charcoal 


126 00 




126 00 




Rottan 


408 00 




408 00 




Other produce 


514 00 




514 00 




Rent of fruit 







* 



farms, &c. 


2,062 00 




2,062 00 




Fines recovered 

- 


1 







in Court 


726 40 




726 40 





Totals, ... 

$20-759 55 




$ 2 o,759 55 



t 


V 


SINGAPORE. 

Form No. ii. 


Summary of Revenue and Expenditure 1903. 


Revenue. 


Expenditure A. 

■ 


Expenditure B. 


Total 

I. Revenue on Timber and other 
Forest produce removed from Forests 
by Government Agency. 

Total I. ... 

I I 

1 ^ ! 

'S 

• 

Uniforms lor Forest Guards 
Transport 

Colonies Share 

$ 

75 °5 
366 22 

Salaries and Rice allowance 

10 Forest Guards 

Colony's share of salary of Conser- 
vator of Forests, F.M.S. and S.S. 
Share of Pension Contribution 

$ C' 

926 61 

2,870 61 
855 99 

$ c. 

• • « 

II. Revenue on Timber and other 
produce removed from the Forests 
by consumers or purchasers. 

a . Timber 

b . Charcoal and firewood 

c. Bamboos and Canes 

d. Other Produce 

Total II. 

560 52 
792 00 
7 00 
134 3° 






i ,493 8 2 

44 1 27 

4,6.53 2 r 

5,094 48 


PENANG, 

Form No. ii. 

Summary of Revenue and Expenditure 1903. 


Revenue. 

1 

Expenditure A. 


Expenditure B. 


Total. 

I, Revenue on Timber and other 
Forest produce removed from Forests 
by Government Agency 

$ c. 

j 

Conservancy of Works 

Purchase of Stores, tools and 
planks 

Other Works 

§ c. 

' 500 OO 

154 39 
822 72 

Establishment 

Salaries of Forest Subordinates 
Special Allowances 

$ c . 

1,386.90 

1,056.39 

254.62 

$ 

C 9 2 7-34 

2,697.91 

Total f. ... 





II. Revenue on Timber and 
other produce removed from the 
Forests by consumers or purchasers. 

a. Timber 

b. Charcoal and firewood 

c. Bamboos and Canes 

d. Other Produce 

e. Miscellaneous 

737 80 
29 40 
19 67 

59 65 
214 00 

Clearing and Maintaining \ 

Boundaries of Forest Revenue, j 

450 23 


1 


Total II. ... 

(,060.55 


C 9 2 7-34 

1 

2,697.9 ( 

4,625.25 


D 1 NDINGS, 

Form No. ii. 

Summary of Revenue and Expenditure 1903. 


Revenue. 

■ i 

Expenditure A. 

I. Revenue on Timber and other 
Forest produce removed from For- 
ests by Government Agency. 

$ c- 

• » 

Conservancy of Works 
Contingent Expenses 
Maintenance of Boundaries 
Paths 

Total I. 


Purchase of Boats 

II. Revenue on Timber and other 
produce removed from the Forests by 
consumers or purchasers. 
a. Timber. 

h. Charcoal and hrewood 

c. Bamboos and Canes . 

d. Other Produce 

e. Miscellaneous 

7,436 80 
9,612 35 
408 00 
514 00 
2,788 40 

• - - 

Total II. 

2 o ,759 55 




Expenditure B . 


and 


99 60 1 
5/2 54 ! 

! OO OO 


Establishment 

Salaries of Subordinates 

15% Dindings allowance 

Rice Allowance 

Transport and Field allowance 

Protection of Forests 

Uniforms for Forest Guards 




j 


772 14 


Total. 


§ 

2,215 16 
328 86 
72 00 
306 23 
40 62 
60 00 


3,023 3 : 


$ 

77: 


c. 

14 


3,793 46 


MALACCA. 


5 " 


Revenue. 


I. Revenue on Timber and oilier 
Forest produce removed from Forests 
bv Government Agency. 


Total 


11. Revenue on Timber and other 
produce removed from the Forests by 
consumers or purchasers 
a. Timber 

h. Charcoal and firewood 

c. Bamboos and Canes 

d. Other Produce 

Total II 


I 


c. 


I 7 20 


1,502 87 
698 1.2 
300 88 

1,140 10 


3’659 17 


Form No. u . 

Summary of Revenue and Expenditure i 9 o 3 . 

Expenditure A, 


Pe r so n a 1 E mol u m e n Is 


$ 


c 


Expenditure B. 


O' 

Clearing Paths in Reserve 

$ c - 

22 6 50 

Contingent Expenses ■■■ 

123 44 

Experimental planting ot Fruit trees 

64 4 a 

Maintenance of Reserved Boundary 

200 00 

Planting of Getah F a ban 

1.663 04 

Transport and Personal Allowance 

554 13 

Uniforms 

191 00] 

Temporary Rice Allowance 

192 00 

Purchase ol Books and Maps 


M of Tapes, &c. 

O 

— i 

o. 

yo_ 


4,167 86 


3 > 3° 2 93 


Total. 


to 

--1 


7*470 19 


A. M. BURN-MURDOCH, 

Conservator' of Forests, Federated Malay Slates 

and Straits Settlements . 


Annual Report on Forest Administration in the 
Straits Settlements for the Year 1904. 


CHAPTER I. 

Extension and Constitution of Reserved Forests. 

I. Alteration in Area. 

1. The only alterations occurred in Malacca where 52 acres were excluded from 
the Bukit Bruang Reserve and an area of 2,468 acres taken up as a reserve at Nyalas. 
This area contains a good deal of secondary growth. 

An area statement of all reserves is given in Form 1 of Appendix to this report. 

2. This table shews the proportion of reserves to the total area of each Settlement, 


the percentage being 

I0'3 as against io 1 14 

in 1903. 



Colony. 


Area of 
Settlement. 
Square Miles 

1 

1 

1 Area of 
Reserved 
Imres t. 

Square Miles. 

Area of 
Unreserved 
Forest. 

Proportion 
of Reserve 
to whole 
Area. 

Singapore ... 

1 

to 

O 

1 

r 9'4 


9-41 

Pen an 0- and Province 

O 

Wellesley 

1 

395 I 

2 5'5 | 


6*4 

Bindings 

♦ 

265 

36O 


136 

Malacca 

« V » 

659 

77’4 

... 

1 17 


1 

1 

1,525 

158*4 

• • • 

10*27 


3. I regret that so far no steps have been taken to enable the Government to 
legally constitute these areas as reserved forests. These so-called reserves are merely 
portions of Crown land marked out and for the present set aside to be dealt with by 
the Forest Department. Instructions were issued by Government during, the year, 
however, to the effect that no felling of trees inside a “Reserve” maybe permitted 
without the permission of the Conservator of Forests. 

II. Reserve Proposals. 

4. 'There is nothing to record under this head, no more reserves are at present 
required, except Mangrove. 

III. Demarcation and Repairs to Boundaries of Reserves. 

5. In Singapore boundaries were kept clear by the Forest Staff. 

In Penang 69 miles of boundaries were gone over and cleared at a cost of 1329.75, 
averaging $4.77 per mile. In Province Wellesley 14 miles only were cleared for $ 160.60 
at the comparatively high figure 1 11.42 per mile. This is owing to the difficulty of 
getting coolies in such outlying places as Tassek Glugor and Bukit Panchor, who 
refuse to work for the same pay as the coolies in Penang. In opening the boundaries 
of Bukit Langkap in the Province, an encroachment by a Chinese squatter was discover- 
ed, who had planted up about one acre with Taoioca. As both the boundary of this 
reserve as well as the boundary of Bukit Gua Ipoh was ill-defined, the services of a 
surveyor were applied for and granted, and the work was proceeding at the close ol the 
year. The squatter was evicted, prosecuted, and fined §25. In the Bindings there are 
60 miles of artificial boundaries, the remainder consisting of Government roads and 
bridle paths, the Sea Coast and river banks. 


2 


The artificial boundaries of most of the reserves (Tanjong Burong, Batu Undan 
and Telok Moroh excepted ) were cleared at a cost of $299.40. As about 40 miles were 
done the average cost was $7.48 per mile. 

No particulars are given as to Malacca, but the boundaries, about 100 miles, were 
kept clear at a cost of $497.15. 

For details see Form 3. 

. IV. Surveys 

6. In the Dindings, the following reserves were surveyed : — 

Telok Sera ... ... 5,000 acres. 

Gunong Tunggal ... ... L 22 5 >> 

Tanjong Hantu ... ... 1,000 „ 

but have not yet been plotted. These areas are approximate only. Gunong Tunggal Re- 
serve was surveyed bv the Deputy Ranger but cannot be plotted at present. 

In Malacca, Nyalas Reserve was surveyed, 2,468 acres, and a rough survey of 
Merlimau and Ayer Panas, 9,459 acres, by the Forest Ranger. 


CHAPTER II. 

Management of Crown Forests. 

I. Working Plans. 

7. The plan mentioned in paragraph 6 of the report for 1903, in Malacca, received 
the sanction of His Excellency the Governor but the full number of trees was not felled. 
No other plans are in existence, but Mr. BORGES, Forest Ranger, Dindings, made 
suggestions for a rough plan of working for the Dindings which are under considera- 
tion. See Form 5. 

II. Paths and 3uildings. Form 6 

8. In Province Wellesley, the Forest Station at Tassek GJugor was whitewashed 
at $2.48. 

In the Dindings, two attap and bertam Malay houses were erected at Changkat 
Resam for the accommodation of the Guards; these buildings were erected by the 
Guards themselves with the help of the boatmen, and the expenditure on them amounted 
to only $33 .80. 

In Malacca, the Forest Guards’ quarters were repaired at Ayer Panas at a cost of 
$21.65. Paths were cleared in one or two reserves, cost included under paragraph 5. 

III. Protection of Forests , 

I, Forest Laws. 

9. No Forest Ordinance has yet been passed in the Colony, and except in the 
Dindings the rules are wholly inadequate, especially in Malacca. 

Proofs of a draft Forest Enactment for the Federated Malay States have now been 
printed and are under the consideration of Government, and it is my intention to sub- 
mit this draft enactment to the Government of the Straits Settlements as soon as it has 
been criticised by the British Residents and others in the Federated Malay States. 
The framing of a Forest Law I consider to be essential, and the opinion of Mr. H. C. 
‘Hill, late Inspector-General of Forests in India, was also strongly expressed in his 
report on the Forests of the Colony on this point. 

y 10. On February 1st, the new Dindings Timber Rules were brought into opera- 
tion, they are practically identical with those in force in the Federated Malay States. 
Under them the timber is worked on the licence system, royalty being paid on the ton- 
nage output, instead of on a combined system of personal passes issued at a monthly 
fee per man with a low royalty calculated on different dimensions for planks, logs, etc. 

11. The present system has worked smoothly and effectively since its introduction ; 
all men in the kongsis are given free sub-licences to shew that they are entitled to 
work there, and the managers have no inducement to try to introduce unlicensed 
workers. Formerly, it paid them to do this so long as they could conceal their presence 
from the Forest Officers. 

12. The minimum diameter for cutting mangrove was raised to six inches during 
the year, which will further encourage regeneration. 


3 


13 A Teak built life boat with the buoyancy tanks was purchased for use along 
the coast as the Malay boats in use were not trustworthy in bad weather and had very 
little capacity for impedimenta .when out for several nights. 

• II. Forest Offences. 

For particulars see Form 7. 

14. In Singapore, there were 12 cases during the year. There were 12 convictions^ 

15. In Penang, prosecutions for illicit timber cutting rose from 19 in 1903 to 30 in 
1904^ out of which there were 28 convictions and two acquittals. The fines realised 
amounted to $>255.60, Jn Province Wellesley four cases only were prosecuted and in 
each case a conviction was obtained, the fines amounted to §65. 

16. No persons were charged with offences in the reserves and no traces of ill-ici} 
cutting discovered. 

The list of Police Court cases shows as great a diminution in numbers as in serious- 
ness, and the proportion of undetected offences is now probably much smaller than in 
former years. This is attributed to three causes- — (1) the diminished number of firewood 
cutters working in the Dindings River, (2) the lack of inducements to hardwood kongsi 
managers to try to keep illicit cutters at work under the new royalty system, and (3) 
improved supervision of checking of current passes by the staff under the direction of the 
Forest Ranger. Of 46 persons charged, 40 were Chinese and 6 Malays ; 43 were con- 
victed, two acquitted and one escaped from custody after arrest and was not recaptured. 

17. In Malacca, there were 26 cases, 16 convictions and 10 acquittals, a poor per- 
centage, and it seems probable that there have been undetected cases. Owing to the 
absence of Forest Laws, however, it is perhaps surprising that anything can be proved 
against offenders. 

o 

] 8. No hres were reported during the year. 

IV. Improvement of Forests. 

I. Natural Reproduction. 

19. There is no mention made of this most important subject in any of the reports 
sent in to me, but the remarks contained in the 1903 report, paragraph 12, apply. 

II. Artificial Reproduction. 

20. Particulars are shewn in Form 8. In Singapore, the gutta percha plantation 
was up-kept during the year, about 30 acres. 

21. In Penang, the teak plantation at Tassek Glugor was weeded on two occasions 
during the year and blanks filled, and inspected by the Conservator of Forests. So far 
this small trial shews teak will not do here, at least in such a locality as Tassek 
Glugor. The cost was $>79.40. 

The gutta percha plantation at Batu Ferringi has been weeded and cleared, an 
additional three acres were planted up with 283 trees. Some of the plants planted 111 
1889 are now over six feet tall. The old trees of a seed-bearing age fruited in August, 
and a considerable quantity of young plants have been raised. It was only by cover- 
ing the trees as well as we could with old fishing nets that it was possible to save any 
of the fruits from the attacks of bats, squirrels, monkeys, etc., which are extremely fond 
of them. 

22. The Government plantations of gutta percha (Getah 'Laban) at Ayer Kroh 
were not enlarged during the year. The area remains at 125 acres. 

Some 15 acres of “blanks” in the Bukit Bruang Reserve were planted with 
mahogany and tembusu plants, bringing up the total area to 85 acres. 

'1 he gutta percha trees are planted under shade and on the whole are doing well 
1 he seedlings received from Borneo and Sumatra have turned out badly and no more 
such plants will be purchased. 

Para rubber . — There are some valuable rubber trees, at least 20 years old, at Rukit 
Sebukor. The seed crop is used for distribution to planters, and some experimental 
tapping produced rubber sold in London at 5/8 a lb. 

The total cost of planting, weeding, clearing undergrowth, tools, etc., was $2,101 .33. 

The Conservator paid two visits to the plantation during the year. Records kept 
have been insufficient. 

There are no plantations in the Dindings. 

23. Great difficulty is experienced in procuring young gutta purcha plants, and in 
spite of efforts to obtain seed throughout the year in the Federated Malay States, the 
Conservator of Forests only succeeded in obtaining about 5 ° seeds, out of which 10 
germinated. 


4 


V. Exploitation- 

I. Timber and Fuel. 

/ 

24. No returns are available from Singapore, but licences were issued to cut man- • 
grove §691.40, and for timber §468.40. 

In Penang although the number of licences issued during the year were a little 
more than half those of the year previous, 54 ^ ^ against 1,05 5> ^ slight!} increased 
revenue was obtained, §854.52 as against §846.55. These passes were, as usual, to cut 
timber, etc., outside the Forest Reserves and were of the usual pole size and chiefly 
used for fishing stakes and construction of native houses. 

Timber realised §656.32, Charcoal and Firewood §4.62. 

25. Marking Fees. — In the Bindings, 651 Class I trees were marked for idling, 
the charge being §1.00 per tree; this item is included in the hardwood royalty figures 
given below. One hundred and fifteen^ Class II trees were also maiaed, but no Sees 

were charged for them. 

Hardwood Timber .— During the year felling operations were on in seven localities 
and four saw-yards were worked. A Chinaman who had taken up to an t s 1 of land foi 
agricultural purposes also set up a small saw-yard to Utilise the timber on Ins own land. 

The record of timber extracted dates from March 1st, and amounts 10-85,062 cubic 
feet {1,701*2 tons); of this 2,884 cubic feet {577 tons) was cut on alienated land and 
paid no royalty, the record being kept for checking purposes only ; the balance of 82,178 
cubic feet (1,643*5 tons) paid royalty according to the classification of the timber F rom 
the amount of royalty and fees paid in January and February under the old system 
(1,09 025) a further 360 tons may be estimated, making a total of about 2,000 ions, 
think that this figure may be taken as fairly correct as the average monthly tonnage 
from March 1st' works out at 170 tons a month. 

In 1903, the tonnage was estimated at 2,000. 

27. The trade is chiefly confined to converting Class /. B. (Meianti, etc.) tuuDtr 
into planks and scantlings, but a certain amount of Class I. A. (Merbau, Chengai, Resak, 
etc.) timber is also exported in baulks. The revenue on timber was §7,476.28 as 
compared with §7.436.180 in 1903. 

og Firewood and Charcoal .— This source of revenue shews a great drop from the 
fiaures in 1903 and there will be a further fall in 1905. J he explanation ns simple. 
The Mangrove Forests require protection from over-working and the maximum numbei 
of cutters^llowed has been reduced. An average of 75 cutters per mensem have been 
working in the Bindings River which will ne maintained in 19 ° 5 * 

oq §2 423 °0 was derived from cutting fees on the land alienated loi pad i cultiva- 
tion at Tan j ong Burong. The District Officer says, “this item now disappears I 
“ regret that the scheme fell through owing to the applicants refusing to cany out then 
“ Pa Vt of the agreement, but the land has not been constituted a part of the reserve 
“ao-ainas it ^highly desirable from an agricultural point of view, that there shall be 
bland available to extend the present bertdang. About 400 acres were cleared and tlu^ 
p Government received $4,342.20 in fees during 1903 and 1904. 

~0 The revenue derived from charcoal was all derived bom one person, a China- 
man who has utilised the useless timber on his land by converting it into charcoal. 
No licences to burn charcoal on Crown Land have been issued for several years. 

Sapors — Seven licences were issued to local Malays to make “Sagors Loin 
hardwood timber (Chengai principally) lying on Crown Land either abandoned by 
cutters or brought down by the weather. Ten per cent was charged on the value o. the 
output and a large number of sagors and boat ribs were manufactured. 

Tenvah Bark. (Ceriops Caudolleana.) — This is a bye-product obtained by fne- 
wood cutters and used for tanning sails, bakau bark is mixed with the tengah. Roy a w 
at the rate of §1.50 per thousand is charged and realised the comparatively large sum 

of §408.57, representing 27,238 bundles. 

Bakau Poles. — I hose were cut on licence for fishing stakes, royalty being paid 
at schedule rates. 

31. The revenue from charcoal and firewood was §6,966.15, as against 

§9,612.35 in 1903. . 

32. In Malacca a small number of merbau and resak trees were tolled jn the 
Tebong and Batang Malacca Reserves for the cutting of sleepers for the Railway, 
under the supervision of Mr. BORGES. Royalty was paid at the rate ol 22 cents pei 
s leeper or about §5.00 per ton of 5° cubic feet measuiements. 

33. Some miscellaneous felling was permitted in the Reserves at MerJim 
and Aver Panas under permits from the District Officer, Jasin. Royalty was paid 


5 


on diameter measure merits of trees in accordance with the Malacca timber roll. This 
method of calculating royalty is unsatisfactory and Government will be asked to 
sanction new rules in this respect at an early date. 

II. Other Produce. 

See Form 1 1. 

34. In Singapore but little was extracted. In Penang, jungle produce produced 
$156.08. 

35. Tn the Bindings, 360 passes were issued for bamboos and canes, realising" 
$1,065 as against $408 in 1903. The fee was raised from 50 cents ($1 in 
the Reserves) to $3 per month, more applications for passes are received than 
entertained. 

Other Jungle Produce . — The-fee- was raised from 50 cents (Nibong $1) to 
$2 per mensem, and $946 were collected. This represents 503 passes and here 
again applications for passes had to be refused in the interests of the growing crop 
In 1903, $514 were realised from 690 passes. 

36. In Malacca, the Hon’ble Resident Councillor says “ Passes for jungle 
“ produce at $3 per man per month in the reserves were issued during the early 
“ part- of the year. They were stopped on the recommendation of Mr. GAGLIARDI 
“ and will be resumed when a proper system of rotation has been organised.” 

“ Cutting Licences . — The system at present in force is very defective, as there is 
“ no proper supervision over the operations of holders of licences. The services of the 
“ Forest Staff will be used to supervise all fellings on Crown Lands whether inside 
“ reserved forests or not.'’ ' • ...... 

“37. The system of free permits to agriculturists for timber for their ow n use 
■‘is also liable to abuse* and wilt have to be restricted. -The- District Officer, Alor 
“ Gajah, issued nearly 700 free permits against 300 revenue permits.’' 


CHAPTER 111 . 
Financial Results. 

Particulars are shewn in Form II. 


I. Revenue. 


Settlement. 

i Actuals for 
1903. 

Estimated 

1904. 

Collected 

1904. 

Excess or deficit 
over Estimates. 

Singapore 

$ c. 

1,487 90 

1,402 00 

$ c . 

1,209 7° 

$ c. 

— 190 30 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley 

j * ■ . 

Dindingfs 

1,060 55 

20.759 55 

A 

1 

y 13,000 00 

j 

f 854 52 
< 

l 16,74s 41 

| + 4,602 93 

Malacca 

* 1 * 

3.659 17 

2,300 00 

6,230 86 

+ 3,930 86 

* - 

26,967 17 

1 

16,700 00 

25,043 49 

+ 8,343 49 

. 


38. An increase in Malacca of $2,571.69 and a decrease in the Dindings of 
sH.Oi 1. 14 over 1903. 

} As explained already in paragraph 28, the falling off in the Dindings is due to the 
reduction ot the number of permits to cut mangrove, and the figures for 1904 represent 
more nearly the normal yield of the forests, which was before exceeded, also revenue 

iot ,rU!l ' arms included in 1903 not now included. The increase in Malacca is satis- 
factory and normal. 





V 


6 


39 - 


II. Expenditure. 


Settlement. 

Expenditure 

1903. 

Estimated 

1904. 

Expenditure 
1904. ' 

Savings. 


§ C. 

§ c. 

§ c. 

$ c. 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 

5,094 48 

8,592 00 

6,296 45 

2295 55 

Wellesley ... 

3,044 3 6 

| 12,282 00 

l 3.929 53 

j 3106 20 

Dindings 

3-795 46 

1 5,246 27 

Malacca 

7,470 79 

8,448 00 

7,754 86 

693 H 


19,405 09 

29,322 00 

23,227 11 

6,094 89 


The total expenditure was §23,227.11 as against §19,405.09 in 1903, the increases 
are chiefly due to rise in Conservator’s salary, Colonial share ^340 instead of ^250, 
and the salary of Ranger II Grade, Bindings, at ^120 for the whole year, in 1903 only 
half the year. Of the total §25,227.1 1, §16,030.41 was spent on salaries and allowances 

40. The following is a statement of revenue and expenditure and shews a net 
surplus ot §1,816.38: — 


Settlement. 

Revenue 

1904. 

Expenditure 

1904. 

Surplus. 

Deficit. 

• 

¥ C. 

¥ c. 

§ c. 

§ c. 

Singapore 

1,209 70 

6,296 45 

• § ■ 

5,o86 75 

Penang and Province 



- 

Wellesley ... 

854 52 

3,929 53 

»-• • 

] 3,075 01 

Dindings 

16,748 41 

5,246 27 

11,502 14 

Malacca 

6,230 86 

7-754 86 

/ 

1,524 00 


25,043 49 

I 

23,227 11 

11,502 14 j 

1 

9,685 76 


This is on the whole financially satisfactory, as it must be remembered that the 
bulk of the Forest Reserves in the Colony are recuperating from excessive working in 
the past, from a purely forest point of view it is probable that a fairly large deficit 
should be shewn annually, but it is questionable whether it would be wise to expend 
large sums of money in planting, for instance, gutta percha at great cost, when there are 
practically unlimited supplies next door in the Federated Malay States growing wild 
and only needing a comparatively small expenditure to help them on. 


CHAPTER IV. 

Establishment. 

41. In Singapore, the post of Forest Ranger III Grade is still vacant, but I think 
should be filled. 

42. In Penang, there was no change in the staff during the year. In the subordi- 
nate staff the Forest Guard, Che Mat, stationed at Balik Pulau, died in June and was 
replaced by HARON. Forester T AM BY KECHIL, stationed in the Province, was detected 
making a false entry in his Journal and was reduced from §20 to §15 per month. 
The rest worked well. 

4^. In the Dindings, the Department was as hitherto under the control of the 
District Officer, subject to the supervision of the Conservator of Forests, Federated 
Malay States and Straits Settlements. The District Officer writes. “ Mr. Borges was 
“ in charge of the outside work during the year with the exception of the months of 
“ October and November when he was lent to Malacca temporarily. Mr. BORGES has 
“ now been permanently appointed to Malacca, a loss to the Dindings as he has done 
“ very good work here ; he knows the district and people in it and has shewn great zeal 
“ and energy in carrying out his duties. I hope that a trained Forest Ranger will soon 
“ be obtained to replace him as one is absolutely necessary to carry out the Timber 
“ rules beneficially. 


7 


« jVf r . L, Pasqual was appointed Deputy Ranger on 9th February, 1904, and 
‘‘Mr C. T. Fox, Forest Department Clerk on 25th March; b >th Officers have 
“performed their duties satisfactorily. 

There were several changes among the Foresters and Forest Guards; the present 
staff is I think more efficient than it used to be — the men having been trained. 

44. In Malacca, the Department was in charge of Mr. Gagliardi, Forest Ranger, 
Grade IT, up to the 26th June. On his resignation the appointment of Forest Ranger 
was vacant until the arrival of Mr. BORGES from the Din dings in October. This 
officer returned to the Dindings on 10th December, on the co.npleno 1 of the service 
for which he had been temporarily transferred, i. e. to supervise the fellings of timber for 
Railway sleepers in the Forest Reserves at Tebong and Bat an g Malacca. 

45. There was no alteration in the subordinate staff during the year. This consists 
of two Foresters at $240 each and 16 Forest Guards at rates varying from §96 to 
§144. The vacancy for a Clerk at $300 was not filled up all necessary clerical 
work having been prepared by the Forest Rangvr in charge and in the Land and 
District Offices. 

46. The services of Mr. A. M. BURN- MURDOCH, Conservator of Forests, were 
permanently transferred from India to the Colony of the Straits Settlements and the 
Federated Malay States on 1st January, 1904, and his salary raised to £1,020 per 
annum rising by triennial increments of £60 to £1,200 per annum. 

One-third sliare is paid by the Colonial Government and two-thirds by the 
Federated Malay States. 

He visited each Settlement during the year spending 3 7 days on tour in the Colony 
besides a certain proportion of his time in office work connected with Colonial matters. 


His visits to the Colony 

were as follows : — ■ 

January 

Dindings. 

February 

Dindings ( 1st to 2nd) 

March 

Dindings ( 16th to 19th) 

April 

... Singapore ( 17th to 2 1st j 

May 

Singapore 

June 

Malacca (4th to 6th) 

,, 

Penang ( 16th to 18th) 

July 

Penang (14th to 20th) 

August 

... Malacca (28th to 30th) 

November 

... Singapore ( 6th to 9th ) 

December 

... Singapore (nth to 14th) 


A. M. BURN-MURDOCH, 

Conservator of Forests , 

Federated Malay States & Straits Settleme?its. 



form no. i. 


Settlement. 


Singapore. 


5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

1 1 
12 

13 

14 

‘5 

16 

1 7 

18 

19 

20 


No. of 
Reserve. 

Civil 

District. 

I 


2 

| 

3 


4 



Name of Forest 


Area in Acres 
on 1-1-1904. 


Bukit Timah 
Jurong 
Pandan 
Ulu Pandan 
Bukit Panjang 
Bukit Timah Roar 
10th mile 
Chua Chu Kang 
Tuas 

Sungei Murai 
Sungei Buloh 
Kranji 
Sembawang 
Mandi 

Kranji Rd., 14th mile 

Changi 

Seletar 

Chan Chu Kang 
Ang Mo Kio 
Sempang 
Seletar Extension 


Total 


847.0. 00 

41 2.0. 00 
2,140.3.16 

4 - 3 -og 

1 1 7.2.16 

13.0. 28 

49.0. 00 
1,601.3.32 

3141.05 

770.2.16 

756.0. 32 
1,046.3.38 

407.0. 32 
9.2.16 

1,393-0.00 
1 ,429. 1.08 
813.3.08 

296.0. 02 
5.0.00 


Area added 
during year. 


12,428.1.18 


I 


t 


Excluded or 
Dis-affor- 
ested. 

Area on 
31-12-1904. 

No. and date of 
Notification 
excluding 
land. 

Remarks. 


1 

1 ( 

r ■ 

« ■ 

)> Same. 

i 1 

* 

1 

\ 

• ' - - 

f 

v r 

r 

0 

1 

i 

1 

, 

\ 

i 

r 

t r 

I j! 1 "1 f 

1 ’ ‘ / 


12,428. 1. 18 

■ . ■ , 

• • ■ 



I 


FORM No. 


— -- ' 

f & 

O > 


Settlement. 

J— < 

. <& 
c '/• 

Civil District. 

' 

v O 


Province 



Wellesley. 


Northern District 


1 

1 

Central District \ 


Southern District 


Name of Forest. ,^ rea * n Acres 

Oil I- I - I go 


Tassek Glugor 

1 ,7 hi 

Bukit Seraya 

1 12 

Bukit Mertajam 

162 

Juru Hill 

417 

Gajah Mati 

94 

Govt. Exp. Gardens ... 

3 

Bukit Gua Ipoh 

330 

Lot 435 

1 s 9 

Lot. 32 s i ■ 

L 3 

Bukit P anchor 

C 476 

Total ... 

4 c 55 7 


Penang. 


1 North East 

2 I 


/] South West 

B 

c ! 

i s ■ 

G 

H " 

/ 


Block D 

5.741 

Block A 

252 

Block F 

, 233 

Part of Block /. 

18 

Pulaujcrejak 

887 

Pantei Acheh 

3,208 

Laksamana 

465 

Telok Bahang 

380 

Do. 

236 

Genting Hills 

21 

Bukit tjumoroh 

205 

Relau Hills 

*51 

Total 

ii ,797 


• — Continued. 


Area added 
during- year. 


— ■ — " . — r 

Excluded or 
Dis-affor- 
ested. 

Area on 
^ 1 - 1 2 - 1904. 

No. & date of 
Notification 
exclu ding- 
land. 


A 



> Same 

• 

1 / 

\ 


4 - 5 5 7 






1 

Same 



J 



1 B 797 



J - i — 

Remarks. 


h 0 RM No. I . — Contin ued. 


Settlement. 

No. of 

Reserve. 

Civil 

District. 

Name of Forest. 

I 

Area in Acres ^ 
on 1-1-1904. ; 

Area added 
during year. 

Excluded or 
Dis-affor- 
ested. 

1 

Area on 

31-12-1904. 

No. & date of 
Notification 
excluding 
land. 

Remarks. 

Din dings. 

A 


Tanjong Bruang 

1 ,800 

' 

V 




Approximate 

j 

B 


Telok Serai 

5»ooo 






areas. 


C 


Gunong Tunggal 

C225 








D 


Tanjong Hantu 

1,000 








E 


Pangkor Island 

3776 



| 

> Same. 


V 


F 


Lumut 

1,238 

» 







G 


Ulu Bmas 

75 o 


1 


\ 




H 

* 

Telok Mur oh 

2,326 








I 

i 

1 

Batu Undan 

5,000 








i 

J 


i Telok Senangia 

1 

1,000 









1 

Total . • • 

23.115 



• 

23, 1 1 5 












Settlement. 


Malacca. 


r/ 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 


1 

2 


Form No. i. — Concluded. 


i 3-j 

o > 
1-1 

. a 

o w 


Civil 

District. 


Name of Forest. 


Area in Acres' A rf ._ ,, , I Excluded or J Area on 
on 1-1-1904. duiD 6 ! Dis-affor- ,,.12-1904 

r, ”g y ear - ! ested. ^ 


r 


Jasin J 
District ^ 


Ayer Panas 
Merlimau 
Bukit Senggeh 
Bukit Sedanan 
Batang Malaka 
Nyalas 


AlorGajah f Sungei Udang 
District ^ Bukit Panchor 


Centra! ( 
District 


Brisu, Ramuan China ^ 
and Sungei Si put ... j 


Bukit. Bruang 
Bukit Sebukor 


Total 


3,242 

6,217 

9,430 

7T06 

3,549 


4,392 

2,862 


2 >59 I 

911 


6,174 

44 


47,2 iS 


,468 


2,468 


Z2 


3,242 

6,217 

9*43° 

7,806 

3.549 

2,468 


4>39 2 

2.862 


2,59i 
91 1 

6,122 

44 


49.634 


No. & date of 

Notification 
excludin g 
land. 


Remarks. 




C. S. 2736/04' 



* 






I 


FORM No. 2. 

i 

> 

Statement shewi ng progress made in forming new Reserves dur ing the year 1QO4. 


„ 1 

Area of reserves 

Area finally Gazetted duri 

ng year. 

Total area finally 

Areas proposed and not 
yet finally Gazetted. 


Settlement. 

already finally 
Gazetted on 

31 Dec. 1904. 

Name of 
Reserve. 

No. of Noti- 
fication I 
in Gazette. 

Area of 
acres. 

Gazetted 
at close of 
year 1904. 

Name. 

Area. 

Remarks, 

Penang. 









North Fast District 

South West District 

7,367 

4 , 43 ° 


> 

. i 


7,367 

4,430 

' 



P RO V I N C E W ELI . F.S! ,E Y. 

IC 797 




1 1,797 

1 


ft 

! 





[ 


\ 

Northern District 

Central District 

Southern District 

1,761 

F 3 2 ° 

1,476 





1,761 

1,320 

1,476 



V 


4,557 




4,557 




DlNDlNGS. 

1 

23,1 15-0-00 


1 


23, 1 r 5-0-00 




Malacca. 

47,2 [8-0-00 

Nyalas 

1 

. 

2,468 

49,634-0-00 



C. S. 2736/04. 

52 acres disafforested. 

Singapore, 

1 2,428-1 - 1 B 

i 

1 

j 

1 

1 

12,428-1-18 

1 

“ — _ 

1 — Zk 


Form N q 


3 . 


>£- 




in 


Settlement and Name 
of Forest. 


ffi . 
O ' 


— u 
oJ 3 

- Xj 

u 

a -o 
Z S 

t- 


bn 

c 

<u 

-J 




rt 


cn “ 
w 5 


i- 

ctf 


cfl t) o 
X X 


Province Wellesley, 

Norther n District — 
Tassek Glugor 

Central District — 

Bukit Seraya 
Buk it Men a jam 
Juru Hill 
Gajah Mali 
Govt. Exp. Garden 
Bukit Gua I poll 
•Lot 435 
Lot 323 I. 

Southern District — - 

Bukit Panchor 

i 

Total 


Z 


k bn 

CL C 

<0 

-- X U 
~ <u 

qj 

C -G'-O 1- 
V w c 
»— I 0 G Ch 
" ^ 


M. F. 


6 3 -t 


4 1 


1 1 5 


22 1 ■» 


c 1- 

<U X 


X! CJ 
•— < 3 j cr, 

0^0 

■£ 

bflS rt 

r** 

** C/) 

J .2 S 


a, 

<L> 

u 


— I>t 

ro 

CA 


19 . 3 * 


s-. 

a 3 

<U 

_ 

L- O <*- 
rt _C o 


03 U x 

■4—i 

O 

H 


o :-e s 


M. F. j M. F. 


6 3 * 


2 

4 

4 

2 

o 

8 

2 

o 


1 1 


ii 

0 

1 

o| 

O j- 

04 

0 

1 

5 


41 4 ? 



M. 1 


0 1 


O I 


0 2 


6 34 


2 

4 

4 

2 


8 

2 

o 


14 

0 
2 

01 


Q 3 ? 


0 

1 

5 


1 1 6 


41 6 j 


S 


5° 


50 


50 


150 


Expenditure. 

Remarks. 

% 

New 

Work. 

Repairs. 






Z 


Oi 


I 


bORM No. 3. — Concluded, 


Record of Demarcation and Maintenance of Boundaries for 1904 



Boun- 

dally 

during 

O fc JD 

Im £3 

4 — 1 

Total length of 

artificially marked 

boundaries at close 

of year. 

OJ 

X 

O 

, nj 

i 

t- L 

4 _J -J— > 1 

eti 0 ^ 

0 

| 

Expenditure. 

t 

t 

Settlement aiul Name 
of Forest. 

Length of 
daries artili 
demarcated 

year. 

Length of 

viously exist 

boundaries 

repaired. 

Length nc 

repaired. 

Length stil 

demarcated 

1 close of veai 

Length of 1 

boundaries t 

quiring dem 

cation. 

Total lengtl 

Boundaries. 

New 

Work. 

Repairs. 

1 

Remarks. 

Penang. 

A. Bukit Pantai Acheh ... 

B. Bukit Laksamana 

C. Bukit Tel ok Bahang ... 

D. Government Hill 

E. Highland 

F. Penara Bukit 

G. Bukit Gentin<r 

O 

Id. „ I'ulau Bentong 
/. ,, Relau 

J, Pulau Jerejak i.. 

M. F. 

t , . 

... 

M. F. 

6 4 

7 0 

32 0 

3 0 

4 4 

1 0 

5 4 

5 4 

M. F. 

Pc 

• • • 

4 0 

1 

M. F. 

• « , 

■ 

... 

M. F. 

8 3 

5 4 

M. F. 
14 0 

8 0 

7 0 

36 0 

3 0 

4 4 

1 0 

5 4 

5 4 

5 4 

1 

— ~j 

1 

• 1 

Total 


65 0 

12 0 

... 

* » , 

| 1 3 7 

90 7 




Malacca. 

* 

8 0 

93 5 

Nil. 

106 5 

- 

Nil. 

e 1 

Not Known 
( 

to6 5 

0 

se* 0 

^ • • * 

The approximate length of boun 

daries of all Malacca is here shewn 

Singapore. 

• \ 

Nc 

record, 

but all be 

1 

undaries ke 

pt in order 




I 

j 

i 




Settlement. 


Penang. 

North East 
District 


South West ) 
District i 


Province 

Wellesley 

Dindings. 


By Survey Department. 


FORM No. 4. 

Statement oj Area Surveyed and Uusurveyc d during the par. ,904. 


With interior | Boundary Surveys, 
details. ' ; } 


VIOUS. 


A cres 

5-637 

252 | 

233 

• « • 

887 


yeai 


A cres 


A cres 


18 


3,208 

465 
380 
2 1 
205 
151 


Suryeyed 
not plot- 
ted 


Pre- | Durin - Previous. Durin «? 


year. 


Acres 


Cost. 


Name of Forest. 


Surveys by Chain and Compass or by l ocal offices . 


With interior g oun dary Surveys, 
details. A 


D. Govt. Hill 
E- Highland 
' Penara Bukit 
Part of Relau Hill 
Palau Jerejak 

A. Pantai Acheh 
y>\ Laksamana 
C. Telok Bahang 
G Genting Hills 
H . Bukit Gumoroh 
/. Relau Hills 


A. T'jong Burong 


Previous. 


During previous, 
year. 


During 

year. 


Surveyed 
not plot- 
ted 


rea remain- 
ing to be 
surveyed. 


Cost. 


Previous. 


During 

year. 


1, 800 


on 


I 


i 


\ 

FORM No. 4 — Concluded. 

\ 

Statement of Area Surveyed and Un surveyed during the year i 904. 


' 


By 

Survey Department. 

- 


■ 

Surveys bv Chain and Compass or by local offices. 







* 







- 

Settlement. 

With 

de 

interior ! 
‘tails. 

Boundary Surveys. 


Name of Forest. 

With interior 
details. 

Boundary Surveys. 

Area remain- 
ing to be 
surveyed. 

J 

Cost. 


Cost. 









Pre- 

vious. 

During 

0 

year. 

. During 

Previous. year 


Previous. 

During 

year. 

j 

Previous. 

\ 

During 

O 

year 

Previous. 

During 

year. 

Bindings 
Contd . — 

A cres 

Acres 

Acres 

Surveyed 
not plot- 
ted 

. . . 

' 

B . Tel ok Sera. 

6. Junong T’gal 
D. I jong Hantu 

\ 

• • # 

* » » 

• . . 

* * » 

Surveyed 
not plot- 
ted 

. . . 


1 

* " • 

\ 

Malacca. 

\ * 

• * * 

a. r. p. 

3775 - 3 - 24 1 

1 237.3.15 

749 - 3 - 25 : 

2326.0.00 

Acres 

... \ 2, 4 6s 

2,468 

j' 

■ • • 

» 

I f 

E. Pangkor Bland 

F. Lumut 

G . Ulu Bruas 

H . Telok Muroh 
/. Batu Undan 

J. T. Senangin 
Nyalas 

Ayer Pan as 
Merlitnau 

* • 1 

• • « 

* * * 

• « « 

• ■ « 

- 

< 

■ # • 

3,242 

6,2D 

1 

5.000 

1.000 

* • * 

♦ * 

* • ■ 

* • • 

• * • 

• • • 

Singapore 

• 1 * * 

* 1 • 

12,428 


* • * 

/ 


» * * 


* • * 

... 


a ft • 




___ — 

— " "* 



■"* - — — 



- 





FORM No. 5 


p r°gress made in Working p tans dunng , w . 


Settlement. 

Area for which working 
Plans have been completed. 

Areas for which working 
plans are being compiled. 

\ 

Areas for which 
forking Planrs 
hav e still to be 
takt'n in hand. 

Total area of 

Reserves. 

• 

Entire cost per 
square mile of 
working Plans 
completed. 

Remarks. 

At com- 
mencement 
of year. 

During year. 

1 

At com- 
mencement 
of year. 

During year. 

Penang. 

* • * 

• * * 

t 

* * • 

* ■ * 


• • * 



Province Welles- 


* 


i 

ft 



1 

* 

ley. 

« « « 

** * 

• • • 

* * • 

• « » 

# * * 

* m * 

• 

Bindings. 

A Provisions 

1 Working Sc 

heme has bee 

n drawn up fo 

r exploiting Timbe 

r. 




Bakau and J u 

ngle Produce 

in the Crown 

Lands. 











Acres. 

« • * 




Acres. 



All Reserves. 

23P 



Malacca. 

m m m 

► 

* 

32,77 1 

1 

« « • 

... 

17,863 

49>634 

• • * 


Singapore. 

* ■ 




. . . 

* « « 

* • • 

f 


1 


FORM No. 6. 

Communications and Buildings 1904. 


New Work undertaken during year. 

• 

Total 

Rep 

airs executed during year. 

■ 

Total 

Expenditure 
on Repairs. 

Buildings. 

' / \ 

Length 
of road. 

Expen- 

diture 

incurred. 

expend- 
ed on 
New 
Work. 

'Buildings 


Roads and Paths. 

Description of 
building. 

Expen- 

diture. 

Roads and Paths. 

Nature of 1 

V 

Repairs. 

V 

Expen- 

diture. 

Nature of 
Repairs. 

1 j 

Length 

repaired. 

Expen- 

diture. 

Penang. 

$ ' c > 


< « « 

$ c. 


ft ft ft 

$ c. 

* • # 

* » • 

;$ c > 

• • * 

i 

$ 

Province Wellesley. 

j 

* * * 

... 


. . . 

* * • 



i 

1 _ 

• • • 

j 

• * • 

. . . 

Forest Station, 

Tassek Glugor 

Dindings. 

in 

i 

» * • 

t • • 

“■ 't 

■ 

’ i 

Lime washed and 
coal tarred. 

2 48 

i 

\ 

> ■ * 

j 

y 


• • • 

» • • 

Forest Guards Quarters 
at Chengkat Resam.. 

Purchase of Whale 
boat ... 

33 80 

395 90 

■ ■ * 

V 

• • * 

■ - 33 80 

395 90 

1 

1 

' ’ ‘ : f 

• * • 

* • • 

• • • 

Clearing 

boundary 

paths. 

1 

ft • • 

M. F. 
40. 00 

» * * 

299 40 

* • • 

299 40 

• • • 



■■ 1 



429 7o 

| 

■ * • 1 

• • • 

j.. 

5 1 • 

* • * 

\ 

i * * * 

299 40 

Malacca. 

* * ■ 


f, v - 

• 

* 1 1 

Repairs to Forest 
Guards Quarters at 
Ayer Panas. 

21 65 

Clearing 
boundaries & 
paths of Forest 
Reserves. 

Not 

known. 

497 15 

... 

Singapore. 

. . . 

. . . 

* * * 

i f 

' 

L ' 

■ — 



« * » 


... 


FORM No 7 

■ / • 


Register of Breaches of For 


?st Rules for 1904. 


— - 

— 

— 



t 







New cases of the 

year. 

t 

Disposed of during 
year. 

• 

* 1 

- k . \ 


Cases pending from 190 

T"5 



’ 



Pending at close of yeai 


Settlement and District. 

«■ j 

Theft of timber an< 
minor produce. 

/ 

1 

Other offences. 

Total new cases. 

Grand total cases. 

Convictions. 

% 

Acquittals. 

Remarks. 

* 

Penang. 

Nil 

30 

• • • 


0 

3 o 

28 

2 

• ■ * 

Fines $255.60. 

Province Wellesley. 

Nil 

4 , 

• • • 

... 

4 

4 


• * * 

„ $65.00 

Dindings. 

Nil 

4 i 

5 

| 46 

46 

43 

\ 2 


1 Escaped. Fines inflicted 
$ 359 - 50 , Realised $263.21 

Malacca. 

2 

24 

... 

24 

26 

16 

10 

• • • 

% 

Singapore. 

• 

Nil 

12 

... 

1 

12 

] 

12 

J 

12 

l 

i 


* # * 

„ $207.00 


FORM No. 8. 


! 


Area of Plantations. 


. — , ... . - - 1 * — 

Name of 
Reserve. 

l 

Kind of 
Plantation. 

Area in Acres. 

Of year. 


Settlement and District. 

Dti i st Jan u- Added dur- 
ary, 1904. ing year. 

On 31st 
December, 
1904. 

Receipt. 

Charges, 

Remarks. 

Penang. 



acres. 

1 

acres. 

- V 

acres. 


$ c. 


North East District 

South West 

Block D. 

• ■ • 

Getah 

• ■ * 

50 

0 

3 

■ * • 

53 

• * « 

• • « 

35 00 

• ■ ■ 


Province Wellesley. 

Northern District 

Central do. 

Southern do. 

Tassek Glugor 

• • « 

Teak 

* • • 

2 

» • « 1 

• t * 

• * * 

• ^ 

2 

• • • 

• • * 

• ■ ■ 

79 4o 

• • * 

Weeding and Supplies. 

Malacca. 

Central District 

Alor Gajah 

Central District 

Bukit Bruang 

i 

Bukit Panchor 

Bukit Sebukor 

i 

Getah Percha 
Getah Sundeh 
Tembusu, 
Mahogany & 
Para trees 
Dorian and 
Duku 
para trees 

125 

8 

7 o 

• * • 

* • * 

/ 

• * * 

15 

• » * 

* •« 

125 

8 

.. 

85 

• m a 

' 

• * » 

98 -93 

1 16.00 
82.23 

• * * 

2101.33 

» • • 

Includes charges for tools 
and plants. Wages of 
Gardeners and Coolies 
$1,665.01. 

Singapore. 

Sembawang 
Bukit Timah 

Para rubber 
Gutta Percha 
Mahogany 
Merbau 

13 

about 

30 

■ ■ • 

* i » 

* * « 

1 » * 

* * • 

% • * 

* * • 

• * * 

• m • 

« • • 

- « • • 

• • 1 

■ ■ • 

» • • 

\ 


Q 




form No. 9 . 

Outturn in cubic feet of Timber and Fuel during , 9 o 4 - 


Settlement 

and 

District, 

✓ 

Timber. 

* 

Poles. 


' Fuel. 


Grand 

Total 

Timber and 
Firewood. 

V 

1 

I 

Amount 
by licence 
or pass. 

. 

Amount 
by free 
grants. 

Total. 

By licence 
or pass. 

Free 

grants. 

Total. 

1 

By licence 
or pass. 

Free 

grants. 

0 

• * t 

Total. 

Remarks. 

* 

DiNDINGS, 

10,673,282 

268,930 

1. 

1 

10,942 212 

6 7 > 479>°57 

2,136,885 

* 

69*615,942 

4,025,499 

4 / 8 , 55 ^ 

4 > 5 ° 4>°57 

85,062,21 1 

V 

» 

Timber by free grants 
was cut on private 
land. 





* 

* 



( 

1 

■ ' 8 : & 

j 

Fuel returns not kept 
as bakau is worked 
on monthly pass 
system . 

/ 


t 


I 


State. 


Singapore. 


FORM No. to. 


Outturn of Minor Forest Produce. 


District. 

1 

1 

Description of 
Produce. 

1 

By Purchasers. 

Free grants. 

Total. 

Remarks, 

Quantity. 

Value. 

Quantity. 

Value. 

Quantity. 

Value. 




$ c. 




§ c. 

, « 

1 

1 Se m pang 

Resani 

J 

1 50 




I 50 

By monthly Pass 


Nibong 

2 75 

2; 50 



275 

27 50 


1 

Men gkuang 


I 50 




1 50 

Pass good for 2 months 

j Kranji 

Rattan 

. . . ■ 

1 00 




1 00 

By monthly Pass 

. 

Nibong 

70 

7 00 



70 

7 00 


S. Sarangong Kechil 

Do. 

20 

2 00 



20 

2 00 



Mengkuang 


0 60 




0 60 


S. Tampenis 

Res am 


1 20 




1 20 



Mengkuang 


2 10 




2 10 


Sembawang 

Do. 


9 30 




9 3 ° 



Resam 

. . , 

0 60 




0 60 


. 

Rattan 


6 00 

* » 



6 00 



Nibong 

120 

1 2 00 



120 

12 00 


S. Tambuan 

Mengkuang 


4 So 




4 5 ° 


S. Mandi 

Resam 


0 60 




0 60 


y 

* i 

Mengkuang 

. . . 

0 60 




0 60 



Nibong 

30 

3 00 



30 

3 00 

• 

S. Jurong 

Resam 

* - < 

! 1 20 




1 20 



Mengkuang 

• • ■ 

i 3 00 




3 00 


Pulo Damar Da rat 

Do. 

* • ■ 

1 80 




1 80 



Resam 


1 80 




i 80 


S. Air Tawer 

Mengkuang 

• * * 

0 60 



... 

0 60 


j S. Benni 

Do. 

- 

1 20 

_ 


. . . 

1 20 

' 


& 


JroRM No. 1 o.- — Continued, 
Outturn of Minor Forest Produce. 


.-T-* 

■ State. 

District. 

Description 

Produce. 

Singapore. 

Pen glean g 

Mengkuang 


S. Blukar 

Do. 


S. Brit 

Do. 


S. Tuas 

Do. 


S. Sonoko 

Nibong 


S. Seletar 

Do. 


S. B 11 lob 

Do. 


S. Ponggol 

Do. 


S. Tenggeh 

Do. 

Bindings. 

Southern Beat 

Kattan 

Mengkuang 

Bertam 

Nibong 


\ 

Damar 

Pishing stakes 



Sagors, etc. 
Tenggah bark 


Northern Beat 

Rattan 

Mengkuang 

Nibong 

Pinang Raja 
Ebol ' 



N ipah 


% Purchasers 
Quantity.! Val 


rs. 

ue. 


Free grants. 
Quantity. Value. 


5o 

60 

210 

60 

100 

149 

131 

38 

148 

6 


21 1 

131 

10 

o 

o 

8 

8 

Total 


ft c. 

60 

60 

90 

60 

5 00 

6 00 
21 00 

6 00 
10 oo 

439 50 
253 00 
76 00 
296 00 
12 00 


625 50 
2 53 00 
18 00 
6 00 
16 00 
16 00 


Total. 


27,238 

bundles 


2,0 H OO 


167 20 
r 56 08 
406 57 


729 85 


5 ° 

60 

2 io 
60 
100 


Value. 

0 

60 

0 

60 

0 

90 

0 

60 

5 

00 

6 

00 

21 

00 

6 

00 

10 

00 

439 

50 

253 

00 

76 

00 

296 

00 

12 

00 

167 

20 

156 

08 

406 

37 

625 

5 ° 

253 

00 

1 8 

00 

6 

00 

16 

00 

16 

00 

2,740 85 


Remarks. 


to 

00 


State, 


District. 


Malacca. 


■ 


A lor G ijah. 


fasin 


C'entralDist rict 


FORM No. io. — Co nciuded. 
Outturn of Minor Forest Produce. 


By Purchasers. 


Description 
of Produce. 


r 1 


U 

n 


j 

U 

r 

•i 

1 

L 


Ataps 
Bertam 
Canes 
Dukti 
1 Dorians 

Rembier 
Getah Gerip 
Para Seedlings 
Rembier 
Rattan Split 
Tapioca 
Wood-oil 

Miscellaneous 

Bamboos and Canes 
Getah 

Other produce 
Rubber 
Para Seeds 
Para Seedlings 
Fruits at Rt kit Sebu- 
kor 

Mengkuang 


Qua ntitv. 


Value. 


21,667 

4,350 


9 carts. 
Total ... 


f c. 


16 00 
102 00 


2 3 35 


Free grants. 


Total. 


Quantity. | Value. 


180 


00 


201 4 6 

l 9 00 
198 66 

5 ? 59 


1 08 


34 


77 00 

42 00 
4 50 

740 47 


$ c - 
90 

30 
18 00 


3 00 
15 00 

1 03 

2 42 

0 45 
6 75 


Quantity. 


47 35 


Value. 


c. 

90 

30 

OO 

00 

00 

00 

00 

35 


18 

16 

102 

0 

v3 

l S 

23 

1 


180 

6 

201 

19 

198 

50 

108 

77 


03 

42 

45 
00 

75 

46 

00 

66 

59 

34 

00 


42 00 
4 50 


788 3; 


Remarks 


i 


SINGAPORE. 


. FORM No. ii. 

Summary of Revenue and Expenditure KJO4. 


Re 


venue. 


I. Revenue on Timber and other 
Forest Produce removed from Forests 
by Government Agency 

' Total I. ... 

II. Revenue on Timber and other 
Produce removed from the Forests 
by consumers or purchasers— 


$ 


Expenditure A. 


a. Timber 

468 40 

b. Charcoal and Firewood 

691 4° 

c. Bamboos and Canes 

22 00 

d. Other Produce 

13 20 

e. Getah. 

14 70 

Total II. 

1,209 70 


Personal Emoluments. 

Colony’s share of salary of Conser- 
vator of Forests 

Salaries of Forest Subordinates 


Expenditure B. 


^ C * 


Other Charges. 

Personal and Transport Allowance 

% \ 

3,593 98 Contingent Expenses 
G736 93 Uniforms 



5,330 91 


965 54 


6,296 45 


PENANG AND PROVINCE WELLESLEY. 

FORM No. n.- — ■ Continued . 
Summary of Revenue and Expenditure 11)04 • 


Revenue. 

i 

1 

1 

I 

Expenditure A. 


Expenditure B. 




■ i c. 


1 ( F» 

§ c. 

"■ — 1 if , — , 

c. 

1 6 

I. Revenue on Timber and other 
Forest Produce removed from Forests 
by Government Agency 


Establishment 

• • * 

Salaries of h orest Subordinates 

• • • 

L 7 2 7*74 

832.80 

Conservancy of Works 

Purchase of Stores, tools and planks 

340.43 

23.98 


Total I. ... 


Special Allowance 

396.07 

^ Other Works 

1 18.16 


II. Revenue on Timber and 

other Produce removed from the 

Forests by consumers or purchasers. 

• 

/ y 



| 

Clearing and Maintaining Boundaries 
of Forest Reserve. 

490.35 

• 

1 . 

a. Timber 

656 32 



0 



b. Charcoal and Firewood 

4 62 






c. Bamboos and Canes 




1 V . | 

' 



d. Other Produce 

156 08 






e. Miscellaneous 

37 50 





# 

Total 11. ... 

854 52 

- _ - 4 _ 


2,956.61 

j 

972.92 

3 . 929 -53 



o 





Revenue. 


I. Revenue on Timber and other 
Forest Produce removed from For- 
ests by Government Agency 

Total I. 

II. Revenue on Timber and other 
Produce removed from the Forests by 
consumers or purchasers — • 

a . Timber 

. b. Charcoal and Firewood 

c. Bamboos and Canes 

d. Other Produce 

Total II. ... 

III. Unclaimed and Confiscated 
timber, etc. 

IV. Miscellaneous — 

a. Compensation, etc. 

b. Reimbursements 

c. Other Sources 

Total III. ... 


$ 


fundings. 

I* O k M No, ii , — - Continued . 
Summary <J Revenue and Expenditure 1904 . 

Expenditure A. 


7 A 76 28 
6,966 15 
1,065 00 
946 00 


16,453 43 


1 93 

53 °5 

240 00 


16,748 41 


Establishment : — 

Salaries 

15% Findings Allowance 


Expenditure B . 


Other Charges 
I Annually Recurrent— 

... „ saws-*. 

Paths , 1A11 

’9247 Transport and Field Allowance ... 
Uniforms for Forest Guards 

Temporary Rice Allowance 
II. Special Expenditure 
Purchase of Boat 



Total. 



5,246 27 


*<» 




F 




MALACCA. 

FORM No. ii, — Concluded . 


Summary of Revenue and Expenditure igo 4. 


Revenue. 


Expenditure A. 


Expenditure D. 


Total. 

• 

I. Revenue on Timber and other 
Forest Produce removed from Forests 
by Government Agency 

Total i ... 

1 c. r 

• m * 

Personal Emoluments 

$ c 

3 , 9 8 i 13 

Clearing Paths in Reserve 

Contingent Expenses 

Experimental planting of Forest trees 
Maintenance of Forest Boundaries ... 
Planting of Getah Taban 

I ransport and Personal Allowance ... 
Uniforms 

Rice Allowance 

$ c - 

230 40 
15 1 82 
280 43 
267 95 
1,820 90 
630 23 
200 ou 
192*00 

$ c. 

11. Revenue on Timber and other 
Produce removed from the Forests by 
consumers or purchasers — * 



. : < 

3,773 73 

• 

a. Timber 

4, 2 56 38 

/ * F 

I 




1 

b. Charcoal and Firewood ... 

893 73 



* \ ' ' 

/ 


c - Bamboos and Canes 

219 46 

• 





d. Other Produce 

86l 29 





3,981 13 

Total II ... 

6,230 86 






- — — — __ 

3 » 9 8 i 13 

t 


7,754 86 


A. M. BURN-MURDOCH, 

Co nservator of Forests , Federated Malay States 

and Straits Settlements. 


1 


Annual Report on Forest Administration in the 
Straits Settlements for the Year 1905. 


- CHAPTER I. 

Extension and Constitution of Reserved Forests. 

1. Alteration in Area. 

[ See Form i. ] 


I, This table shews the Forest Reserves in the Colony. 

The only alteration in area was effected in Malacca, 3 acres being excluded from 
Bukit Sebukor Reserve. 



Area of 
Settlement : 
Square Miles. 

Area of 
Reserved 
j Forest : 
[Square Miles. 

Area of 
Unreserved 
Forest : 
Square Miles. 

Average propor- 
tion of Forest 
Reserve to 
whole Area. 

% 

Singapore 

206 

! 9'4 

1866 

9*41 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley ... 

395 

25'5 

3 fi 9'5 

6'45 

Dindings ... 1 

265 

361 

228'9 

13-62 

Malacca 

659 

77’4 

581*6 

1 1*74 

Total ... ; 

1 . 

',525 | 

158-4 

13666 

10*32 


2. The above areas l regret to say have not been legally constituted h orest 
Reserves so that with a change ol policy they may all be lost to the Crown. 


II. Reserve Proposals. 

[ See Form 2. ] 

% No more Reserves were proposed. 

, ’ 

III. Demarcation and Repairs to Boundaries. 

[ See Form 3. ] 

4. Singapore boundaries were upkept by the Forest Guards. 

In Penang the boundaries of five Reserves were cleared, 44 miles at a cost of 
$339.45 or $7.71 per mile. In Province Wellesley, 14 miles were cleared and bridges 
renewed at a cost of $158, averaging $11.28 per mile. 

In addition, all the Reserves were measured by the Survey chain of 100 feet and 
mile posts erected, thus facilitating reference to one’s position in any part of the 
Reserve. 

5. Bindings — Fifty-seven miles 37 chains of boundaries were cleared on contract 
at a cost of $277.24 or an average of $4.83 per mile which is much cheaper than similar 
work elsewhere. As a rule the boundaries are more easily upkept as they get older. 

6. Malacca. — All boundary repairs have been done by the Forest Staff with the 
•exception of inspection paths in Bukit Bruang Reserve which cost $108.50. 

IV. Surveys. 

None made during the year. 


I 


1 


CHAPTER II. 

/ 

Management of Crown Forests. 

I. Working Plans. 

7. No further Working Plans have been made during the year. Malacca and 
the Findings are worked on a rough plan. 

Contents of Reserves.— An enumeration of the contents of the Forest Reserves m 
Penan" was begun during the year. So far. one Reserve (Pantai Acheh) only has 
b'en finished. The following table shews the number of hrst and second class timber 

trees over 3' girth. 


First Class. 

Darnar Laut 
Tern pay an Mas 
Tamp inis 
Medang Kuning 
Tumpul Rliong 
Klat ... 

Rengas 

Kranji 

jVleranti Me rah 
Resak Merah 
Bintanggor Batu 


Quantity. hirst Class. 


Carried forward 


Second Class. 

Tibi Kurus 
vrian Batu 
<rian Klavvi 
VIeranti Puteh 
^esak Puteh 
Bintanggor Bunga 
depoh 
Vlerapoh 
viirau... 

\ra 

Kledang Tandok .. 
Fampang 

Fampang Burong .. 
Dbi ... 

fati 

Randa 

Kandek Burong .. 
Kandek Hitam 
Remuyu 
Brangan Babi 
Brangan Kampong 
Brangan Bukit 
Janggut Kli 
Tamak 

Rambai Bukit 


Carried forward 


334 

1,448 

705 

IA54 

1,088 

9°5 

1,5(59 

T535 

1,264 

1,426 

501 

12429 


Brought forward 

T embus u 
Penaga 
Pinang Baik 
Kuinpas ... 

Minyak daun Kechil 
f) besar 

Jang Kang 
Haliban 
Nan ga Pipit 
Balong Ayam ... 


Total 


Quantity. ! Second Class. 


648 

441 

343 

1.379 

826 

447 

1,249 

403 

223 

•269 

635 

302 

39i 

325 

401 

233 

^ r £ 

uoa 

521 

228 

521 

3 ! 4 
599 
635 
1,026 
275 

12,989 


Brought forward 


Glam Tikus 

Nipis Kulit 

Mesekam 

Pala Bukit 

Tengkarus 

Kledang 

Tempoyan 

Pulai 

Jelutong 

Mangkoyan 

Seraya 

Badara 

Medang 

Trap 

Chang gai Putri 
Ekor 

Ekor Batu 
From 

Mata Kuching 
Hamba Raja 
Temponit 
Famar Itam 
Mahan g 


Quantity. 

12,429 

335 

177 ' 

1,054 
388 
950 
887 
1 ,640 

390 
764 
91 1 

■ I 9>9 2 5 


Total 


Quantity. 


12.989 

341 
322 
61 1 
167 
408 ' 

3 6 4 

160 

7 1 

424 

640 

B553 

506 

865 

294 

223 

467 

604 

59i 

740 

214 

179 

733 

815 

23,801 


II. Buildings. 

8. Penan*.- Four new Forest Guards Stations were erected viz at Fenara Ruk,t 
i.rlik Pulau, Telok Bahang and Batu Ferringgi. 1 hev are a ui used bv 

,lan which consists of a front room used as an office and 
be Superior Forest Officers on tour. The Forest Guards Quarters are at 





\ 

V 


* 



and connected with the front room by a passage. The cost of each was $500, the 
main heavy wood being supplied from the forest. The Forest Guards’ Station in 
Province Wellesley was colour washed and repairs effected at a cost of $3. 

9. Malacca . — Forest Stations were erected at Chabau and Sempang Ampat at 
a cost of $450 each. Repairs to other Stations cost $183.44. 

III. Protection of Forests. 

10. Several lires occurred in Penang but did very slight damage. 

11. Malacca . — On July 24th new Timber and Jungle Produce Rules were brought 
into force. This obviated the issue of removal passes, monthly permits to cut being 
issued. 

12. The Forest Staff duties are now increased by having the supervision of the 
unreserved Crown Lands as iveli as Forest Reserves. 

The Settlement of Malacca is divided into 8 Forest patrol beats. If strict cul- 
tivation clauses continue to be enforced Forest Revenue should increase. 

The Police have given help in checking loads of wood entering the towns. 

The following table gives the number of loads of timber passing into Malacca for 
3 months : — 


Month. 

Exploited from 
Crown Lands. 

Exploited from land under 
Grants. 

Total. 

Malays. 



Chinese. 

April 

73 

137 

60 

27 

May 

t 

219 

385 

188 

792 

June 

3^7 

332 


734 


619 

854 

33. 

1,796 


I am pleased to sav there has been a decrease in free permits issued as compared 
with the previous year as only the holders of the permits may cut and not employ 
paid labour as they did previously. 

13. Dindings. — One large and two small Malay fishing boats were' purchased for 
the use of the Deputy Ranger and Forest Guards at $50, $30 and $20 respectively. 

Forest Offences- 

[ See Form 7. ] 

14. There were only two cases in Singapore as against twelve in 1904. 

15. . Penang . — Fifteen cases were brought into Court for illicit timber cutting ; none 
of a serious character. 

There were 12 convictions, 5 acquittals, $79 fines realised. 

1 here were 7 cases in the Province, 5 convictions, 2 acquittals, fines $500. 

The Forest Station at Tasek Glugor was broken into on 3rd November. 4 he 
lock of an almeirah was forced and various cooking utensils, lamps, etc., were stolen, 
together with some tools and some Forest Guards’ clothing, valued at $20. 

16. Dindings . — There were 43 cases which resulted in 33 convictions and fines were 
imposed aggregating $263 compared with $46 in 1904. 

l 7 • Malacca . — 1 he list of cases detected shows an increase owing to better 
supervision of unreserved Crown Lands by the Forest Staff, 67 as against 26 in 1904. 

1 he Penghulus were formerly in charge ol this work. Fourteen cases were compounded 
by the department for $124.63 Four cases of encroachment on Crown Lands were 
reported to the Collector of Land Revenue and resulted in fines $17.32 ; two persons 
were convicted for setting fire to Crow n Lands. Seven persons were charged with 
offences in Reserves. 


/ 


' 4 

/ 

IV. Improvement of Forest, 

(i) Natural Reproduction. > 

1 8. Dindings . — Two species, Meranti Rakau and Meranti Bunga, were preserved 
for production of seed. Seedlings of Meranti as a rule are plentiful everywhere in the 
Reserves. 

19. Malacca. — The naturally grown trees of Taban are mostly too young for 
seeding. There are 165 trees in Jasin District and 360 in Alor Gajan. 

The gregarious growth of Tampinis is very gratifying at Bukit Bruang. It is 
scattered in groups almost all over the Reserve and its tendency is to increase. There 
are also a few Bintanggor seedlings found. 

(II) Artificial Reproduction. 

[ See Form 8 . ] 

t 

20. Penang. — The Getah Taban plantation was at Batu Ferringgi increased by 15 
acres, 200 young plants were used in supplying vacancies in previous plantings. There 
are 68 acres planted altogether and the plants are doing fairly well. The older ones 
were cleared as were also those in the valley near the Botanic Gardens. 

The experimental Teak Plantation at Tasek Glugor was cleaned twice during the 
year and blanks HI led in, but I think as a whole the plantation is very inferior. It is 
proposed to allow the Manager of Malakoff to plant a portion of the Reserve on which 
lalang is growing with tapioca, teak to be planted at the same time. This will save 
us much expense and lessen the danger of lalang fires, and may be worth trying as an 
experiment. 

21. Pulau Jerejak. — This island is the Leper and Quarantine Station for the 
Settlements. The stations being on the east side of the Island the rest of the Island is 
Forest Reserve. Formerly on the western side were a number of squatters who had 
planted over 2,000 coconut trees. Several applications have been received asking for 
leases to farm them, they were however refused for obvious reasons. On the other 
hand it was thought undesirable to allow these coconuts to be abandoned, and on the 
recommendation of the Acting Conservator, Mr. STEPHENS, the Government sanctioned 
a scheme for placing a caretaker in charge who would be able to look after them. 
Some additional assistance was given him in cleaning round the trees, and already an 
improvement is noticeable. A small house has been erected for the guard. The cost 
of this experiment so far including the cost of the house amounts to $322.39. 

22. Malacca. — Artificial reproduction is entirely confined to Bukit Bruang 

Reserve. ' 

Merbau, Penak, and Penaga have been planted through blukar (secondary growth) 
in lines cut 3 feet wide and they are doing very well. There were planted 2,200 
Merbau, 873 Penak and 1,0 1 o Penaga seedlings. 

The large-sized inferior woods have been cut out to admit light; 150 Taban plants 
were raised by marcottage. Caterpillars which attack Taban were systematically 
destroyed. 

V. Exploitation. 

[ See Form 9. ] 

(I) Timber and Fuel. 

23. From Singapore there is no available information, so that we have merely the 
sums realized by the sale of passes to indicate the quantity cut. Probably about 260 
tons have been cut exclusive of Bakau firewood. 

From Penang, Province Wellesley and Malacca no figures are available owing to 
the pass system being in vogue. 

24. In Malacca the Forest Department tried to supply the Public Works Depart- 
ment with seasoned timber but it was only on a small scale. 

There is a vote of $2,000 in the estimates for the Public Works Department and 
I trust it will be more successful in 1906. 

A sum of $377.45 was realized by the sale of seed, etc., at Ayer Kroh. 

25* Penang and Province Wellesley. — Seven hundred and eighty-seven passes 
were issued as against 546 for 1904, the revenue received being $771.79 as against 
$854.52 in the previous year. The Superintendent of Forests and Gardens does not 

* . 


v 1. •, • 4 

. , w- ; .. : A, ; u , „ 



-explain this apparently contradictory statement. The passes in 1905 must have been 
used for small amounts. 

26. Di 'ndings . — There were 7 Kongsis cutting timber and fuel during the yeai, 
c.hieflv Meranti and Nyato with a minor quantity of Chengal and Merbau. 

About 70,258 cubic feet were extracted from Crown Lands on which royalty was 
paid and 415 cubic feet for private land paying no royalty, a considerable falling oft as 
compared with 1904. 

As regards fuel, 704 passes to cut Mangrove were issued at $5 per man per 
mensem, and 48 free passes for the use of the Government Launch. I his shews a 
Jafge decrease over 1904. 

Cutting had to be restricted to certain areas. 

Minor Forest Produce. 

27. In Penang realized $147.70. 

In the Dindings 22,997 bundles of Tengah bark were exported at a royalty of 
$1.50 per 1,000 bundles. This bark produces a valuable tannin. 

Four hundred and thirty passes were issued for Canes realising $1,290, and 479 
passes for other produce realizing $958. 

28. In Malacca the right to collect wood oil (Dipterocarpus Crinitus) was sold lor 
$125 in Sungai Udang Reserve. 

The fruit trees in Bukit Panchor realized only $5.85 as compared with $128 in 1904 
owing to failure of crop. 

CHAPTER III. 

Financial Results. 


Particulars are shewn in Form II. t 


(I) Revenue. 


Settlement. 

Actual 

1904. 

Estimated 

1905. 

'O 

0 

• 

* 

1 

Difference. 


T 1 

§ c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

‘ . 1 

Singapore 

1,209 7° 

1,500 00 

389 5 « 

1,1 10 42 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley ... 

Dindings 

854 52 

16,748 41 

> 13,904 00 

J 

r 701 79 
< 

Lh ,234 54 

y 1,897 67 

j 

Malacca 

6,230 86 

5,000 00 

4,087 26 

912 74 


25,043 49 

20,404 00 

16,483 17 

3,920 83 


29. The falling oft in Singapore is due to issue of less Mangrove passes. 

30. In Penang and Province Wellesley there is a decrease of $82.73. 

■ 31. In the Dindings $13,250 was estimated and $11,234 realized, this is due to a 

drop in timber and fuel, caused by stopping of cutting in the Lumut Kanan Coupe, and 
also to the fall in price of timber in the second half of the year. The Dindings timber 
cutters held over large quantities of timber in hopes of a rise in prices. Various other 
causes are given by the District Officer which I consider satisfactory. 

Malacca . — The falling off in revenue occurred in Timber, Bamboos and Canes and 
other produce. Firewood shews a slight increase. 


6 


S' 


% 


The fall is put down by the Forest Ranger to the small demand. $4,087.26 were- 
realized as compared with $6,230.86 in 1904. 


(If) Expenditure. 


\ 

Settlement. 

Expenditure 

1904. 

Estimated 

1905. 

1 

Spent 1905. 

N 

Savings on 
| Estimates, 


$ c. 

$ c. 

$ c - 

$ c - 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 

■ 6,296 45 

9 ? ioo 00 | 

* 

6,006 71 

3,093 29 

Wellesley ... 

3.929 53 

7,702 00 

6,621 88 

1,080 12 

Dindings 

5,246 27 

5,972 00 

5,029 40 

942 60 

Malacca 

7,754 86 

8,428 00 

8,014 86 

. 

4*3 14 


23.227 11 

A • 

31,202 00 

1 25,672 85 

5,529 15 


33. The total expenditure was $25,672.85 against $23,227.11 in 1904. 

The increases occur in Malacca, Penang and Province Wellesley. 

In Malacca this was due to the appointment of a Forest Ranger, Grade I, at 1 5 o 
and a Clerk at $300, the increase over 1904 is $260. In Penang and Province Welles- 
ley the expenditure increased by $2,692, of which $2,000 was due to the erection of 
quarters for Forest Guards. 


CHAPTER IV. 

* Establishment. 

34. Mr. BURN-MURDOCH, Conservator of Forests, proceeded on leave on 16th 
April, 1905, and Mr. A. B. Stephens, Deputy Conservator, Perak, acted for him till 
the end of the year. 

35. In Penang, Mr. Fox continued to hold the post of Superintendent of Forests 

# % 

36. In the Findings, Mr. G. H. O'Hara was appointed Forest Ranger, Grade II, 
on £’120, succeeding Mr. V. P. Borges who was transferred to Malacca. 

Both these officers have shewn themselves energetic and capable. 


Mr. PASOUAL, Deputy Ranger, Grade I, and Mr. C. J. Fox, Forest Clerk, Dindings, 
are well reported on. One Forest Guard was dismissed in September for neglect of 
duty and disobedience of orders. 

37. Malacca . — Mr. BORGES was transferred to Malacca and promoted to £150 on 
January 1st, 1905. 

A Forest Ranger, Grade VI, is in charge of the Government Plantations at Ayer 
Kroh. 

A Forest Clerk was appointed on 2nd February but the post was abolished on the 
resignation of this clerk in June, the Acting Conservator of Forests not being in 
favour of Revenue Collection by the Forest Department. Many changes took place 
among the Forest Guards owing to dismissals, resignations, retirements and death. 

Thirty-eight days were spent in tours in the Colony and in journeys to and from 
by the Conservator and Acting; Conservator during the year. The Acting Conservator 
made a thorough tour of the Singapore reserves. 

A. M. BURN-MURDOCH, 

- ^ Conservator of Forests , 

Federated M alay States Straits Settlements * 

. .";A ' . . ’ “ - 2 * ' ' ", vC- ‘ f ' ■ " .*Y; ■» •- - { <■ . 1 1 " f r ' 


No. of 


i?ORM No. i 



Singapore 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

1 1 
12 

13 

14 

1 5 

16 

1 7 

18 

19 

20 


Name of Forest 


Bukit Timah 
jurong 
Pandan 
Ulu Pandan 
Bukit Panjang 
Bukit Tima'li R° a 
10th mile 
Cliua Chu Kang 
i uas 

Sungai Murai 
Sungai Buloh 
Kranji 
Sembawang 
Mandi 

Kranji Rd., 1 4th mde 
Chang! 

Selelar 

Chan Chu Kang 
Ang Mo Kio 
Sempang 
Seletar Extension 


Total 


Area in Acres Area added 


on I -I - 1905 


847.0. 00 
4 1 2.0.00 

2,140.3.16 

4y3 °9 

1 1 7.2. 16 

13.0. 28 

49.0. 00 
1,601.3.32 

3H* i- (, 5 

770.2.16 

756.0. 32 
.1,046.3.38 

407.0. 32 
9.2.16 

B 3 93 o-oo 
1,429. 1.08 
813-3.08 

296.0. 02 
5.0.00 


12,428,1.18 


during year. 


Excluded 

Dis-affor 

ested. 


or 


Area on 
31-12-1 905. 


No. and date of 
Notification 
excluding 
land. 


J> Same. 


12,428.1.18 


Remarks, 


- v 


'-r 


t 


FORM No. i. — Continued . 


1 ' 

Settlement. ■ 

j . 

. i 

— . ZD 

O > 
u< 

. <u 

O J 

<17 

Civil District. 

Name of Forest. 

Area in Acres 
on 1-1-1905. 

Area added 
during year. 

Excluded or 
Dis-affor- 
ested. 

Province 

Wellesley. 

•* 

l 

Northern District 

S' 

Central District •= 

' 

i Southern District 

Tasek Glugor 

Bukit Seraya 

Bukit Mertajam 

Juru Hill 

I Gajah Mati 

Govt. Exp. Gardens ... 

Bukit Gua Ipoh 

1 Lot 435 

Lot 3,231 

Bukit Panchor 
* 

• 

1,761 

1 12 
162 
417 

94 

3 

33 o 

189 

13 

L476 

1 4 

1 

/ 

* 



Total ••• 

4-557 




Area on 
31-12-1905. 

No. and date of 
Notification 
excluding 
land. 

Remarks. 

- 

>1 





> Same 

V 


J 


■ 



4-557 


Penang. 




1 I 

North East 

Block D 

5 , 79 1 

2 


Block E 

252 

A 

- " 

South West 

Block F 

Part of Block /. 

Pulau Jerejak 

233 

l8 

88 7 ' 

Pantai Acheh 

3-208 1 

B 


Laksamana 

465 

C 

( 

Telok Bah an g 

3 &o 

| 

Do. 

236 

G 

H 


Ginting Hills 

2 j 


Bukit Gumoroh 

205 

I 

j 0 '■ jk r Y'j ’ * • 7 

Relau Hills 

1 5 1 

» J 

— 



Total 

11,797 1 




1 i 

V Same 

r 


"■797 


QO 


FORM No. i. — Continued. 


Settlement. 

No. of 

Reserve. 

Civil 

District. 

Name of Forest. 

^ • V - • - * 

Area in Acres 
on 1-1-1905. 

• 

Area added 
during year. 

Excluded or 
Dis-affor- 
ested. 

Area on 
31-12-1905. 

No. and date of 
Notification 
excluding 
land. 

Remarks. 

Dindings. 

A 

B 

C 

D 

' 

1 

Telok Sera 

Tanjong Hantu 

Batu Undan 

5.000 

1.000 

* 1,225 

5.000 


Gunoug 

Tunggal 

* 5,000 

* 1,000 

* 5,' 000 

. / - V 
/ 

D.O.D. No. 

510/05 of 

10. 1 1.05 

* Approximate 
Areas. 

y 

- 

E 


Ulu Bruas 

75 o 



* 75 ° 



v • ’ • _ 

F 

' 

Tanjong Burong 

1 ,8oo 



* 1 ,800 

* 

, - 

4 


G 


Telok Senangin 

1 ,000 



* 1,000 



j 

H 


Lumut 

‘,238 



1,238 




I 


Telok Mu roll 

2,326 

* 


2,326 




J 


Pangkor Island 

3.77c 

/ 

■ - 

' > 

3 , 77 ^ 

■ i ■- ' , ' 


1 


■ 

Total 

23 di 5 

t 

y 

7 — — 

21,890 




\ 

. 



/ 


tf 


FORM No. i .-—Concluded. 


Settlement. 

No. of 
Reserve. 

Civil 

District. 

Name of Forest. 

| 

Area in Acres 
on 1-1-1905. 

Area added 
during year. 

Excluded or 
Dis-affor- 
ested. 

Area on 

31-12-1905- 

No. and date of 
Notification 
excluding 
land. 



Remarks. 

Malacca. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

i 

l 

r 

i 

Jasin 

District < 

Ayer Pa-nas 

Merlimau 

Bukit Senggeb 

Bukit Sedanan 

Batang Malaka 

Nyalas 

3.242 

6,217 

9 > 43 ° 
7,806 

3.549 

2,468 


/ . 1 

3 . 2 4 2 

6,21 7 

9.430 

7,806 

3.549 

2,468 

. 



1 

2 

'I 

a 

4 

Alor Gajah j 
. District i 

* * l 

t - 

Sungai Udang 

Bukit Panchor 

Kamuan China and 
Sungai Siput 
! Brisu 

v 

4.392 

2,862 

2,591 

911 

- 

•< ' V . 

/ 

4 , 39 2 

2,862 

2,591 
gt 1 


\ 

1 


1 

1 

2 

■ 

Central f 
District ^ 

■. 

Bukit Bruang 

Bukit Sebukor 

‘f 

6,122 

44 

* 

\ 

30-03 

6,122 

40 2 37 

R. C. M 44 lit 

tTTo 4 

\ 

*2 ;* 2 

Area excluded 
contains fruit 
trees in bearing. 

■ 


• 

» 

T otal 

% 

49*634 

' * . ' 

3- I -°3 

49,630.2.37 

, 

-• ; 


i 



1 


FORM No. 2 . 


Statement shewing Progress made m forming new Reserves during the year r go 5. 



Area of reserves 

Area finally gazetted during year. 

Total area finally 
gazetted 
at close of 
year 1905 . 

Areas proposed and not 
yet finally gazetted. 

# 1 * 

Settlement, 

* 

already finally 
gazetted on 

3 r Dec. 1905. 

Name of 
Reserve. 

No. of Noti- 
fication 
in Gazette . 

Area of 
acres. 

' 

Name. 

t 

Area. 

Remarks. 

Penang. 

* ■ 1 ! - * - 


. ”• . 





✓ 

North East District 

South West District 

7,367 

4,430 

s 




7.367 

4.430 

■ 

t 

■ ! y - ■ ■ (.■ 

Province Wellesley. 

Northern District 

Central District 

Southern District 

11 ,197 




H.797 



1,761 

1/320 

G476 


V 

% 

1,761 

1,320 

1,476 

1 


A.' 4. 

/ 

' - * r 

, -» 

4.557 


A 


4.557 



** ■ > / 

\ 

Dindings. 

0 * # 

Malacca. 

a * * 

Singapore. 

» * • 

• 

' v ' ‘ \ 

23,115-0-00 

. ' ‘ 

* • ■ 

12,428-1-18 

N ' 1 



y ■ 

21,880 

• 0 ■ 

12,428*1-18 

*Sungai Tiong 
Nior Sebatang 
Lumut ivanan 

- ."S 

* Proposed to the Conser- 
vator on his last visit to the 
Dindings and also I suggest 
the two mentioned should 
be closed as Reserves. 
There is no Forest Ordi- 
nance for gazetting Re- 
serves in the Colony. 


I 


■fif- - 

c Sj 7. ' , 


t , I 

f 

\ ‘ • 

FORM No. 3. 


Record of Demarcation and Maintenance of Boundaries for l 9 ° 5 ‘ 


Settlement and Name 
of Forest. 

, 

Length of Boun- 

daries artificially 
demarcated during 
year. 

Length of pre- 

viously existing 

boundaries 

repaired. 


4— 

*13 

C/j 

0 jjt 0 

-R rt V 

Length still to be 

demarcated at 
close of year. 

\ 

Length of natural 

boundaries not re- 

quiring demar- 
cation. 

Total length of 
Boundaries. 

Expenditure. 

Remarks. 

Length no 
j repaired. 

1 

• r — * — r — ; 

buD & cd 

c ^ ,J - 
QJ GJ 

^ ~ 'Z 

— .S 3 rt L ! 

fC 1 O 

n ' 4 = C <U 

H 0 ■— 

aiX C 

New 

Work. 

Repairs. 


M. F. M. F. 


M. F. 

M. F. 1 

M. F. i M. 1'. 

M. F. 

$ 



Pko vince Wellesley. 

/ I 









Northern District — 










Tasek Glugor 

6 3 h 



6 3 4 


6 34 

85 



Central District — ■ 

1 









Bukit Seraya 

... 



2 O 

1 1 < 

■ 2 1 4 

... 



Bukit Mertajam 

* • * 



4 0 

* * * 

4 0 

... 



Juru Hill 

4 1 



4 1 

0 I 

4 2 

50 



Gajah Mati 

2 oh 

>17 2 * 

2 Oi 

, ^ 1 

• • • 

2 o| 

■ • • . 



Govt. Exp. Garden 

* • * 



0 3 t 

• * * 

O 3 t 

• • 1 


* 

Bukit Gua Ipoh 

• * * 



0 0 

v 

8 0 

• • * 



Lot 435 

* • * 



2 1 

. . . 

2 J 

... 



Lot 323 I. 




0 5 

* * * 

' 1 

! 0 5 

• • • 



Southern District — 




I 



\ 



Bukit Panchor 

1 1 5 

| 

) 

” 5 

0 I 

lii 6 

23 


. ' • 

Total 

24 2 


17.2a 

4 ' 4 i 

O 2 

j 41 6! 

15S 




_ 



: — — — . 

TV 1 

Tt-- . - — - — - — — —ft 

1 

i - < 




Settlement and Name 
of Forest. 


Penang. 


A. Bukit Pantai Aclieh 
7>. Bukit Laksamana 

C. Bukit Telok Bahang 

D. Government Hill 
h. Highland 

F. Penara Bukit 

G. Bukit Ginting 

H. 

/. 

J . Pulau Jerejak 


CD 

Pulau Be to rig 
Ivelau 




Total 


i 

c 

3 

O 


to 

t>-. c 

, , # i—* 

CG •- _H 

(J 33 

I r- 

O : - 

-Ci C -+-I 

tv. « 

b/3 U 

c 'Ji b 
4J <D JS j_ 

-J *C £ nj 

flj D <U 
33 >-. 


M. F 


F( ) k M No. 3 . — Concluded . 

Record of Demarcation and Maintenance of Boundaries for 1905 . 


Length of pre- 

viously existing; 

V O 

boundaries 

repaired. 

Length not 

repaired. 

Total length of 

artificially marked 

boundaries at close 

of year. 

2 

-ID 

O 

4-1 

_ 

33 C 

• - 33 rt 

33 CD <L> 

3 csT‘ 
j-j 0 3: 
bJ) u 0 

< k 5 ' r ‘ 

_3 35 0 

33 u 

Length of natural 

boundaries not re- 

quiring demar- 
cation. 

• 





V - ■ 





• 

M. F. 

M. F. 

M. F. 

M. F. 

M. ' F. 

6 4 

. . , 

6 4 


8 3 

8 0 


8 0 

... 


7 0 

* • • 

7 0 



2 1 0 

15 0 

36 0 


- 

1 4 

• < • 

1 4 



. * ■ 

6 0 

6 0 



• 

1 0 

i 0 



* . • 

5 4 

5 4 



• < • 

5 4 

5 4 


• • • 

• * * 




5 4 

* 44 0 

*33 ° 

*77 0 


^ 

13 7 







o 

iS 
■— I 

to >Ji 
3 
<U ' 

‘ 1 cti 

rt "2 

C 3 
‘t-H O 

PG 


M. F 

14 7 

8 o 
7 o 
3 6 0 

1 4 

6 

1 

5 4 

5 4 

5 4 


o 

o 


90 7 


Expenditure. 


New 1, .. • 
Work. Re i ,a ' rS - 


y 


Remarks. 


3 


1 

! £ 177-65 

) 

1 161.80 
1 j 


33945 


OJ 


* These were measured by chain 
by the Forest Ranger and mile 
post erected. 


/ 


FORM NO. 3 . — Conduct ed. 

Record of Demarcation and Maintenance of Boundaries for i goj 


Settlement and Name 
of Forest. 

Length of Boun- 

daries artificially 
demarcated during 
year. 

t 

1 

£ bo ; 

Q- c 


Total length of 

artificially marked 

boundaries at close 

of year. 

Length still to be 

demarcated at 
close of year. 

t 1 

Length of natural 

boundaries not 

requiring demar- 

cation. 

Total length of 

Boundaries. 

Expenditure. 

Length of 
viously existii 
boundaries 

repaired. 

Length no 

repaired. 

New 

Work. 

| 

Repairs. J 

Dindings, 

. ‘ y - ■' ' * , 

M, F. ' 

\ 

M. F. ' 

1 

M. F. 



M. F. 


| c. 

A. Ulu Rruas 


2 2 


* 2 2 

• * ■ 

The majority 


• * * 

• « * 

B. Tanjong Burong 


4 4 


* 4 4 

• i a 

are natural 
boundaries 


til 


C. Telok Serai 


7 6 


7 6 

... 

composed of 




D. Tanjong Hantu 


i 7 


i 7 


sea-coast and 



* * « 

E. Telok Senangin 


4 4 


4 4 

• t ■ 1 

rivers. 



• • • 

F. Batu Undan 


2 6 


2 6 

\ 


¥ 



G. Gunong Tunggal 


4 4 


4 4 

o 

... 





H. Lurnut 


8 5 


8 5 

... 



* • * 

. . . 

/. Telok Mur oh 


I [ o 

i * • ■ 

I I o 

* • • 

• 


♦ * . 

• » » 

J. Pangkor Island 

... 

9 6 


9 6 


f 

57 4 


277 24 

j 

Total ... 

1 

57 ' 4 

. ■ • 

57 4 


. * • 

57 4 

. . . 

2 77 24 

Malacca. 

X ^ l 






f 




Bukit Bruang 

* * * 

No Records, 


i °6 5 


unknown. 

V 


108 50 

Singapore, 

O'' 

y. 

No record, 

but all be 

1 

• undaries ke 

Pt in order 

i 

i 

1 



! . i 


Remarks. 


* Ihesethiee Reserves were 
measured up by chain by the 
Deputy Ranger during the 
year. 


Making Inspection paths and 
clearing Reserve boundaries. 


/ 



FORM No. 4. 


Statement of A tea Sm oeyed and Unsurveyed during the year JQOg. 




By Survey Department. 


\ 

Surveys by Chain and Compass or by local offices. 

Settlement. 

With interior 
details. 

Boundary Surveys. 

Cost. 

‘ ' 

V 

Name of Forest. 

With interior 
details. 

Boundary Surveys 

Area remain- 

Cost. 

! ' . s- ,, 


Pre- 

vious. 

During 

year. 

Previous. 

During 

year. 


Previous 

During 

year. 

Previous. 

During 

year. 

ing to be 
surveyed. 

Previous. 

- 

During 

year. 

Penang. 

Acres 

A cres 

Acres 

Acres 

\ * 


/ • 

d 






/ 

North East 
District 

5.637 

2S2 

2 33 

* » » 

887 

| 

... 

18 

* • • 

0 * * 

D. Govt. Hill 

E. Highland 

E. Penara Bukit 
Part oPRelau Hill 
Fulau Jerejak 




4 . 

1 

1 


South West 
District 

tit 

f ■ 

• * * 

3.208 

465 

380 

,21 

205 

151 


0 * ■ 

A. Pantai Acheh 
id. Laksamana 

C . Telok Bahang 
G. Ginting Hills 
/ 1 . BukitGumoroh 
/. Relau Hills 

V 


l"' •< ^ 





Province 

Wellesley. 

1 

* • * 

* 

. . . 

• t • 

. . . 


■ 



*■ -l ■ 

✓ 

X 

Dindings. 


... 

i 

Surveyed 
not plot- , 
ted 

} - ’ 

r 

1 

A . 1 el ok Sera. 

E ■ 1 jong Hantu 
C, Gunong T’gal 

> 

I • 

. . . 

\'Y* ■' "v 


Approximate. 

v 

\ 

/ 

S 


* v , • • j 

■ / 


V 



* 


t 





I 


' ■ •' ' 

1 ' • • - V L , . ' ' ' ' * 1 i 

FOHM No. 4-— Concluded . 


Statement of Area Surveyed and Un surveyed during the year tgoy 




By Survey Department. 


' t 

Surveys by Chain and Compass or by local offices. 















• 

Settlement, 

With interior 
details. 

Boundary Surveys. 


Name of Forest. 

With interior 
details. 

Boundary Surveys. 

Area remain- 
ing to be 
surveyed. 

Cost. 






Cost. 

: 









Pre- 

vious. 

During 

year. 

.Previous. 

During 

year. 


Previous. 

During 

year. 

Previous. 

During 

year 

Previous. 

During 

year. 

Dindings 
— Contd. 

A cres 

Acres ■ 

Acres 

ij 

A cres 









'i - 




- ' . 

A . r. p. 

1237.3.15 

2326.0.00 

3775 - 3-24 



D. Batu Undan 
/:. Ulu Bruas 
/'. I jo ng Buronpr 
G. T. Senangin 
//. Bum ut 
/. Telok Mu roll 
7 -Pangkor Island 

> - 
J 

... 

* 

r 

< 

L 

Measured 
by chain- 
ing only 

5.000 
750 

1,800 

1.000 



Malacca. 

* * ■ 

* • * 

2,468 

* * • 

* • * 

/ 

* « ■ 

. . • 

» . . 

9*459 


• 





« 

A. r.p . 











Singapore. 


* • * 

12,428.1.18 



* * » 4 

... 

tit 

. . . 





- — ‘ !• • - 



. - •* — 

"■ X ... . 

■A — -i — ] 

- - - - — ... .... 












K * 




■ v 


. • > - 
; •/ 

. 


s 


fA , / ’ 
\ 

r 


v - :. 

-1 ■ ■' - ? 




form No. 5. 

made in Working P ians lfanng /p£)J . 


/ 

•Settlement. 

\ l 

Area for which working 
Plans have been completed. 

' 1 • 

Areas for which working 
plans are being qompiled. 

\ 

Areas for which 
working Plans 
have still to be 
taken in hand. 

* 

Total area of 
Reserves. • 

Entire cost per 
square mile of 
working Plans 
, completed. 


At com- 
mencement 
of year. 

During year. 

* c 

■ 

At com- 
mencement 
of year. 

.* . 

During year. 

i 

Remarks. 

Penang. 

a * « 

• « • 

0 

m, • • 


4 

•_v 

1 

• • * 

» • « 


Province Welles- 
ley. 

* • i 

... 

• • * 

• • * 

• * • 

1 

* * * 

. . , 

i 

Dindings. 

A rough plan 

'\ V 

is in force in 

the Dindings. 

4 

* 

# 



Malacca. 

A rough plan 

is in force in 

Malacca. 

- 




1 

Singapore. 

• . . 

... 

\ 

1 


* • * 

1 1% 

v 

• • • 

• 00 

\ 

A 





I 



>' - r 


V ' .V 

. , y<f ,■ • r * 


FORM No. 6. 

Communications and Buildings 


New Work undertaken during year. 


Buildings. 


Description of 
building. 


Expen- 

diture. 


Roads and Paths. 


Penang. 

Four Forest Guards’ 
Stations. 

Province Wellesley. 

Forest Station at 
Tasek Glugor 

Dindings. 

Nil. 

I. Purchase of one local 

-made Malay boat ! 
for Deputy Ranger s i 

use. 

II. Purchase of two 

small sized Malay 
boats for use at 
Bruas & Beting 
Luas for Forest 
Guards 


c. 


i 40 00 




50 00 


Length 
of road. 


Expen- 

diture 

incurred. 


Total 
expend- 
ed on 
New 
Work. 


$ 


c . 




2,000 00 
•or erecting 
4 Forest 
Guards’ 
stations. 


Repairs executed during year. 


Buildings 

* 

Roads and Paths. 

■ 

Nature of 

Ex pen- 

Nature of 

Length 

Expen- 

Repairs. 

diture. 

Repairs. ^ 

repaired. 

diture. 


$ c. 



1 

- 

Limewashed and 
coal tarred. 

3 01 

- 


. . 


90 OO 


90 00 


Clearing 
boundary 
paths of Forest 
Reserve. 


M. F. 277 24 
57 37 


Total 

Expenditure 
on Repairs. 


'77 24 


277 24 


FORM No, 


6. — Concluded , 


\ 


l 


C01W m u n ica i ions 


and Buildings 190$. 


New Work undertaken during year 



Total 
expend- 
ed on 
New 
Work. 

. - Buildings. 




Expen- 

diture 

incurred. 

Description of 
building. 

Expen- 

diture. 

Roads and Paths. 

Length 
of road. 

Malacca. 

1 c. 



1 e. 

$ c. 

Forest Station at 
Chabau 

450 00 

• • * 

• • * 

* * • 

. . . 

Forest Station at 
Sempang Ampel ... 

450 00 

• * • 

• ■ « 


900 00 






9c 0 00 

Singapore. 






Nil. 

* * * 

... 

0 • « 


. . . 




> 




Repairs executed during year. 


Buildings. Roads and Paths. Total 

Rvnpnilit 


Nature of 
Repairs. 

s 

Expen- 

diture, 

Nature of 
Repairs. 

Length 

repaired. 

Expen- 

diture. 

on Repairs, 

' 

L / . 


| c. 




$ c. 

• Repairs to 
Forest Station 
at Sliman. 

80 33 





. Forest Rang- 
er’s Quarters at 
Bukit Sebukor. 

83 09 

j 



163 42 


163 42 




163 42 

* V* 

0«» 

• i * 

• * • 

• m 4 

0 0 0 


r 






FORM No. 7. 

Register of Breaches of Forest Rules for 1905. 




'i 


.1 


\ 




/ 1 • 

1 

/ 

New cases of the year. 

/ ■ . 

Settlement and District. 

Cases pending from 190 

Theft of timber and 
minor produce. 

1 

1 

Other offences. 

1 

Total new cases. 

Penang 

Nil 

' 


. . . 

Province Wellesley 

Nil 

7 

« « • 

■ ■ • 

Dindings 

Nil 

33 

5 ' 

43 

Malacca 

Singapore : 

t » • 

65 

2 

* , / 

67 

Western Division ... 

Nil 

2 


2 


! 

‘ * 

Disposed of during 
year. 

\ 

Ui 

> % 

Grand total cases. 

Convictions. 

X' ' 

fl 

- 4 -» 

J_l 
* >— * 

3 

cr 
u ■ 

< 

Pending at close of ye; 

Remarks. 

I 1 - •! ’ - ' 

* 

\ 

\ ' . ’V 

• ' / ' ' 

- — 

*5 

•: | ' 

12 

3 

# ♦ » 

Fines $79. 

7 

| 

5 ' 

I 

2 

11* 

„ $>100. 

43 

• 

33 

10 

Nil 

Fines inflicted ,$263. Fines re- 

/ ; | 

67 

41 ^ 

i 

9 

1 

alised |i 9 8. 

2 Absconded. 14 Compounded 

4 >• 

; N 

€ 

for $124,63. Fines inflicted 
in Court $504. 

2 

2 

Nil 

< Nil 

Fines $150. 

t 


* 

■ , '■ . ' ’ V; '' T \ 


I 


FORM No, 8, 


A rea of Plantations. 
I 


Settlement and District, 

Name of 
Reserve, 

Kind of 
Plantation. 

A 

it ' . - 1 

rea in Acres. 

Of year. 

On 1st j 
January, 
^05 • 

Added dur- 
ing year. 

On 31st 
December, 
1905. 

Receipt. 

Charges. 

Penang. 



Acres. 

Acres. 

Acres. 


$ c. 

North East District 

Block D. 

Getah 

53 

15 

68 

• * * 

21 1 70 

South West 

a 4 • 

• * * 

V 

... 


■ • • 

• ■ • 

Province Wellesley. 



\ 





Northern District 

Tasek Glugor 

Teak 

2 


2 

y 

62 35 

Central do. 


• * * 

. v . 

t 




Southern do. 

* • * 

0*4 

* • ■ 

4 . . 

* . * 

m m 


Dindings. 

Malacca. 

• • * 

• * * 

* 0 0 

• 44 

• » * 

1 

• « • 

Central District 

Bukit Bruang 

Getah Percha 
Getah Sundeh 

125 

8 

3 

* • • 

128 

8 

1 *’ . 

Receipts from 
Bukit Bruang 

L,97t 84 

1 / 


Tembusu 




Reserve ere- 


X 


Mahogany 



85 

dited to Ayer 
Kroh Govern- 

• * * 


\ 

Para trees 

) 


ment Plan- 




Merbau 


18 

18 

tation Fund 




Penak 

* « » 

10 

10 

*377 45- 




Penaga 

* « • 

7 

7 


• * * 


Bukit Sebukbr 

Para 






Alor Gajah District 

Bukit Panchor 

Durians and 








Duku 

• * * 

• • 4 

... 

$ 5-85 

# * • 

Singapore. 

» * • 

Para 

13 


13 




Gutta Percha 





• 


Mahogany 

30 

• ■ • 

30 

1 

0 0 4 


Remarks. 


Weeding & Supplies. 


Includes charges for tools 

o 

and plants. Wages of 
Gardeners and Coolies 
$1,672.40. 


FORM No. g. 


Outturn in Cubic Feet of limber and /■ uel during i ( ) (J 5 - 


% 




Timber 


/ 

Timber 



Timber 

1 





Class I. A. 


1 

Class I. B. 



Class If. 




Settlement 

and 



V 







Grand 

Total 

Timber and 




. . 1 




- 



Remarks. 

District. 

Amount 
by licence 
or pass. 

Amount 
by free 
grants. 

Tolal. 

By licence 
or pass. 

Frt e 
grants. 

Total. 

By licence 
or pass. 

' Free 
grants. 

i 

Total. 

Firewood. 

. f 



- 

Cubic feet 

Cubic Feet. 

Cubic feet. 

Cubic feet. 


Cubic feet. 

Cubic feet. 

Cubic feet. 

Cubic feet. 

Cubic feet. 

- 

Penang. 

■ . • 

• • » 

’ I 

* • « 

* ■ • 

• • • 

a « * 

. • • 

• • • 

. . . 

* • * 


Province 


' - ' 


* 








Wellesley. 

■ ■ » 

' ■'-> 


« * ■ 

* t * 

# • » 

... 

* • • 

. , . 

a . . 


Bindings. 

4,908.980 

99.828 


63,032.598 


• « • 

2,297.038 

3 * 5>779 

. . , 


415,604 Cubic feet of 
Timber was cut on 










2,612.814 


private land and paid 


- 


5,008.808 

■ # • 


63,032.598 

** * * 

• • • 


no royalty. 

70,238,616 Cubic feet of 

r 

\ 


. - i 







70,654.220 

Timber cut on Crown 
Land and royalty levied 

t 











on output. 





V 



■ 




Full Returns not kept 












worked on monthly 

Malacca. 

* • » 

« 

• • • 

ft ft ft 


■ • - 

- - 


. . . 

ft - ft 

* - • 

pass system. 

Singapore. 

220 

. . • 

220 

8,479 

2.575 

11,054 

• ■ ft 

• • 0 

■ ft ft 

... 

Bakau is worked on 



1 "" 






monthly pass system. 



State. 


District. 


Singapore. 


Dindings. 


Southern Beat 


Northern B^at 


FORM No. 10. 

Outturn of Minor Forest Produce. 


Nibong 
Mengkuang 
Res am 
Rotan 


Rotan 
Mengkuang 
Nibong 
Bertam 
Dainar 
Lankap 
Fishing slakes 
Sagors, etc. 
Tengah bark 

Rotan 

Mengkua ng 
Nibong 
Pinang Raja 


Description of 

By Purchasers. 

Produce. 

Quantity. Value. 


§ c- 


9 o 

92 

50 

• . . 

1 1 

70 

. . . 

2 

4 ° 


2 

OO 

Total. 

108 

60 

209 

627 

00 

68 

136 

00 

40 

80 

00 

27 

54 

00 

43 

86 

00 

1 

2 

00 

221 

663 

00 

1 1 0 

220 

00 

170 

342 

00 

19 

38 

00 

Total. 

2,248 

00 


Free grants. 
Quantity. 


Total. 


22,997 bund 


Value. 

Quantity. 

Value. 

* 


c. 


■ . • 

9 2 50 


• • * 

1 1 70 


* « t 

2 40 

* * • 


2 OO 

... 


I08 60 

* 

* * • 

627 OO 


« . . 

136 00 

* * * 

. . . 

80 00 

• * • 

- . . 

54 00 



86 00 


• * ■ 

2 00 

3 i 32 

• • * 

3 1 3 2 

ilS 13 


1 18 13 

les 344 96 

• • • 

344 96 

• . • 

* ‘ * 

663 00 


* * * 

220 00 

*■ 

... 

342 00 

* * « 

• 1 • 

• 38 00 

494 41 

• • > 

2j / 42 4 1 


Remark 


FO RM No, i o. — Con tin u erf. 
Outturn of Minor Forest Produce. 





Description of 

State, 

District. 

1 


Produce. 

Malacca. 


s' 

A tap 




Rotans 


Alor Gajah 

< 

Durians 

Rembia 

Getah Grip 



Gambier 




Tapioca 

Wood oil 



... 

Kabong sugar 


\ 

f 

Atap 

Rotans 

Rembia 

Getah Grip 

Gambier 


Jasin 

< 

Tapioca 

Wood oil 




Kabong Juice 

Ijok 

Mengkuang 

-- 



Da mar 

\ - 

• 

V 

Umbei 


Central 

‘r 

i 

Rembia 

Mengkuang 


0 


By Purchasers. 

Free g 

rants. j 

Total. 

Quantity. 

Value. 

Quantity.! 

Value. 

Quantity. 

Valine. 


$ c. 




f c. 

... 

i 30 




1 30 


6 00 




6 00 


5 85 




5 85 


1 70 




1 70 


61 00 




61 00 


4 00 




4 00 


20 00 




20 00 


125 00 


* 


125 00 


0 25 




0 25 


3 00 




3 DO 


62 78 




62 78 


1 00 




I 00 


3 08 


v' . , . 


3 08 


2 00 




2 00 


59 78 




59 7 8 


17 96 




17 96 


19 00 




19 OO 


2 00 


( , , 


2 OO 

\ 

59 48 



- . . . 

59 48 


25 55 




25 55 


31 00 


- 

. 

3 1 DO 


5 00 


. i . 


5 00 

Total 

. 

, - 1 

to 

Cn 

0 

\ 

• • • 


12 50 

! 529 23 

1 


... 

. . . 

529 23 


% 

Remarks. 



to 

4 s - 


/ 


\ 




Jj 


A* •• -1 


Revenue. 


I. Revenue on Timber and other 
Forest Produce removed from Forests 
by Government Agency 

1'otal I. 

II. Revenue on Timber and other 
Produce removed from the Forests 
by consumers or purchasers — 

a. Timber 

Ik Charcoal and Firewood 

c. Bamboos and Canes 

d. Other Produce 

e. Miscellaneous 

Total IF 


SINGAPORE 

FORM No. i t 
• * 

Summary of Revenue and Expend, lure rgo 5 . 



6r 90 
15 9 ° 
30 30 

* • 

189 58 


Expenditure A. 


Expenditure B, 

\ ' 

Personal Emolum. nts. 

- ‘•’'A ' Y , • , / - . 

t 

$ c. 

Other Charges. 

'1 c. 

Colony’s share of salary of Conser- 


Contingent Expenses 

122 93 

vator of Forests 

3,194 60 

Personal and Transport- Allowance 

530 74 

Salaries of Forest Subordinates 

1,918 44 

Maintenance of Forest Reserves ... 

24 OO 

• 

1 ' v 

• c ; > 

/ . v 

• 

/ _ 


Expenses of planting Getah Taban 

- ' ' v . - • 

. .. - - ; . 

■ . 1 II. - 

216 OO 

- 

1 

\ 

r ■ • 1 

5 ,H 3 04 


893 6 7 1 

i 


Total 


$ c. 


K3 
C n 


6,006 71 


■1 


PENANG AND PROVINCE WELLESLEY. 


FORM No, II . — - C ontinued . 

S ummary of Revenue and Expenditure /go 5. 


Revenue, 

Expenditure A. 

[ " r - , "c.T 4 -* Y r \. -y. 1 - - 'O ' J. • ... 

Expenditure B. 

• 1 


I. Revenue on Timber and other 

$ c. 

Establishment 

$ c ' 

1,752 26 

912 00 

Other Charges. 

\ 

Annually Recurrent. 

1 c. 

$ c. 

h orest Produce removed from Forests 
by Government Agency 


Salaries of h orest Subordinates 

Contingent Expenses 

Imp. of Forest Reserves 

127 82 

498 79 

\ 

Total I. ... 

... 

Special Allowance 

299 67 


Maintenance of bouridaries and Paths 






497 45 

' - 

II. Revenue on Timber and 
other Produce removed from the 


% 


Planting of Gutta Percha trees 

21 1 70 


h orests by consumers or purchasers. 

» * • 


41 

Protection of Forest 

'73 19 


a. Timber 

569 84 


i 

Uniforms for Forest Guards 

50 OO! 


b. Charcoal and Firewood 

54 25 


1 

Weeding and Maintenance of Gutta 


- 

c. Bamboos and Canes 

• • • j 



percha trees 

. 

99 00 


d . Other Produce 

147 70 ! 

• 


Special Expenditure . 



e. Miscellaneous 



j 

New Forest Guards’ Station 

2,000 00 


Total II. ... 

771 79 

J 

... — ■ 

2,963 93 

• 

* 

3,657 95 

6,621 88 


DIND1NGS, 

FORM No. U -Continued. 
Summary of Revenue and Expenditure , 9 o 5 . 


Revenue, 

/ 

$ c. 

I. Revenue on Timber and other 


forest Produce removed from For- 


ests by Government Agency 

■ * • 

Total I. 

4 • • 

11. Revenue on Timber and other 


Produce removed from the Forests by 


consumers or purchasers — • 


a . Timber 

5,277 92 

b. Charcoal and Firewood 

3 , 55 ° 30 

c. Bamboos and Canes 

1,290 00 

d. Other Produce 

958 00 

e. Miscellaneous 

* . * 

Total 11 . 

11,076 22 

III. Unclaimed and Confiscated 


timber, etc. 

8 co 

IV. Miscellaneous — 


a. Compensation, etc. 

7 32 

b. Reimbursements ... 

. , , 

c. Other Sources 

143 00 

Total IIP ... 

11,234 54 


. 

Expenditure A. 

1 : . ' ' ' '1 


$ c. 

Establishment : — 

1 

Salaries 

• • • 

3,621 40 

15% Dindings Allowance 

y? ! 

. - / 

* 

| 

; 

458 20 

3 "j 

I, 3 

1 

* - ' * 

i 

! • A • ... . 

[ • ~ 

4,079 60 

. 


Expenditure B. 


Other Charges : — 

I, Annually Recurrent- 


Paths ' 

Transport and Field AHovvan 
Uniforms for Forest Guards 


Total. 


9 c. 


149 43 
2 77 24 

425 13 

98 00 



c. 


949 80 


4,079 60 
5,029 40 


r 


MALACCA, 

v 

1 ' O R M No, ii . Concluded , 

Summary of Revenue and Expenditure 1903, 


Revenue, 

| 

Expenditure A . 

Expenditure B. 

9k 

Total. 

I. Revenue on Timber and other 



$ c 


$ c. 

$ c- 

Forest Produce removed from Forests 

' 1 






by Government Agency ... j 


Personal Emoluments 

5.025 53 

Clearing Paths in Reserve 

500 00 


Ayer Kroh Govt. Plantation fund 

377 45 


1 

Contingent Expenses 

148 66 






Experimental planting of Forest trees 

300 00 


Total I ... 

377 45 



Maintenance of Reserve Boundaries 

231 05 



t 

\ 1 



Planting of Getah Taban 

794 57 


H. Revenue on Timber and other 




Transport and Personal Allowances 

839 05 


Produce removed from the Forests by 



v * / 1 

Uniforms 

1 76 00 


consumers or purchasers— 


\ 





a, limber 

2,386 62 




\ 

% 

b . Charcoal and "Firewood ... 

978 79 






c. Bamboos and Canes 

68 78 






d . Other Produce 

460 56 



)■- 



e. Miscellaneous 

... 


■ 

■ 



Total II ... 

f . ■ ' \ 

3.894 75 

- \ v 





Compensation and Damages awar- 






2 q8q 44 

ded to Forest Department 

192 51 





5.025 53 

Total 

4,087 26 

' • \ , 

5.025 53 


- • 

8,014 86 


r 

A. M. BURN-MURDOCH, 

Conservator of Forests , 

federated Malay States and Straits Settlements , 


STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. 


Paper to be laid 


before the Legislative Council by Command of 
His Excellency the Governor, 

O b 


Annual Report on Forest Administration in the 
Straits Settlements for the year 1906. 


PART I. 

Extension and Constitution of Reserved Forests. 

•1.1 1 ? 

I Alteration in Area. 

‘ti 

I. The following table shews the areas of the forest reserves in relation to the 
whole areas of the various Settlements, a small increase will be noticed in Singapore, 
by the inclusion for the first time in the returns of Seletar extension, and an addition of 
623 acres to the Pandan Reserve, vide Form /. * 


* « 

Area of 
Settlement 
Sq. miles. 

Area on 
31-12-05. 
Sq. miles. 

Area on 
31-12-06. 
Sq. miles. 

Percentage 
of Reserve 
to area of 
Settlement. 

Singapore ... 

206 

19-4 

22-3 

10-82 

Penang and 

Province Wellesley J 

395 

2 5'5 

255 

645 

Dindings 

265 

36-1 

361 

13-62 

Malacca 

4 

659 

77'4 

78’! 

11-85 


1.525 

1584 

162 0 

— 


Four small areas in Singapore varying in extent from 4 to 13 acres respectively 
have been omitted from the list of Reserves as they are not worth up-keeping. 

2. Some small alterations will be found in Form I * as regards area of Malacca 
Reserves, being merely, corrections owing to more correct surveys and one or two small 
excisions. No reserves in the Colony have as yet been legally constituted. 

II. Reserve Proposals. 

3. The only proposed addition was the area added to Pandan Reserve, above 
mentioned. It contains valuable Mangrove forest, and is situated to the West of the 
Sungai Jurong. 

In Malacca, a few small patches of Gutta Percha forest were proposed. An 
extension of Batu Undan forest reserve was considered, but not yet finally included or 
demarcated. 

Ill- Demarcation and Up-keep of Boundaries. 

4. In Singapore, the boundaries were well kept by the Forest Guards, except 
part of Sungai Buloh Reserve, which was inaccessible owing to the absence of a boat 
for the men in charge, which was however purchased late in the year 

There are 9 1 -i miles of cut lines and 34^ of natural boundaries requirino- no 
up-keep. 

5. In Penang, 66 miles were recleared and in Province Wellesley, 41 miles at a 

cost of $566.65 against $49745 in 1905, nearly double the length beincr cleared in 
1906. 


5 


* Not printed. 


2 


6. In the Dindings, 52^ miles were recleared by contract and cost $335.1201 
$6.40 per mile. The boundaries are in good order. 

7. In Malacca, 107 miles of boundary were recleared at a cost of $397.70, and 
trees growing on the boundaries felled. 

IV. Surveys. 

8. No surveys were made during the year, although 6 Reserves remain to be 
surveyed in the Dindings. 

Plans of Malacca and Singapore Reserves were supplied to the Conservator during 
the year. 

PART II. 

c Management of Crown Forests and Reserves. 

I. Working Plans, 

9. No regular working plans are in force, but the Dindings and Malacca Crown 
Lands were exploited by licensees on a rough plan. ^ 

II. Paths and Buildings. 

10. In Singapore, no buildings were erected nor charges incurred. 

11. In Province Wellesley, coolie lines were erected at a cost of $97.52 at Bukit 
Seraya by the Public Works Department. 

12. In the Dindings the Forest Guards’ quarters at Bering Luas were pulled 
down and rebuilt at Changkat Resam by the Forest Guards themselves. A boat was 
purchased for $80 for the use of the Staff. 

13. In Malacca, a new forest station was built at the 14A mile, Merlimau Road, 
at a cost of $500 ; repairs to other stations were effected at a cost of $288.26. 

Paths in reserves were cleared at a cost of $392.85. 

III. Protection of Forests. 

14. Forest Laws . — The proposed forest Ordinance has not yet been passed, but in 
December a draft was submitted by the Conservator of Forests to the Government, 
based on the draft enactment adopted at the Conference of Residents in Kuala 
Lumpur, part II dealing with the procedure for constitution of reserved forests being 
much abridged and simplified. 

An alteration was effected in the Malacca Timber and Jungle Produce Rules, by 
which timber could be cut under monthly permit in Reserves. 

15. Fires . — No serious fires occurred during the year, but 5 persons were convicted 
in Malacca for burning lalang. 

Forest Offences. 

16. There were 16 cases in Singapore as against 2 in 1905, resulting in 16 
convictions, fines inflicted amounting to $338 ; 8 cases related to reserved forests. 

In Penang and Province Wellesley, there were 37 prosecutions ; resulting in 29 
convictions, $282 being realized in fines. 

This shews a great increase over 1905. 

In the Dindings, there were 16 prosecutions and 15 convictions, with one acquittal, 
fines amounting to $140. The decrease in the number of cases is due to better 
supervision and probably to the fact that the Rules are better understood. (43 cases 
in 1905 with 33 convictions). 

In Malacca, 84 cases of forest offences were dealt with, resulting in 53 convictions 
and 13 acquittals. Fourteen cases were compounded, 3 accused absconded and one 
case was struck out, leaving 2 cases pending at the close of the year. 

This shews an increase over 1905. Of these, 13 cases were concerned with 
offences in forest reserves. 

IV. Improvement of Forests. 

(a) Natural Reproduction. 

17. There is little to report under this head, Meranti reproduces itself well in the 
Dindings and Tampinis in MaP :a. 


3 


% hundred and twenty-four f aban trees (Gutta percha) have been counted 
m small blocks growing on Crown Land, of which 14 are over 2 feet in girth. 

A few saplings of Resak and Petaling have been noticed. 

Artificial Reproduction. 

-> [For Particulars See Form 8 .*] 

t8. In Singapore the 10 acre block of Para rubber in Sembawang reserve was 
weeded at a cost of $65.95. ® 

Baklt 1 lr ” ah f lantatl01 ] f Gutta percha, 97 acres in extent, 50 acres were 
cleared of undergrowth at a cost of $83.70. The gutta percha plants are planted in 
lines in the forest, and are doing well. No addition was made to the area. ? 

19. In Penang $144.30 were spent on weeding and clearing in the Bate, Ferringgi 

pTant a s P appe a ar P !o n be healthy. pla " tcd - owi ^ t0 want of The 

The aiea of this plantation at the close of the year was 68 acres. 

i 2 °i P 7 h f 2 -a Cre plantat ‘ 0n at , Tasek Gla gor cannot be called a success. A fire 
1 . 5 R et wide was cut roun^2 sides during the year, to prevent Ialang fires 

Pulau JerejaL — 1 his island has been handed over to the charge of the Medical 
Department, who collect the revenue on the coconuts. 

out o^theliop^S hT 4,000 SeedlingS 0f Mah0 S a ^ and Albi - a — planted 

21. There are no plantations in the Dmdings. 

22. In Malacca 38 acres were planted during the year with Chengal ( Balanocarpus 

& ^ MerbaU [AfZel,a Nibong 

At Ayer Kroh most of the Chengal planted out in 1905 died owin^ it is thrmo-hf 

la°iledt C:f Marc m o e t “'xTc" TM™ Gutta P^a plants were 

■ arsed by Afarcottage. The Conservator inspected the plantations during the year 

which now amounts to 294 acres in area. The results obtained are very satisfactory 
plantatlonTSssa 0 ' 1 ' ^ ^ ^ and ll «= expenditure on the 

V, Exploitation, 

(See Form 9*) 

(tf) Timber and Fuel, 

J3. tu Singapore 219 trees were cut under passes, and t2,? 7 n poles realign,, 
*303 revenue. 3,048 poles and small trees were cut under free passes ’ g 

and rea°l “ed^ 9 r “ re8erVed fore3tS - Passes were ^ to cut Firewood 

24. In Penang and Province Wellesley no figures are available but the quantity 

2 “«“42"S “ M »— USSS 

Penang is supplied with timber aud fuel from Kedah and Perak forests. 

25. In the Dindings felling was carried on in i inrallhV j c , 

in use, cutting being allowed in Telok Sera, Gunong Tuno-alMrMT^VT 6 
reserves, all trees being marked before felling by the Forest-Ranger * Batu k ndan 

Twelve thousand two hundred and twelve cuhir - r.f 
from the reserves or 244 tons, and from other forests 3o c 1 ■ ? 7 ere extrac ted 
but of this amount 129 cubic feet (2* tons 0r / 9 ° t0ns ’ 

C ™-^ 1 ^ 4 , 4 “ bk *• - 

26. The average number of Mangrove firewood-cutters during the vear m . o 
cutting under $5 monthly passes. e ^ ar was 65, 

launch ' eight P “““ Were iSSUed fr “ t0 l,U! Government firewood contractors for 

The out-put of firewood slightly exceeded that of mn- r'N t • 
in the Dindings. ‘ Charcoal is not worked 


* Not printed. 


4 


j 7 . In Malacca, timber was cut under passes and the amount therefore not known, 

but fees realized $2,858 as against $ 97 ^ 1 9 ° 5 - , . , 

The Public Works Department were supplied with timber free of royalty, w ic 

would have amounted to $65. 

(b) Minor Forest Produce. 

28. In Singapore, small amounts of Nibong, Mengkuang, Retail and Resam were 
extracted bringing in a small revCnhe. 

29. In Penang and Province Wellesley, Bamboos, Canes and other produce 

realized $100 as against $147 in I 9 ° 5 - , , , 

,0 In the Dindings, 200,760 bundles of 1 engah bark were collected, and bamboos 
and' canes were cut unde,; monthly permit, Form /o* shews the revenue realized but the 
amount cut cannot be accordingly estimated. 

[ n Malacca, there was a considerable increase in revenue on minor torest 
nroduce The rmht to collect wood oil from Depterocarpus Cnmtus was sold in the 
Sungai Udang reserve for $So and $40 in the Nyalas reserve. 

I11 all $976.10 was realized on minor produce taken from reserves. 


PART III. 


Financial Results. 


Particulars in Form ii.* 
I. Revenue shews an increase over 1905 of $79.18. 


Settl 

enient. 

u 

r 

Actual 1905. 

Estimated 

1906. 

1 

Actual 1906. 

Excess or 
deficit on 
estimate. 



$ c. 

$ c. 

T 

$ c. 

$ c. 

Singapore 

f » • » 

389 58 

r,ooo 00 

1,078 30 

+ 78 30 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley ... Ii 

Dindings 

7 °i 79 

11,234 54 

, I 

1 3 000 00 

) 

565 I* 

9 , 37 6 7 ^ 

\ 

, - 3 ,^Sh 1 1 

\> 

Malacca 

% 

« I c * * 

4,087 26 

4,000 00 

i 

5 > 47 2 16 

+ 1,472 16 


Total .. 

1 

. ; 16413 17 

1 1 8,000 00 

16,492 35 

- I, 5°7 65 


22, The increase in Singapore is due chiefly to issue ol passes to cut Mangrove. 
33. In Penang and Province Wellesley there was a decrease in revenue, |56 5 as 

against $701 in 1905. * . , 

, . r„ the Dindings there was a fall in timber revenue, from $5,277 in 1905 to 
i, ,906 mvi g to the fact that the Neor Sebatang and Batu Uudan Timber 
R^sis' had to be closed down through Scarcity of timber, it was then necessary for 
r h e bmber cntters to move to a new locality and build new sheds, etc. during which 
time no timber was exported. 

There was also a fall in Jungle produce, chiefly on Bamboos and Canes due 
to the fact that many of the workers left the Dindings Territory to take up jungle 

felling work on rubber estates. . 

The revenue may, however, be taken as but little below normal, taking into 

consideration the slate oi the toiests, 

35. In Malacca the increase is due chiefly to the exploitation ot minor forest 
produce also to an increase in imber fees. 


*Not printed. 




lug 




0 


II. Expenditure. 

For details See Form II.* 


J 

Settlement. 

Actual 

1905. 

Estimated 

1906. 

Actual 

1906, 

■ — * 

Savings on 
Estimates. 

Singapore 

' 1 j 

$ c. 

6,006 7 L 

.» > 

c ' 

> 9,048 00 

c, 

5,1802 87 

$ c. 

3,245 13 

i 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley ... 

■ 

6,62 1 88 

6,146 00 

J 

4, 1 80 44 

} 

1,965 56 

Dindings 

5,029 40 

'"Xv 

6,154 00 

' 5»324 26 

829 74 

Alalacca 

> 

8,014 86 

8,572 00 

8,501 22 

70 78 

c . . 

t Total ... 

’ 

25,672 85 

29,920 00 

23,808 79 

6, 1 1 1 21 


36. The Singapore expenditure apart from Conservator only, amounted to $1,924; 
one-third of the Conservator's salary and his Colonial Transport expenses are included 
under Singapore votes. 

37. In Penang and Province Wellesley there was a saving of $1,965 on the 
amount estimated, included in the above figures, but $214.64 were spent on travelling 
expenses of Mr. O'Hara to Dehra Dun, and $364 advanced to the Director of the 
Forest School for his education, which sums are not included in the above table. 

38. In Malacca. The vote for planting Gutta Percha trees was extended by $450, 


Settlement. 

Revenue 

1906. 

Expenditure 

1906. 

Surplus. 

Deficit. 


$ £\ 

$ c. 

$ c. 

* 

$ 

Singapore 

1,078 30 

5,802 87 

p 4,724 57 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley ... 

565 II 

4,180 44 


3,615 33 

Dindings 

9,376 78 

5,324 26 

4,052 52 

* * • 

Malacca 

5,472 l6 

8,501 22 

... 

3,029 06 

Total ... 

16,492 35 

23,808 79 

1 

4,052 52 

11,368 96 


A deficit of $7,316.44 as compared with a deficit of $9,259.68 in 1905. 

39. The Revenue in Singapore will probably shew an increase in 1907 a & it is 
proposed to work the Pandan Reserve for fuel on a regular system. 


Establishments. 

40. Mr. A. B. STEPHENS, acted as Conservator from 1st January, 1906, to 13th 
April, 1906, when Mr. A. M. BURN-MURDOCH returned from leave and resumed charge. 

41. In Penang, Air. Fox, Superintendent of Forests and Gardens went on leave 
in April; the Collector of Land Revenue, Penang, carrying on his duties. 

In June, an arrangement was made by which Mr. W. H. Miller, Forest Ranker, 
Lower Perak, was to visit the Settlement for a week e "ery 2 months. He paid 

* Not printed. 



three visits, in July, September, and in November. This arrangement is far from 
satisfactory leaving the subordinate staff too much to their own devices. 

42. In the Dindings Mr. G. M. O’Hara, Ranger, II Grade, held charge under the 
District Officer till March when he left to undergo the ^raining at Dehra Dun Forest 
School, being replaced by Mr. J. E. Askey, of the Federated Malay States Forest 
Service, also Ranger, II Grade, who has performed his duties steadily and well, 
although hampered by sickness. 

The Deputy Ranger, Mr. Pasqual, was appointed Sanitary 7 Inspector, Bukit 
Mertajam, in November. The health of the Ranger and Clerk has been bad, Malaria 
appearing to be very prevalent. 

43. In Malacca, Mr. V. P. BORGES, Ranger, I Grade, held charge throughout the 
year and has done good work. The forest scheme was amended (Forests 7,024/06) as 
far as Concerned Sterling paid Rangers. The scheme for forest guards was also 
altered (C. S. 4,066/05/, the alteration, however, as concerns other settlements appears 
to have been wrongly published during the absence of the writer of this report, 
who approached the Government with the object of revising the whole scheme, and 
introducing annual increments as in the Federated Malay States, This matter is to 
be considered when forwarding 1908 estimates. 

44. The subordinate staff have given satisfaction in Singapore, Malacca and the 
Dindings, but were unsatisfactory in the Province. 

45. The Conservator during the year made a tour of inspection in Singapore, 
visiting all the more important forest reserves, also a tour of inspection in the Alor 
Gajah District in Malacca as well as Bukit Bruang reserve. He paid two short visits 
to the Dindings, inspecting on the latter occasion the Batu Undan reserve, and visited 
Penang on two occasions. Over a month was spent on such tours besides a consider- 
able portion of his time in office business in which he is assisted by a clerk on a salary 
of $600 paid from Colonial votes. 

He has made use of his private motor car on Government work in Malacca, but 
the Colony does not pay any share of his motor car allowance. The Colony has paid 
one-third share of his salary, but on the other hand were the Conservatorship of the 
Colony a separate appointment, there would be additional expenses in the way of 
office establishment which are now borne by the Federated Malay States. 

A. M. BURN-MURDOCH, 

Conservator of Forests , 

Federated Malay States and Straits Settlements. 


STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. 

Paper to be laid before the Legislative Council by Command of 

, His Excellency the Governor. 




* 


Annual Report on Forest Administration in the Straits 

Settlements for the Year 1007. > 

/ 


PART I. 

Extension and Conr+jtution of Reserved Forests. 

( See Form 1 .* *) 

I. The areas of reserved forests remain the same as in 1906 in Penang and 
Province Wellesley. 

In Singapore, an area of 570 acres to the West of the Jurong River was added to 
the Pandan Mangrove Reserve, bringing the total area of Pandan Reserve up to 
3,334 acres. 

In the Diridings, 1,500 acres were added to the Batu Undan Reserve, and 
1,200 acres re-included in the Tanjong Burong Mangrove Reserve. 

In Malacca, two small areas were excised from Ayer Pan as for tin mining, but 
contained very poor forest, A small corner of Bukit Sedanan Reserve was cut off by 
the Railway Department, 242 acres in all. 

The form below shows the areas of reserved forests in relation to the whole 
areas of the various Settlements as on 31st December, 1907. 


1 

Area on 

Area on 

Area on 


Settlement, 

1st Jan., 

1st Dec., 

31st Dec., 

Percentage. 


1907. 

1907. 

1907. 


Singapore ... 

206 

\ 

2 2' a 

0 ■ 

♦ 

w 

23A * 
25^, 

11-31 

Penang and Province Wellesley 

395 

25 A 

6*45 

Dindings 

265 

36-1 

40-3 

15-21 

Malacca 

659 

CO 

I 777 

1 1 * 7 7 


h 525 

1620 

1 66*8 

10-93 


Reserve Proposals. 

2. There are no further extensions under consideration at present, nor are there 
likely to be any more. Belts of forest half a mile wide connecting the various resJbves 
are kept as a protection against pests. 


Demarcation and Up-keep of Boundaries. 


{See Form 3 *) 


3. The repairs to boundaries in Singapore were carried out by Forest Guards 
and inspected by the newly appointed Forest Ranger, who reports them in good order. 
There are 126 miles of boundaries. 


4. In Penang, 44 miles of boundaries were recleared at a 
Province Wellesley 26 miles at $160. 


cost of $290, and 


in 


*1 


• t 


* Not printed. 


2 


5. In the Dindings, 4! miles of new boundaries were cut out and surveyed by the 
Forest Ranger at $244, and 5 7\ miles of old boundaries recleared for $307. 

Fifty-two steel reserve posts and plates were erected at salient points on the 
boundaries and where cut by roads, etc,, as in the Federated Malay States. 

6. In Malacca, 62b miles of boundaries were recleared at a cost of $218, the 
balance 45^ miles not requiring much attention was upkept by the Forest Guards. 
Twenty boundary plates were elected along various boundaries. 

Surveys. 

7. Tracings of all reserve boundaries in Singapore and Malacca were supplied to 
the Conservator of Forests by the Superintendent of Works and Surveys. In the 
Dindings, six reserves remain unsurveyed. 

4 

PART H. 

v 

Management of Forests. 

Working Plans. 

8. The Malacca Reserves are worked according to a rough-working plan, 
compartments being marked out and worked in Ayer Panas, Merlimau and Sungai 
Udang Reserves, and inspected by the Conservator. 

It is expected that both the Tanjong Burong Mangrove Reserve, Dindings, and 
the Pandan Reserve in Singapore will be opened to working in 1908 under a regular 
working plan. 

Paths and Buildings. 

9. In Province Wellesley, the Tasek Glugor Station is in bad repair. 

In the Dindings, the path in Lumut Reserve was cleared by boatmen. Quarters 
were built for the Forest Clerk by the Public Works Department and minor repairs 
effected where necessary. 

10. In Malacca, a new Forest Station was built at the 12th mile near Sungai Udang 
Reserve and cost $525, repairs to other Stations cost $469. Paths in reserves were 
cleared at a cost of $81 as per Form 6* 

Protection. 

11. The draft Forest Ordinance as submitted by the Conservator of Forests in 
December, 1906, was still under consideration by the Solicitor-General and has not yet- 
been passed in Council. 

12. In Penang, Forest Rules were drafted by the Conservator and approved by 
His Excellency the Governor in Council, the rates of royalty on timber and forest 
produce being completely revised, and provision made for issuing of passes to cut and 
collect forest prqj^ce in reserved forests with sanction of the Conservator. 

In Malacca, Rule 1 of the Rules was amended. 

Forest Offences. 

13. In Singapore, there were 20 cases brought to Court, resulting in 19 convictions, 
as against 16 in 1906. This I think is due to more inspection by the Forest Ranger. 

14. In Penang, there were 23 cases of illicit cutting of timber, of which seven 
were acquitted. Fines realized $315. 

In Province Wellesley, there were four cases and three convictions. 

15. In the Dindings, there were 40 prosecutions and 29 convictions, a bad 
percentage. Eight hundred and three dollars lines were inflicted, of which $423 were 
realized, the other offenders going to gaol. 

16. In Malacca, there were 85 cases resulting in 45 convictions and nine acquittals, 
26 cases were compounded for $215, three pending at the close of the year, one 
withdrawn and one absconded. Fines in Court amounted to $724, of which $70 were 
awarded to the Forest Department as compensation, and $57 was realized by sale of 
confiscated forest produce. Thirteen of the offences were concerned with reserved 
forests. 

Improvement of Forests. 

Natural Reproduction. 

17. Meranti seedlings wire reported as plentiful in the Dindings in most places. 

In Malacca, Re seedlings are reported as plentiful in Bukit Senggeh, 

* Not printed. 


3 


Bukit Sedanan and Bafang Malacca Reserves, Bintangor reproduced itself well in Bukit 
Bruang Reserve also Tampinis. Ebony, Belian and Seraya are plentiful in Sungai 
Udang Reserve, also saplings of Medang and Bintangor in the Sungai Siput Reserve. 
Rambei Daun and Meranti reproduce themselves well. 

Artificial Reproduction. 

1 8. In Singapore, the 90 acres of Gutta Percha in Bukit Timah Reserve was 

greatly improved during the year, costing $460. The 10 acres of Para planted about 
10 years ago in Sembawang Reserve were cleared. p 

19. In Penang, the plantation at Batu Ferringgi, 68 acres was upkept at a cost 
of $212, and the Experimental Teak Plantation at Tasek Glugor for $62. The latter 
is not a success. The soil at Batu Ferringgi does not appear to be very suitable for 
the growth of Taban planting and operation^ have been discontinued. 

Details will be found in Form 8,* J 

20. In Malacca the whole area planted now 7 amounts to 297 acres, costing 

$1,766 in upkeep. Revenue derived therefrom principally from the tapping of Para 
and from fruit trees was $445. The blocks of bluker forest in the Bukit Bruang 
Reserve planted up previously, wereVpkept, and half an acre of Gutta Percha planted 
with 60 plants from Marcottes, and 3 acres of Penak ( Balanocarpus ) planted i6| feet 
apart in lines cut in the bluker. It is reported that Gutta Percha plants were not 
attacked by the caterpillars as usual. The reverse was the case in Selangor where the 
attacks were unusually severe. i 

The Tembusu planted in lalang grass in 1904, 6 feet by 6 feet have suppressed 
the lalang. 

21. Improvement fellings were made in the Taban and Tembusu blocks where 
necessary, other inferior species of trees being cleared to give room and light. 

22. The nursery is well stocked and contains at present 20,000 seedlings of the 
following species : — 

Penak, Merbau, Penaga, Resak and Nibong also a few hundred Xiato and 
Kledang. 

The Penak seed was obtained from Pahang, the Penaga ( Mesua f erred) from 
Negri Sembilan and the Resak (Shorea sp : ) from Bukit Senggeh Reserve in Malacca. 

23. Para Rubber. — Five hundred trees were leased out to a Malay to tap. The 
Conservator inspected the tapping which had been done in September and October, 1907. 
It was very badly done, the trees having been damaged by careless tapping. The work 
was taken away from this man. Sanction was obtained on the recommendation of the 
Conservator to tap departmentally in 1908, and a drying shed was erected. 

A mangle was purchased, and the profits should increase under this head. The 
Forest Ranger, Malacca, was sent to Taiping to study the methods of .tapping and 
curing rubber in force in the Forest Department plantation there, as a jfigh price hack 
been obtained for the sheet turned out. a 

Exploitation. 

{See Form 9.*) 

Timber and Fuel. 

24. In Singapore, no felling was permitted in reserved forests, passes were 
issued to cut firewood on Crown Land and realized $4,112, as against $696 in 1906. 

25. In Penang and Province Wellesley no figures are available, but the revenue 
derived from licences was $491, as against $455 in 1906. 

26. In the Dindings, timber extracted from reserved forests amounted to 
87 tons of 50 cubic feet, and Class I B 720 tons; in free grants to the Public Works 
Department 33 tons from Crown Lands, and alienated land 79 tons, Class I A. 2414:0ns 
Class B /, 12 tons Class II. The revenue realized was $4,798 against $3,898 in 1906, 

Firewood was cut under passes and realized $3,870, a slight decrease over 1906, 

In Malacca. 

Reserved Forests. 

♦ 

27. In Merlimau, 445 trees of Class I, in Ayer Panas 136 trees, and in Sungai Udang 
117 trees were marked by the Forest Ranger for felling in the compartments allotted, 
and 450 were felled during the year. Besides this 46 Merbau, Belian and Resak trees 
were marked in Forest Reserves for the supply of teams and planks for the 

* Not printed. 



4 


Public Works Department. The removal of Class //timber was unrestricted inside 
the compartments for the year, but passes were issued for its felling and removal. 
For royalty realized {see Form //*). 

28. The $303 shown is revenue due by the Public Works Department but not in 
reality credited to the Department. 

No figures are available for tonnage of timber removed as the pass system is in 
force, except the small amount supplied to the Public Works Department. ' Passes in 
reserves realized $1,269 an< ^ on unreserved Crown Lands $2,620. 

2g. Hrewood-cutters’ passes realized $460, of which $4 36 was derived from Gelam 
{Melaleuca). 

( harcoal realized $258, total $718, an increase over 1906 of $51, 

* Minor Forest Produce. 

^ \ 

30. In Singapore realized $84, chiefly Nibong, Resam, Mengkuang and Rotan, as 
against $29 in 1906. 

In Penang, Bertam, Paias, and Beetle-nut stems were much in demand, revenue 
realized $199, as against $88 in 1906. 

31. In the Dindings, $814 was realized on bamboos and canes as against $702 in 
1906, and other produce realized $816 as against $734 in 1906, of which $272.93 was 
realized in royalty on Tengah bark. ( Ceriops Candolleana.) 

32. In Malacca, the right to collect wood oil from Diptei'ocarpus Crinitns was sold 
in the Sungai Udang Reserve for $80 and in Nyalas Reserve for $40. 

Para Rubber realized $205 and sale of seeds and seedlings $173.50. In all $990 
were obtained from jungle produce and rubber, as against $976 in 1906. 


PART 111. 

Financial Results. 

Particulars in Form ii* 


33. 1 he following statement shows the comparison of revenue in 1906 and igoy : — 


Settlement. 

Actual 

1906. 

I 

Estimated 

1907. 

1 

Actual 

1907. 

Excess or 
deficit on 
Estimate. 


J ! 

$ c. 

$ c. 

1 

j 

$ c. 

$ c. 

Singapore 

1,078 30 

800 00 

4>397 45 

+ 3.597 45 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley ... 

* 

565 ” 

1,000 00 

777 85 

— 222 15 

Dindings 

9.376 78 

10,000 00 

10.593 78 

+ 593 78 

Malacca ... ... 

5,472 16 

6,000 00 

6,554 54 
*• 

+ 554 54 

Total ... 

16,492 35 

• 

17,800 00 

22,323 62 

+ 4.523 62 


34. The above includes $1 59 revenue due by Public Works Department in the 
Dindings, and $303 in Malacca not actually credited in the Treasury. 

Total revenue shows an increase over 1906 of $5,831, of which $3,468 is due to 
increased revenue on firewood in Singapore, owing to the throwing open of unreserved 
mangrove forests to firewood -cutters under $3 monthly passes. 

35. Malacca shows an increase of over $1,000, due to removal of timber from 
reserved forests by pass holders. 

36. In the Dindings, the chief increases are about $650 on timber, bamboos and 
canes $1 12. Marking fees $225. 

In Penang and Province Wellesley about $100 on timber and $100 on other 
produce. v 

* Not printed. 


c 


5 


Expenditure. 

(See Form ii*) 

37. This form shows the total expenditure in each Settlement as compared with 
1906 and estimates for .307 : — 


Settlement. 

Actual 

1906. 

Estimated 

'9°7- 

Actual 

1907. 

Savings on 
Estimates. 

1 

Singapore ... ... 

$ c. 

* 

5,802 87 

$ c. 

* 

8,354 OO 

$ c, 

7J67 5 1 

$ c. 

586 49 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley ... 

Dindings 

4* 1 80 44 

} 5.324 26 

5,990, 00 

6,667 00 

4 t 9 di 46 

5,804 50 

| 1-891 04 

Malacca 

8,501 22 

9,130 00 

8,582 48 

547 52 

Total ... 

23,808 79 

30,141 00 

27*115 95 

3*025 05 


38. The expenditure exceeds that of 1906 by $3,307, due chiefly to the 
following items : — 

One thousand dollars was sent to the Dehra Dun College to pay the expenses of 
the training of Mr. G. M. O’Hara. 

In Singapore, an increase on salaries of $1,467, due to the appointment of a Forest 
Ranger, Grade III, and increment of Conservator of Forests. Transport and Personal 
Allowances about $300, owing to Forest Ranger. 

In the Dindings, about $400, chiefly due to boundary marks and their erection. 

Administration. 

A revised Scheme for the department was sanctioned during the yeg.r and is 
appended to this report. The only increase to the staff during the year was that of 
the Forest Ranger, Singapore, who is in Grade III, $720 to $x,d8o per annum. 

Mr. A. M. BURN-MURDOCH held charge of the post of Conservator of Forests 
throughout the year till 13th December when he was granted vacation leave for one 
month. 

In Penang, the department was managed by the Collector of Land Revenue with 
the assistance of Mr. Miller, who paid visits every second month until the arrival of 
Mr. Derry on ist July. 

One Forest Guard in Penang resigned. 

In Singapore, the Collector of Land Revenue has directed the work and all forest 
revenue has been collected in his office. 

In the Dindings, Mr. ASKEY, Forest Ranger, was in charge of the forest work 
under the District Officer till March when he was transferred owing to bad health. He 
was succeeded by Mr. Kf.UN from Selangor who will hold charge till the return of 
Mr. O'Hara from Dehra Dun. 

The forest clerk has suffered much from Malaria. 

The Deputy Ranger was well reported on until December when he appears to 
have neglected his work. Two Forest Guards had their increments stopped for six 
months and one died from Malaria. 

In Malacca, Mr. V. P. BORGES continued as Forest Ranger in charge of the 
forest^, and the Ayer Kroh Plantation was supervised under his direction by Ran o’er 
Sheikh Amat bin Imam Mudin. 

Two Forest Guards were sentenced to four months' rigorous imprisonment for 
receiving illegal gratifications. Generally speaking the staff has worked well. 

A. M. BURN-MURDOCH, 

Conservator of Forests, 

Federated Malay States and Straits Settlements. 


-> 


* Not printed. 


6 


Scheme of Salaries for the Subordinate Officers of the Forest 

Department, Straits Settlements 

( Vide Secretary of State's Despatch No. j of 3rd January, 1908.) 


Appointments. 


Grade. 


Salary. 


Place. 


Increments, 

Annual. 


Forest Ranger 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 


Foresters 

Forest Guards 

Do. 


\: 


11 

1 

hi 

IV 


£160- £220 

£i30-£i6o 

£160-^220 

# 

$7 20-$ 1, 080 
$420-$66 o 


r 


1 


$240-$36o-<! 


$I20-$I92 


$i44-$2i6. 


Malacca 

Penang 

Dindings 

Singapore 

Penang 

Malacca 

Dindings 

.Singapore 
Malacca 
Penang 
Dindings 
P. Wellesley 

Singapore 


£10 

£10 

£lO 

$60 

$30 


con 

(2) 1 

(2) S* Four of $30 

Wil 

(0 j 

(10) Six of $12 


Penang 
Dindings l(i2)j 

P. Wellesley I 
Malacca (16); 


Six of 
$ 12 


1. Forest Rangers, Grade II, will not be eligible for promotion to Grade I, until 
they have passed an examination in Forest Law and in the Malay Language, which 
latter shall include ; — 

(i) Being able to converse freely in Malay on all matters connected with their 

duties ; 

(ii) Being able to take down a report without the help (of an interpreter ; and 

(iii) Passing an elementary examination in vocabulary. 

2. All sterling appointments and those of Forest Rangers, Grade III, will be 
pensionable, except where the officer is under agreement or oil deputation. 

3. — (i) In the case of annual increments the first increment in each case will date 
from the 1st January or the 1st July next subsequent to the completion of a year’s 
service. 

(ii) List of officers eligible and recommended for increment will be sent in 
triplicate to the Colonial Secretary in December and June of each year for approval, 
and, if approved, one copy will be sent to the Conservator, and one to the Auditor- 
General, who will issue the necessary warrants after satisfying himself that the officers 
affected are eligible for the increments under the scheme. 

(iii) The Conservator will certify on these lists that the conduct of every officer 
recommended for an increment has been good, and that he has performed his duty in a 
satisfactory manner, 

(iv) It will be his duty to refuse the increment for which any officer is eligible, in 
every case in which such officer has been guilty of misconduct or has failed in the 
performance of his duty. 

4. — (ij Officers holding appointments as Forest Rangers, Foresters and Forest 
Guards are entitled, until further tice, to occupy Government Quarters free of rent. 


7 

Subordinate Staff. 








The following table sl^ws the strength of the Forest Subordinate Staff in the 

Department at the close of the year -. — 


Settlement. 

j Rangers 
Grade 

I. 

Rangers 

Grade 

II. 

Rangers 

Grade 

III. 

Rangers 

Grade 

IV, 

Deputy, 

Rangers 

Grade 

I. 

' Deputy 
Rangers 
Grade 
II. 

Forest- 

ers. 

Forest 

Guards. 

Resig- 

nations. 

Dismis- 

sals. 

Singapore. . . 


• » t 

I 

* 

• • 4 



• * 

° 10 

) 

• * * 

)' ' ’ 

Penang, 

Province 

Wellesley 

1 

> ■ 



I 

I 

■ y 

*v Jf i ' , rlJ 

5 

II 

I 

* # * 

and 

Din dings 
Malacca ... 

1 

J 

I 

... 

• » • 

I 

• • • 

* * * 

2 

16 

j 

I 

2 

Total ... 

2 


I 

2 

I 


7 

37 

2 . ! 

2 


) 


3 




> 


) 


4/ &1 


Annual Report on Forest Administration in the Straits 

Settlements for the Year 1908. 


PART I. 

Extension and Constitution of Reserved Forests. 

(See Form i for Area Statement.) 

I. The areas of reserved forests in Singapore, Penang, Province Wellesley and 
Malacca remain unchanged. 

In the Dindings, the Tanjong Hantu Reserve was reduced to 538 acres and the 
area of Tanjong Burong Reserve found on survey to be increased by 1,672 acres. 

The statement below shows the area of reserved forests in relation to the whole 
area of the Settlements as on 31st December, 1908, in square miles. 


Settlement. 

Area of 
settlement 
in square 
miles. 

Area of 

reserves on 
1st Jan., 
1908, 
sq. miles. 

Area of 
reserves on 
3 1st Dec., 
1908, 
sq. miles. 

Percentage. 

Singapore ... 

206 

2 3’3 

2 3'3 

11*31 

Penang and Province Wellesley ... ■ 

395 

2 5'5 

2 5'5 

6-45 

Dindings 

265 

40-3 

41 - 2 

I 5'54 

Malacca 

659 

• 

777 

777 

“77 

Total ... 

F 5 2 5 

1668 

1677 

1099 


Reserve Proposals. 

2. No new reserves were proposed during the year. 


Demarcation and Up-keep of Boundaries. 

(See Form 3. *) 

3. In Singapore repairs to boundaries were as usual carried out by Forest Guards. 
There are 91 miles of such boundaries. Boundary stones were placed round Pandan 
Reserve. -The Forest Ranger reports them all in good order except portions of 
Seletar. 

4. In Penang, 62 miles of boundaries were re-cleared at a cost of $339, and 
21 miles in Province Wellesley at a cost of $158. Boundaries were under the charge 
of the Superintendent of Forests and Gardens who inspected portions. 

5. In the Dindings, 62 miles of boundaries were re-cleared at a cost of $295 


* Not printed. 


2 


6. In Malacca, 94 miles were re-cleared at a cost of $392 ; they are in good order. 
Twenty-three iron reserve boundary plates and posts were erected along boundaries. 
Those boundaries inspected by the Conservator were found to be in good order. 

Surveys. 

7. 1 he boundary ol the Pan dan extension was surveyed during the year, and 
the h orest Ranger made a rougli survey of the Changi Mangrove areas, and parts of 
Sungai Murai, Kranji and Sungai Bulob. 

8. In the Bindings the ianjong Burong Reserve was surveyed and the area 
found to be 4,672 acres, instead of the 3,000 acres previously estimated. The Batu 
Undan boundary was surveyed by the Forest Ranger with prismatic compass. In 
Malacca the felling coupes in Ayer Panas, Merlimau and Sungai Udang were 
surveyed roughly departmental^, also the Government plantations at Ayer Kroh and 
Bu kit Sebukor. 


PART ii. 


Management of Forests. 


Working Plans. 


g. In Singapore, an area of one-twentieth of the area of Mangrove in the Pandan 
Reserve was leased, or 100 acres, and realized $6oo. Similarly in Changi Reserve an 
area of 30 acres was leased for $210. The leases allow of felling of all trees over four 
inches in diameter for a period of one year. The contracts were signed on 28th 
October and 15th November, respectively. 

This is the first time that systematic working of any of the Singapore forests has 
been introduced. The produce is restricted to firewood/ 

10. In Penang and Province Wellesley there is no systematic extraction of forest 
produce from reserved forests. 

11. In the Bindings the Tanjong Burong working plan could not be arranged as 
the survey was in progress ; it will take effect early in 1909. 

12. In Malacca the reserves are worked according to a rough plan in Merlimau, 
Ayer Panas, Sungai Udang and Bukit Sedanan. Extraction of timber was permitted 
in these reserves in marked coupes, all Class I trees being selected by the Forest 
JRanaer. 

o 


The following trees were marked for felling : — 


Merlimau 
Ayer Panas 
Sungai Udang 
Bukit Sedanan 


142/ 

1 32 >° fClaSS '• 

85 J 


Only 20 Resak trees were felled in Bukit Sedanan and it was found unprofitable 
to exploit the area owing to heavy cost of transport. One hundred and thirty-nine 
trees marked during 1907 were felled. 


Paths in Reserves and Buildings. 

13. In the Bindings a path was cut by the boatmen from the reservoir at Lumut 
through the Lumut Reserve across the gap Ln the hill. In Malacca paths in reserves 
were cleared at a cost of $193. 

14. Repairs to existing buildings were carried out in all Settlements by the Public 
Works Department. In Malacca a drying-shed for the rubber obtained from the 
Government plantations at Ayer Kroh and Bukit Bruang was erected at a cost of $435. 


Protection, 

Legal. 

15. New Forest Rules for Penang and Province Wellesley were drafted by the 
Conservator and came into force on 1st January, 1908. A Forest Ordinance was 
passed in November 1908, but is not yet in force, and awaits the preparation of 


3 


accurate descriptions of the boundaries of reserved forests. Revised rules for a. I 
Settlements under this Ordinance were drafted and submitted by the Conservator 
towards the close of the year. 


F ire. 


i6. In Malacca, 18 persons were punished for causing lalang fires. About 36 
acres of lalang in the Bukit Bruang Reserve were burnt, but no damage was done to 
the forest. 


Forest Offences. 

( Form 7* shows particulars .) 

17. There were 131 new cases of breaches of rules during the year as against 143 
in 1907, and three cases were pending at commencement of the year in Malacca, 
There were 107 convictions. Three cases were pending at the close of the year in 
Singapore. This gives a percentage of convictions of 82 per cent. Besides the above 
in Malacca 43 cases were compounded for $201.48. 

18. There was a falling off of prosecutions in the Dindings, due no doubt to the 
decline in the timber industry. In Penang there were 21 convictions out of 22 cases. 

Improvement of Forests, 

Natural Reproduction . 

19. In Singapore natural reproduction of Gutta-percha is said to be good in the 
Pandan and Bukit Timah Reserves, and Tampinis in Sungai Buloh and Changi. In 
Penang some old Gutta-percha trees in the Gardens seeded, and 1,350 seedlings were 
obtained. Natural reproduction of the important species is reported as good in the 
Dindings. In Malacca there was a poor seed year. 

A rtificial Rep reduction . 

20. In Singapore the Gutta-percha plantation in Bukit Timah of 97 acres was 
upkept at a cost of $588, and 10 acres of Para Rubber in the Sembawang cost $65 for 
weeding and clearing. In Bukit Timah a nursery was made and seedlings of Gutta- 
percha trees taken from the forests and planted, afterwards being planted out in the 
plantation to fill up blanks. This plantation was not made on a cleared area, but 
seedlings planted out in lines under cover of the forests. Forest trees were cut out 
here and there to give light to the Gutta-percha which have shown great improvement. 
The Conservator visited both areas during the year. 

21. In Penang the Batu Feringgi plantation of Gutta-percha was upkept at a cost 
of $125.85. A small number of Manicoba rubber trees and Lagos silk rubber were 
planted near the forest station at lasek Glugor, as an experiment, but were not very 
successful. 

22. In the Dindings 130 seedlings of fruit trees were obtained from the Botanic 
Gardens, Penang, and planted out at Lumut. 

23. In the Bukit Bruang Reserve, Malacca, three acres of lalang were planted up 
with Tembusu and eight acres of belukart with Kledang. The area of the plantations 
in this reserve was on 31st December, 1908, 279 acres, and there are two acres of 
Para at Bukit Sebukor. The plantations consist of Para, Merbau, Penak, Nibong, 
Kledang, Penaga, Gutta-percha and a few Mahogany. The Para was tapped* the 
expenditure thereby incurred being met from the vote for “ Upkeep of Plantations, 
Ayer Kroh.” 

The Conservator inspected the plantations. There are 720 Para trees with an 
average girth of 24^ indies. Great improvement was noticed in the Getah Sundik 
Block. 

The Penak nursery was twice attacked by the larvae of Nacaduba. The planta- 
tion was surveyed departmental !y, boundary stones put in and a plan supplied to 
the Conservator. 

24. In the Merlimau Reserve 3,000 Merbau seeds were dibbled in over the area 
which has been exploited wherever small clearings were made by felling of large trees. 


* Not printed. f Secondary jungle. 


4 


Exploitation. 

(See Form 9.*) 


A. — From Reserved Forests. 

25. In Singapore felling of Mangrove for firewood was commenced in the Pandan 
and Changi Reserves, in October and November; returns of the amount of firewood 
extracted will be given during 1909. In Penang and Province Welleslev five permits 
were issued for cutting of timber, and six for extraction of minor produce from reserves. 

26. In the Dindings the Telok Sera, Batu Undan, and Lumut Reserves were 
exploited, all trees being selected and marked by a Forest Officer. Seven hundred 
and thirty-three tons (of 50 cubic feet) were extracted, of which 185 were of Class 
1-A, i.e., Damar Laut, etc. ; 527 of Class \-B, i.e. y Meranti, Medang, etc.; and a few 
tons of Class II timber, a slight fall as compared with 1907. 

27. In Malacca timber in reserved forests was cut in blocks marked out for 
the purpose in Merlimau, Ayer Panas, and Sungai Udang Reserves. These areas were 
inspected by the Conservator. Five hundred and twenty-five trees of Class l were 
felled, and $1,221 revenue realized. 


B. — From Crown Land. 

28. In the Dindings 47 tons of timber were supplied free of royalty to the Public 
Works Department. Two hundred and forty-two tons of Class I timber were 
removed by licensees, and licences were issued to make Sagors (boats) out of dead and 
fallen Chengal and Sama Rupa trees. 

29. In Malacca permits were issued to cut timber on Crown Land, and realized 
$2,769, as compared with $2,620 in 1907. 


Fuel. 

* 

30. In Singapore permits to take firewood from Crown Land realized $4,302, 
as compared with $4,112 in 1907. In the Dindings firewood was cut under $5 
monthly permits, there was a considerable fall in revenue under this head explained 
in paragraphs ^5 and 37. In Malacca firewood permits realized $380, of which $338 
was derived from Gelam trees. Charcoal realized $303, some of which was made 
from the unutilizable timber left after felling and conversion of trees in the Merlimau 
Reserve. 


Minor Forest Produce. 

31. Bamboos and Canes.' — Under this head $589 was collected, of which $548 
was derived from the Dindings. 

Other forest produce realized $1,719, of which $770 was derived from the Dindinos 
and $664 from Malacca, as compared with $2,070 in 1907. 

32. The produce used in Singapore was Nibong, Resam, and Mengkuang, 
realizing $129, a rise of $45 over 1907. In Penang there was a fall of about $43. fn 
the Dindings the produce chiefly used was Nibong, Mengkuang, Bertam and Tengah 
bark : there was a slight fall under this head. In Malacca wood-oil was collected from 
Fipterocatpus crinitus , and realized $105, as compared with $120 in 1907, 

33- I he Government Para plantation in Bukit Bruang and Sebukor was tapped 
under supervision of the Forest Ranger, and yielded 513 lbs. of sheet rubber and 
.242 lbs. of scrap. The revenue realized from this source was $t,6S3, but actual 
"value $1,821 as a final payment for the last consignment was not made till February, 
1909. Of this sum only $1,190 was credited to revenue, the cost of the drying-shed 
being met from an advance which was repaid from receipts by rubber sales. The sale 
of Para, Tembusu and Penaga seed realized $1 12. 


* Not printed. 


PART 111. 

Financial Results* 

{See Form ii). 


^4. This table shows the comparative Revenue for 1907 and 1908 : 


Settlement. 

Revenue 

1907. 

Estimated 

revenue 

1 908 . 

Actual 

revenue 

1908. 

Excess or 
deficit over 
Estimate. 


$ c. 

$ c . 

$ c. 

$ c. 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 

4,397 45 

4,000 00 

4,984 30 

+ 984 30 

Wellesley ... 

777 85 

1,000 OO 

1,083 77 

+ 83 77 

Dindings 

10,593 78 

1 1 ,ooo 00 

8,940 25 

- 2,059 75 

Malacca 

6,554 54 

6,000 00 

7,206 31 

+ 1,206 31 

T otal . . . 

22,323 62 

22,000 CO 

22,214 63 



+ 214 63 


25. The above figures include $173.65 revenue due on timber supplied free to the 
Public Works Department in the Dindings. No timber appears to have been supplied 
free to the Public Works Department in Malacca. There has been an increase in 
revenue in everv case except the Dindings, where the estimate for 1908 was based on 
the assumption that the Tanjong Burong Mangrove Reserve would be thrown open to 
working. The survey, however, was not completed in time to permit of this. 

36. The increase in Singapore is due to the opening of two coupes in the Pandan 
and Changi Mangrove Reserves. I he small increase in Penang and Province 
Welleslev may I think be ascribed to the revised rates of royalty introduced with the 
revised rules. 

37. In the Dindings, the Gunong Tunggal Reserve had to be closed to felling, and 
Batu Undan was only worked for a short time ; there was a decline in timber revenue 
of $453 and in firewood of $910, owing to the fact that the available area of Mangrove 
forest containing trees of sufficient girth is much reduced. Certain areas are now 
closed to recuperate. The working of the Tanjong Burong Reserve in 1909 should 
raise the revenue to the normal level. The fall in revenue was met by a large saving 
in expenditure. 

38. In Malacca, the rise in revenue is due to the sale of rubber. There was 
a fall in other minor forest produce. 

Expenditure. 

{See Form ii.) 


39. This statement shows the total expenditure in each Settlement, as compared 
with 1907 and estimates for 1908 : — 


Settlement. 

Expenditure 

1907. 

Estimated 

expenditure 

1908. 

Actual 

expenditure 

1908. 

Savings on 
Estimates. 

Singapore 

$ c. 
7,767 5 1 

$ c. 
8,590 OO 

$ c. 

8.994 85 

$ c. 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley ... 

4,961 46 

I >A347 OO 

f 4,244 54 


Dindings 

5,804 50 

( 5>833 68 

» ■ * 

Malacca 

8,582 48 

9,986 OO 

9,846 96 

* * • 

Total ... 

4 

27,H5 95 

30,923 OO 

28,920 03 

2,002 97 


6 


The expenoiture exceeds that of 1907 by $1,874* In Singapore the increase was 
due to expenses on the working plans for opening of two reserves to felling, increment 
to Conservator s clerk, and allowance to the General Assistant to Conservator ; also 
to Personal and 1 ransport Allowances of the Forest Ranger, 

40. In Penang and Province Wellesley there was a reduction of $716.92 as 
compared with 1907, due to there being no student to pay for at Dehra Dun Forest 
Colleg e as in 1907. 

. U- ^ le Dindings the expenditure remained much the same as in 1907; 
m I enang, Province W ellesley and Dindings there was a saving on the estimates of 
$2,270, In Malacca there was an increase of $1,265, $587 in salaries and $678 in 
, °^ her charges, due to increments, and to upkeep of Ayer Kroh plantation and upkeep 
of reserve boundaries. 

Ad m in istrat ion . 

42. Mr. A. M. Burn-MurdOCH held the appointment of Conservator of Forests 

throughout the year. He was on short leave from 1st to nth January and 27th to 7ist 
December. ' J ‘ 

He visited the following reserved forests during the year: — 

Singapore. — Bukit Timah, Sembawang, Kranji and Mandi Reserves. 

Penang and Province Wellesley. — Tasek Glugor Reserve. 

Dindings. Lumut, Telok Muroh, Pangkor and lanjong Burong Reserves. 

Malacca. Bukit Bruang, Sungai Udang, Nyalas and Bukit Panchor. 

43. Mr. Fox, the Superintendent of Forests and Gardens in Penang, superintended 
the forest work in Penang and was responsible for the reserved forests. The Land 
Office issued licences for Crown Land and collected revenue. 

In Singapore the Forest Ranger was in charge of the reserves under the superin- 
tendence of the Col -Ctor of Land Revenue who supervised the work generally and in 
whose office all forest revenue was collected. 

In the Dindings the D'strict Officer had general direction of the department and 
was assisted by Mr. Keun, Forest Ranger, Federated Malay States, until 30th April, 
when Mr. O’Hara, the Forest Ranger, returned from Dehra Dun and resumed his 
duties as Forest Ranger, Grade II. 

In Malacca, Mr. Borges continued to be in charge of the forest department. 

Subordinate Staff. 

On the whole the subordinate staff has worked satisfactorily. One Forester died 
in Malacca; he had served with Government since 1884 and had a good record. His 
widow was granted a compassionate allowance. There were two dismissals in Singapore 

The staff of the department as it stood at the close of the year is given below : — 


' 

Settlement. 

Rangers. 

Foresters. 

Forest 

Guards. 

Resigna- 

tions. 

Dismis- 

sals. 

Grade 

I 

Grade 

II 

Grade 

III 

Grade 

IV 

Singapore 

... 


1 

* * . 

... 

IO 

I 

2 

Penang & P. Wellesley 

• * • 

. . . 

. . . 

1 

I 

1 6 

a • • 

« * * 

Dindings ... 


1 


1 

2 

6 

I 

... 

Malacca... 

1 

• • • 

* « 1 

1 

2 

16 

. . . 

... 

Total 

1 

1 

1 

3 

5 | 

38 

2 

2 


A. M. BURN-MURDOCH, 

Kuala Lumpur, Conservator of Forests y 

6th March , 1909, Federated Malay States and Straits Settlements „ 


•v 

* 


Form No, 


i. 


Settlement. 


No. of | 

Reserve. 

1 

Civil District. 

Name of Forest. 

Area in acres 
on ist Jan., 
1908. 

Ar ea added 
during 
year. 

Excluded 
or dis- 
afforested. 

Area on 

31 Dee., 
1908. 

1 

No. and date 
of Notification 

excluding 

land. 

Remarks. 






a. r. p. 



a. r. p . 




r 


Bukit Timah 

Bukit Timah 

847 - 0.00 



847 0.00 






Jurong 

Jurong ... 

412.O.16 



412.0.16 






Pan dan 

Pandan... 

3 - 33 4-2.22 


# ' 

*3, 334.2. 22 


* The boundary of the block 
west of Sungai Jurong 




Jurong 

Bukit Panjang 

I 17.2.16 



1 1 7.2.16 


which was added on to Pan- 
dan was here and there 




Kranji 

Chua Chu Kang 

49 - 0.00 



49.0.00 


altered and j-urveyed so as 
to include more swamps and 






756.O32 




to coincide more or less 




)> 

Kranji 



756 0.32 


with the existing traverse 
lines. It is not plotted vet. 

1,601.3.32 




Tuas 

HP . , , 

1 uas 


... 

1,601.3.32 


Probably the area may in- 
crease. 

Singapore < 



Lim Chu Kang . . . 

Sungai Murai 

3 I 4 -I .65 



3:4 -^. °5 






Do. 

Sungai Buloh 

770 . 2.16 



770.2. 16 






Sembawang 

Sembawang 

1,046.3.38 



1,046.3.38 






Mandi 

Mandi ... 

4O7.O.32 



407.0.32 



\ 



Changi 

Changi... 

1 , 393 * 0.00 



1,393.0.00 






Seletar 

Seletar... 

2 , 748 . 2.00 



2,748.2.00 





mm* 

Mandi 

Chan Chu Kang 

813.3.08 



813.3.08 





• at 

Ang Mo Kio ... 

Ang Mo Kio 

296.0.02 

. . . 


296.002 








14,908.3.19 

• • • 

I 

14,908.3.19 




Form No. i. 


Settlement. 


No. of 
Reserve. 


Civil 


District. 


Name of Forest, 


Area in acres 
on ist Jan., 
1908. 


r 


1 


1 

2 


Penang <J 


A 

B 

C 





Province 

Wellesley 




G 

H 

I 




I 


I 


North East 


South West 


r 

1 

-< 

i 

1 

s- 

-< 


Block D 
Block E 
Block F 
Part of Block / 
Pulau Jerejak 
Pantai Acheh 
Laksamana 
Telok Bahang 
Do. 

Genting Hill 
Bukit Ge mu roh 
Relau Hills 


5-741 


2 s 2 

233 

18 

887 

3,208 

465 

380 

236 

21 

205 

151 


Total 



’ B 797 


Northern District. 


Central District^ 


Southern District 


Tasek Glugor 
Bukit Seraya 
Bukit Mertajam 
Juru Hill 
Gajah Mati 
Govt. Exp Gardens 
Bukit Goa Ipoh 
Lot 435 
Lot 3231 
Bukit Panchor 


Total 


1,761 
1 12 
162 
4*7 
94 
3 

33 ° 

189 

*3 

L 47 6 


4,557 


Continued . 


Area added 
during 
year. 

Excluded 
or dis- 
afforested. 

Area on 
31st Dec., 
1908. 

No. and date 
of Notification 
excluding 
land. 

Remarks. 



5 , 74 * 

252 

233 

18 

887 

3,208 

465 

380 

236 

2 1 

205 

151 


' 

* 4 



11,797 



• ♦ • 

# * * 

... 

- 

1,761 

1 1 2 

162 

4 1/ 
94 

3 

330 

189 

13 

**,476 

* • • 

kart to be alienated, 
boundary not yet defined. 

• * * 

: 

4,557 



°®k‘ 



Naine of Forest. 


Bindings -*{ 


A 

B 

C 

D 

E 

F 

G 

H 

I 

J 


Bruas District .... 


J) 


}) 


Beting Luas Dist. 


)) 


Tanah Merah 
District 


< 


Ulu Bruas 
Tanjong Burong 
Telok Sera 
Gunong Tunggal 
Batu Undan 
Telok Senangin 
Lumut 
Telok Mu roll 
Panorkor Island 
Tanjong Hantu 


Total 


Form No. i.- Continued . 



Area in acres 
on ist Jan., 
1908. 

Ar ea added 
during 
year. 

Excluded 
or dis- 
afforested. 

Area on 

2 1 st Dec., 
1908. 

No. and date 
of Notification 

excluding 

land. 

Remarks. 

■ ■ * 

750 


• * • 

750 




3.000 

1,672 

• • M 

*4,672 


.Additional area due to more 
correct survey, 

• • • 

S.ooo 

• • • 

* • • 

t5,ooo 

» • ♦ 

f Approximate area. 


1,225 

• * * 

• » * 

+ 1,225 




6,500 

. . . 


+6,500 




1,000 


. . . 

1 1,000 



... 

1,238 


• • * 

1,238 



... 

2,326 


• * * 

2,326 

* 



3.766 


i • t 

3,766 




1 ,000 


462 

1538 

' ~ 

* * * 

+ 538 acres is surveyed area, 
and 1,000 was a formal 
approximation. 







1 * 1 

25,805 

1,672 

462 

27,015 


| 


vo 


I 


I 

i 


FORM No. i * — Concluded 



Settlement. 


Ih 

O co 
tZ, W 
& 


2 

3 

4 

5 

6 




Area in acres 

Area added 

Excluded 

Civil District. 

Name of Forest. 

on 1st Jan., 

during 

or d is- 



1908. 

year. 

afforested. 


a. r.p . 


r 

i 

i 

Jasin District... <( 

L 


Ayer Pan as 
Merlimau 
B uk it Senggeh 
Bilk it Sedan an 
Batang Malacca 
Nyalas 


3,460.304 
6, 216.3.06 
9,5260.34 

7,593-3-38 

3,549.0.00 

2,468.3.01 


Area on 
31st Dec 
1908. 


No. and date 
of Notification 
excluding 
land. 


a, r. p. 

3,460.3.04 

6,216.3.06 

9.526.0. 34 

7,593 -3-38 

3.549.0. 00 
2,468.3.01 


Malacca ... \ 


1 

2 


3 


4 


A lor Gajah 
District. 


( Sungai Udang 
^ Bukit Panchor 
i Ramuan China and 
j Sungai Siput 
( Brisu 


4,392.0 35 
2,852.3 00 

2,591.2.09 
91 1 .2.19 


4,392-0-35 
2,852.3 00 

2,591.2.09 
91 1. 2. 19 


V. 


1 

2 


Central District. 


Bukit Bruang 
Bukit Sebukor 


Total 



6,103.0.28 

44.2.27 

... 


6,103.0.28 

44 . 2.27 


49,7 I 1.2 01 

* % * 

. . . 

49,71 1. 2. OI 




Remarks. 


Form No. 8. 
Area of Plantations. 


Settlements and Districts. 


Singapore 


Penang . 
Dindings 


Malacca 


Name 

of Reserves. 


Kind of 
Plantation. 


-< 

i 

l 


■■■« 


i 


Sembawang . . . 


Bukit Timah 


i 


t 


Para rubber 
Gutta-percha 
and 

Mahogany 


Batu Ferringi 


Bukit Bruang<j 


Bukit Sebukor 
Bukit Panchor 


Getah Taban 

Getah percha 
Getah sundek 
Tembusu, 
Mahogany & 
Para trees 
Merbau 
Penaga 
Nibong 
Kledang 
Penak 
Para 
Durians 
Duku 

T otal 


Area in Acres. 

On 1st 

Added 

On 31st 

January, 

during 

December, 

1908. 

year. 

1908. 

10 

A 


10 

j 97 


97 

107 


107 

68 

• . . 

68 


• • • 

13 1 

8 

4 


8 

r- 40 

3 

43 

J 

32 


3 2 

8 

. . . 

8 

3 2 

• . . 

3 2 

• . . 

8 

8 

17 

• * * 

17 

2 

• m « 

• « » 

• • * 

2 

270 

1 1 

281 


Of Year. 


Charges. 

o 


Remarks. 


$ c. 


I I 2 00 
1,190.00 
22.3O 


2 4I-35 

16.50 


G57 2 15 


$ c . 

65.00 i 

588.00 


653.00 


1 25-85 

200945 


For all seed 


2,109.45 


SINGAPORE, 

Form No. ir. 


Revenue. 

Expenditure : Personal Emoluments. 

Expenditure: Other Charges. 

Total. 


$ c. 


$ c. 

Ann ual ly Recurrent . 

$ c. 

$ r. 

I. — Timber and other forest pro- 
duce removed from forests by Gov- 
ernment Agency — 


Conservator’s salaries ... 

1 * * 

Clerk's salaries 

3,085 68 

660 00 

Contingent Expenses ... 

Expenses for planting Getah Taban, 

160 39 


(a) Timber 

(h) Firewood and Charcoal 

(c) Bamboos and Canes 

(d) Getah 

(«?) Other Produce 


Forest Ranger’s salaries 

• * » 

General Assistant’s Allowances 

Forest Guards’ salaries 

960 00 

300 00 

1,271 00 

etc. 

Maintenance of Forest Reserves ... 

Personal and Transport Allowances 

Working plans 

500 00 

** 

220 20 

[,099 99 


Total I ... 

* • • 



299 07 


IF — Timber and forest produce 
removed from forests by purchasers 
and licensees — 




Special Expenditure. 

Purchase of Typewriter 

130 00 


(a) Timber 

(b) Firewood and Charcoal 

(c) Bamboos and Canes 

(d) Getah 

(*?) Other Produce 

142 20 
4,707 00 
6 00 

129 10 




l 


Total II ... 

4,984 30 


6,585 20 


2,409 65 

8,994 85 


PENANG AND PROVINCE WELLESLEY. 
Form No. ii —Continued. 




Revenue, 

mb. jm. » i i — ; ■- ■ 

Expenditure ; Personal Emoluments. 

Expenditure : Other Charges. ; 

Total. 

I.— Timber and other forest 

produce removed from forests by 
Government Agency— J 

(a) Timber 

(£) Firewood and Charcoal 

(c) Bamboos and Canes 

(d) Getah 

(<?) Other Produce 

$ c. 

* . * 

• * * 

Salaries ... 

-i 

$ c. 

2,768 93 

A n n u ally Rec a rrent . 

■r' 

Contingent Expenses ... 

Improvement of Forest Reserve ... 

Maintenance of boundaries and 
paths 

Protection of Forests ... 

Transport and Field Allowances . . 

Uniforms ... 

Weeding and maintenance of Gutta- 
percha trees 

* 

$ c, 

r 39 34 

2I 7 T 5 

414 17 

141 45 

362 65 

75 00 

125 85 

$ c. 

dotal I ... 

II. 1 imher and forest produce 
lemoved from forests by purchasers 
and licensees — 

(a) Timber 

(b) firewood and Charcoal 

(c) Bamboos and Canes 
(i d ) Getah 

(c) Other Produce 

• • * 

850 70 

5 i r 3 

• • • 

156 04 


* 


Total II ... 

1,057 8 7 





1 

III. — Unclaimed and confiscated 
Timber and Forest Produce 

3 6 ° 






IV. Miscellaneous 

22 30 






Total ... 

1,083 77 

. 


2,768 93 


i ,475 61 

4,244 54 


bindings. 


FORM No. ii — Continued. 


Revenue. 


Expenditure : Personal Emoluments. 

Expenditure : Other Charges. 

Total. 

I. — Timber and other forest 
produce removed from forests by 
Government Agency ... 

$ c. 

Salaries ... 

Fifteen per cent Bindings Allow- 
ance 

* a t 

$ C. 

4.424 84 

Annually Recurrent. 

Contingent Expenses . 

Maintenance of boundaries and 
paths ... 

$ c. 

134 65 , 

$ c. 

Total I ... 

• • • 

367 53 

355 4 1 I 


II. — Timber and forest produce 
removed from forests by purchasers 
and licensees — 

{a) Timber 

ili) Firewood and Charcoal 

( c ) Bamboos and Canes 

(d) Getah 

( e ) Other Produce 

4,363 60 
2,960 00 
548 00 

• • * 

770 00 

- 

• 

Transport and Field Allowances ... 

Uniforms for Forest Guards 

Bicycle Allowance to Forest Ranger 

35 i 95 

79 30 

120 00 


Total II ... 

8,641 60 






HI- — Unclaimed and confiscated 

I imber and Forest Produce 

IV. — Miscellaneous ... 

125 00 






Total ... 

8,766 60 






Revenue due on timber supplied to 
the Public Works Department ... 

173 65 






Grand Total ... 

8,940 25 

_ 

4.792 37 

* ■■ ■— — - 1 1 — ■ *■ — ' — 

1,041 31 

5.833 ^8 


MALACCA. 


Form No. II. — Concluded. 


Revenue. 

Expenditure: Personal Emoluments 

Expenditure: Other Charges 


Total. 

* 

L — T imber and other forest pro- 
duct removed from forests by 
Government Agency . * 

( a ) Getah and Para 

(b) Other Produce 

■ • • 

$ r. 

1,190 24 

1 12 30 

Salaries 

Ten per cent Local Allowance 

$ c. 

5,836 17 

2 9 i 37 

Annually Recurrent. 

Clearing paths in reserves 

Contingent Expenses ... 

$ c. 

193 10 

197 01 

$ O 

Total I 

C 302 54 



Maintenance of reserve boundaries.. 

558 50 


II. Timber and forest produce 
removed from forests by purchasers 
and licensees. — 

{a) Timber 

(b) Firewood and Charcoal ... 

(c) Bamboos and Canes 

(d) Getah 

(e) Other Produce 

3 , 9 S 9 7 ° 
683 44 

35 00 
24 00 

664 85 



Upkeep of plantation, Ayer Kroh... 

Transport and Personal Allowances. 

Uniforms ... 

L 593 45 

999 26 

178 11 


Total II ... 

5,396 99 






III. — Unclaimed and confiscated 
Timber and Forest Produce 

305 30 






IV. — Miscellaneous. — 

Compensation for Forest 
offences 

201 48 






Total 

7,206 31 

— . — 

6,127 53 


3 , 7 1 9 43 

9,846 96 


A. M. BURN-MURDOCH, 

Conservator of Forests, 

Federated Malay States and Straits Settlements . 


Annual Report on Forest Administration in the Straits 

Settlements for the Year 1909 


PART I. 

Extension and Constitution of Reserved Forests. 

I. In October, 1909, the Forest Ordinance came into force, and for the first time 
provision was made (or the legal constitution of reserved forests, and the procedure to 
be adopted laid down. In order to comply with this Ordinance it is necessary to 
notify in the Gazette all areas it is proposed to reserve, and accordingly revised 
descriptions of all boundaries were undertaken, and during the year the following 
were completed and notified in the Gazette as proposed reserves, details being shown 
in Form 2 : — 


— 

Acres. 

Roods, 

Poles. 

* 

Penang 

10,81 1 

2 

26 

Province Wellesley 

3 > 9 l6 

0 

27 

Bindings 

2 3 >945 

2 

r 4 

Malacca 

t 

. ■ 

49>93 1 

0 

1 1 

i 

Total ... 

88,604 

1 | 

38 


2 - Pulau Jerejak, formerly treated as a reserve, has been omitted, as it has been 
handed over to the Medical Department. In Singapore the completion of the revised 
descriptions was delayed owing to need for further survey of Sembawang reserve, and 

^at certain areas have had to handed over to ihe Municipality, as 
tailing within the extended water catchment area. Chan Chu Kang reserve has been 
handed over and part of Sembawang. 

3 - Tlie area of reserved forests when ail the procedure shall have been gone 

through will be piactically the same as before, and it is hoped that early in 1910 all 
may be complete. J 

4. . The Bukit Fimah reserve has sustained great damage owing to the openino- 
of granite quarries to supply the works on the Harbour Schemes. 

Demarcation and Up-keep of Boundaries. 

5. In Singapore the boundaries of the reserves were kept clean by the staff of 

forest guards and were inspected by ihe Forest Ranger. 1 hey are in good order In 
Penang and Province Wellesley 68* miles of boundaries were cleared at a cost of 
$274, not including Tasek Glugor reserve which was kept clean by the forest Guards 
in charge. This shows a reduction as compared with 1908. • 

6. In the Bindings the boundaries of all reserves were cleared on contract 
62 miles, $425.60 being spent ; they are now all in good order, and in 1910 will be 
upkept almost entirely by forest guards and boatmen. The District Officer inspected 
many of the reserves and the Conservator inspected those of Tanjong Hantu, Telok 
benangin, parts of Lumut, Telok Muroh and Pangkor reserves, also the southern 
boundary of Telok Sera and a portion of Tanjong Burong reserves. 


2 


7> In Malacca 39^ miles of boundaries were re-cleared at a cost of $227.60; the 
remainder, 68 miles, required no clearing. The Forest Ranger inspected efficiently 
and the Conservator inspected portions of the Bukit Bruang and Aver Panas reserves. 


Surveys. 

8. The Forest Ranger, Singapore, made a rough survey of the Kranji and North 
Seletar reserves in Singapore Island with a view to systematic exploitation of the 
mangrove forests. In Penang and Province Wellesley there were no other new 
surveys. 

PART II. 


Management of Forests. 

Working Plans. 


9. In Singapore two coupes were opened tor 1909, one in the Kranji No. r 
reserve of 30 acres, and one in Changi No. 2 of 27 acres, and the mangrove forest in 
these coupes was sold by tender for $120 and $175.50. The contracts were signed in 
December, 1909. In 1908, coupes No. I Panclan and No. 1 C hangi were worked 
during the year for firewood. 

10. In Malacca the Merlimau, Ayer Panas and Sungai Udang reserves were 
worked under a rough working plan. Extraction of marked trees was permitted in 
certain areas in these reserves, the following trees being marked : — 


Merlimau reserve 
Ayer Panas reserve 
Sungai Udang reserve 


) trees of Class I not less 
^ f than 6 ft. in girth. 


283 


Besides this 49 Class 1 trees were marked for felling in Cape Rachado forest. 

1 1. In the Dindings an area of about 200 acres in the Tanjong Burong Mangrove 
reserve was leased to a firewood cutter for $500, but no tenders were received for the 
right to cut firewood in 19IO. 

Paths in Reserves. 

12. In the Dindings old paths were maintained in the Lumut reserve by the forest 
guards and boatmen and the old path from Sungai Puyu (near Tanjong Hantu) to 
Telok Sera running along near the sea coast and through the Telok Sera reserve was 
cleared. This path had not been touched for about 20 years. 

13. In Malacca inspection paths in the Sungai Udang and Batang Malaka reserves 
were kept open at a cost of $26.80. 

Buildings. 

14. In Penang the forest guards’ quarters were re-ataped and repaired at a total 
cost of $246.92. 

In the Dindings, quarters were built for four forest boatmen at Lumut and one at 
Pengkalan Bahru at a cost of $1,843.75. $600 were spent in enlarging the Forest 

Ranger's quarters at Lumut, and other minor repairs were carried out by the* Public 
Works Department. 

In Malacca the Ranger’s quarters were repaired. 

Protection. 

15. The Forest Ordinance XXil of 1908 came into force on 1st October, 1909, 
and two sets of rules, one for Malacca and the Dindings and the other tor Singapore 
and Penang, came into force on 1st October, 1909. These rules considerably lessen 
the royalty to be paid on timber extracted from ihe Dindings, this measure being in pai t 
necessitated by the abolition of export duty on timber exported irom Perak, Selangoi 
and Negri Sembilan in 1908, which placed those States at an advantage ovei the 
Dindings which formerly had a higher rate of royalty. 'I he rate is now the same as 
in those States of the Federated Malay States. 


3 


Fire Protection. 

1 6. An improvement in protection from tire is reported in Province Wellesley 
where lalang fires are apt to be of frequent occurrence, especially to the north- 
east near Tasek Glugor. 

17. There were two cases of lalang fires in the Seletar reserve, and about 15 acres 
was- burnt. Two small areas suffered in the Dindings for which $15 damages were 
recovered. 

18. The Forest Ranger, Malacca, says nothing of lalang fires, which used to be 
very prevailing in Malacca. The new Forest Ordinance gives powers in this respect. 
Fires are confined almost entirely to grass lands, high forest is not subject to fire, 
being evergreen. 

Forest Offences. 


19. The following were the cases taken to Court : — 


Case pending 
from 1908. 

New cases of the year. 

• 

Grand 

total 

cases. 

Disposed of during year. 

Theft of 
timber 
and 
minor 
produce. 

• 68 

Other 

offences. 

Total 

new 

cases. 

Convic- 

tions. 

Acquit- 

tals. 

Pending at 
close of year. 

\ 

7 

75 

77 

59 

,6 

2 

2 


Added to this, 22 cases were compounded in Malacca and two cases dealt with 
departmen tally in Singapore. Of the cases taken into the Courts 59 out of 75 resulted 
in convictions, 78 per cent of convictions, a poor percentage. $551 were realized as 
compensation in Malacca and $28 in Singapore. 

20. There was a large falling off in cases in Malacca. 

Improvement of Forest. 

Natural Reproduction. 

2 1. Natural reproduction of Tampiues ( Slcetia sideroxylon ) is reported as good 
in Pandan and Sungai Buloh reserves. Damar laut ( Shorea utilis ) reproduced itself 
well in the Dindings. 

22. In Malacca it is reported that natural reproduction of the more important 
species was good, especially in the Merlimau, Ayer Panas and Sungai Udang reserves, 
particular^ Resak ( Shorea bar bat a ) . Serayah ( Shorea accuminata ) and Rintangor 
( Caloph yl l u rn inophyllum). 

Artificial Reproduction. 

( Vide Form 8 ). 

23. In Singapore the 97-acre plantation of gutta-percha trees in Bukit Timah was 
upkept at a cost of $609. Useless forest trees overshadowing the young gutta-percha 
trees were thinned out. A nursery was also upkept, and blanks in the plantation 
supplied. A nursery of para rubber was made. The 10-acre block of para rubber in 
Sembawang reserve was handed over to the Municipality during the year. The 
department realized $200 for rubber by lease of the trees. 

24. No new planting was done in Penang, but the Batu Ferringi gutta-percha 
plantation was weeded at a cost of $75.25. The Manicoba rubber and Lagos silk 
rubber planted near Tasek Glugor were not a success, doubtless owing to the poor and 
sandy soil. 

25. In the Dindings nurseries of Chengal and Merbau were made at Lumut, and 
10,000 seeds of the former and 5,000 of the latter obtained from Selangor were sown. 
The Merbau have succeeded, but the Chengal ( Balanocarpus maximus ) has failed. A 
para nursery was also made, from seeds obtained at Lumut, and a few Damar laut and 
Kulhn ( Sorodocarpus borneensis ) . 

26. In Malacca the forest plantations were under the financial control of the 
newly formed Gardens Committee, the area remains the same, vide Form 8. Wherever 




4 




space could be found near Ayer Kroh, para was planted out, 350 seedlings being put 
out during the year. $3,491.38 was realized by sale of rubber, and $2,5 70.94 was incurr- 
ed in upkeep of the plantation, wages of tappers, purchase of mangle, nurseries, etc., 
$30 was realized by sale of the old mangle and $210 by sale of fruit in the Panchor 
reserve. Nurseries of hard wood trees were made in Ayer Panas, Merlimau and 
Sungai Udang reserves, and in the latter reserve seedlings of Merbau and Resak were 
transplanted out ;n the forest in places where extraction of large trees has taken place 
recently. 

27. The Conservator of Forests inspected the plantation at Ayer Kroh early in 
December and was very dissatisfied with the manner in which tapping had been 
carried out. He spent several days in giving instructions as to the proper method of 
tapping, this matter was reported in his report for December, 1909. 

28. During the year 2,085 lbs. of dry rubber were sold, full payments on the 
last two consignments were not yet received. The revenue realized is credited to the 
Gardens Committee, and is not included in the forest revenue for 1909. In 19 10, 
no vote will be granted for upkeep of plantation, and the cost of upkeep will be 
defrayed from the proceeds of the sale of rubber, and any balance remaining over 
credited to forest revenue. 


Exploitation. 


A . — Fro m Reserved Fo rests . 


29. In Cliangi and Pandan reserves 
follows : — 

Changi, Coupe No. 1, 30 acres 
Pandan, Coupe No. 1, 100 acres 


firewood and piles were extracted as 

} 108,300 billets of firewood. 

•'* j 1,777 piles. 

( 1,178,750 billets, for which $810 
j was realized by the Department. 


30. In Penang 12 permits were issued and 29 trees were felled by licensees, 
and 27 for other forest produce. 

31. In the Bindings the Telok Sera and Lumut reserves were worked by Chinese 
and 54 tons (of 50 cubic feet) Class I A timber and 344 tons ol Class 1 B were 
extracted, all trees being selected and marked previously by a forest officer. The 
figures for 1908 were 185 tons and 527 tons, so that a large decrease is shown. The 
trees extracted were mostly Damar laut, Meranti and Medang. 

The first coupe in the Tanjong Burong reserve was leased for the year for $500. 
The lessee gave a great deal of trouble. 

‘32. In Malacca trees of Class I were selected for felling by the Forest Ranger in 
the Merlimau, Ayer Panas and Sungai Udang reserves, and $709 revenue paid by the 
permit holders who were permitted to extract these selected trees. In addition they 
were allowed to cut any trees of second class. 


B, — From Crown Land . 


33. In Singapore permits for trees realized $171.75, and in Penang and Province 
Wellesley, $981. 

34. In the Bindings 195 tons of Class I A timber were extracted from Crown 
lands and 119 tons of Class I B and 2 tons of Class II. A few licences were issued 
for the extraction of remnants of Class I trees left in the f.-rest. About 50 tons of 
timber were granted free of royalty to the Public Works Department for buildings 

and bridges, etc. 

35. In Cape Rachado forest, Malacca, 49 Class I trees were selected and permits 
issued for their extraction. The revenue from timber on Crown lands amounted to 
$3,315, as compared with $2,769 in 1908. 

Fuel. 

36. In Singapore permits for fuel realized $4,251, as compared with $4,707 in 
1908. The fee for permits was raised from $3 to $5 on 1st October, 1909. 

37. In the Dindings 396 permits were issued for firewood on Crown land and 
realized $1,980, and in Malacca permits realized $435.77 as compared with $380 in 
1908. 




Charcoal realized $369 in Malacca, of which $60 was derived from charcoal made 
from refuse timber in reserve^ forests. 

Minor Forest Produce. 

38. The revenue collected under this head may be seen in Form 10*. 

39. In Singapore bamboos and canes realized a small sum, and $200 was derived 
troin the 10 acies ol pat a in Sembawang reserve. Other minor produce in Singapore 
consisted of Nibongs, and shows a rise of $87. 

40. In the Dindings there was a rise of $75 in bamboos and canes owing to some 
new working in Bruas River. Other produce showed a rise of $272, and consisted 
chiefly of Nibong, Mengkuang, Bertam, Damar, Pinang-raja and Tengah bark. 

41. In Malacca there was an increase of about $140. Wood oil realized $112, 
rotan $42 and fruit trees $210.50. 

The para rubber trees in Ayer Kroh and Bukit Sebukor were tapped department- 
ally throughout the year. The yield was 1,194! lbs. sheet and 291^ lbs. scrap and 
$3>49* -38 was realized during the year, a further payment of $766.59 was made in 
January, and a further payment of $255.23 is stilt due on consignment No. 6. None 
of this money was credited to revenue, however, as the plantation is managed by a 
Gardens Committee. In 19 10 part ot the balance of revenue alter defraying all 
expenses will he credited to forest revenue. $138.53 was credited to revenue, bein^ a 

payment due on rubber produced in 1908 before the Gardens Committee took over the 
revenue. 


PART III. 

Financial Results. 

42. I his table shows the comparative revenue for 1908 and 1909 : — 


Settlement. 

1 

Revenue 
! 1908. 

Estimated 

revenue 

Revenue 

1909. 

Excess or 
deficit over 


; *909- 

Estimate, 


$ c. 

$ c. 

• 

$ c. 

$ c. 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 

4,984 30 

5,000 00 

4,934 60 

- 65 40 

Wellesley ... 

Dindings 

Malacca 

1,083 77 
8,940 25 , 
7,206 31 | 

1.000 00 
10,000 00 

8.000 00 , 

981 91 
6,396 10 
6.274 34 j 

- 18 09 

- 3,603 90 

- 1,725 66 

Total ... 



22,214 63 1 

24,000 00 

18,586 95 I 

- 5413 05 


. 43 rhe decrease in revenue in the Dindings is due entirely to timber and 

firewood Timber fell off more than $2,000, and firewood and charcoal about $,So 
and is due to causes beyond the control of the Forest Department. The most 
favourably situated locaht.es have been worked out in former years, and the only 
extensive tract of unreserved Crown land containing valuable timber is that portion 
lymg on each Side of the Bruas-Lumut Road, between the 6th and roth miles, nearly 
al the land to the east of this road will soon be alienated. Of that to the west a 
considerable area is hrst-class land for rubber cultivation, but in the steep hills which 

are situated about half way between this road and the sea there exists still a valuable 
supply of Chengal timber. 

1 he supply of timbei on alienated land, from which the department derives no 
royalty and the timber cut on free passes, is almost sufficient to meet the small local 
demand. 1 he alienation of land and diminution of valuable forest is also a factor. 

The rates of royalty on timber were lowered in October in the hopes of givim? a 
stimulus to the timber trade, the Penang trade, F g g a 

timin' lons'Th.T the "'mT, 6 decreased by about $ Il0 oo due entirely to the fact 
that in [ 9 o b $1,19° was credited to revenue by the sale of para rubber, while as already 

* Not printed. 


6 


t 


stated, in 1909 the proceeds of sale of rubber have been credited to the Gardens 
Committee. The revenue on timber, firewood and charcoal shows an increase. In 
1910 an increase in total revenue is assured. 

Expenditure. 

45. This statement shows the total expenditure in each Settlement, as compared 
with 1908 and estimates for 1909 : — 


Settlement. 

Expenditure 

1908. 

Estimated 
expenditu re 
1909. 

Expenditure 

1909, 

Savings on 
Estimates. 

Singapore 

$ c. 
8,994 85 

$ c. 
9,204 00 

$ c. 
9,276 24 

$ c. 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley ... 

4,244 54 

5,368 00 

4,473 55 

... 

Bindings 

5,833 68 

7,424 00 

6,907 76 

• • • 

Malacca 

9,846 96 

10,058 00 

10,212 85 


Total ... 

28,920 03 

32,054 00 

30,870 40 

1,183 60 


Under Singapore is included one-third salary of the Conservator of Forests and 
his travelling expenses and other small expenses of Conservator's office in connection 
with colonial work. 

There is an increase over 1908 of $1,950.37 and a saving on the total estimates 
of $1,183.60. The increase is mainly accounted for in salaries, under increments in 
all Settlements and in other charges in the Bindings. 

The deficit of revenue over expenditure was $12,283.45. In 1910 the 
expenditure in Malacca will be much reduced as the upkeep of plantation will be met 
from the proceeds of sales of rubber. 

Administration. 

46. Mr. A. M. Burn-Murdoch held the appointment of Conservator of Forests 
throughout the year. He visited the following forest reserves throughout the year. 

Singapore. — Bukit Timah and Pandan reserves. 

Penang and Province Wellesley . — 1 elok Bahang, Government Iiill aim j enara 
Bukit reserves. 

Bindings. — Lum ut , Tanjong Burong, Telok Sera, Telok Muroh, Tanjong Hantu 
and Telok Senangin. 

Malacca . — Ayer Kroh and Ayer Panas reserves. 

* * 

He also inspected the rubber plantation in Malacca (Aye 1 i\roh and Bukit 
Sebukor) the Balu Feringgi plantation, Penang, and spent a month actually travelling 
in the Colony besides a considerable amount of time spent on office work in connec- 
tion with colonial work, 

47, Mr. V. P. Borges, Forest Ranger, Grade I. held charge of the Malacca 
forests till 1st October when he proceeded on leave and Mr. G. M. O’Hara relieved 
hinu Mr. O’Hara continued as Forest Ranger, Bindings, till the end of August and 
was sent to Malacca in September in order to be instructed in tapping and other work 
before taking over from Mr. BORGES. He suffered much from malaria in the 
Bindings. Buring September and October the Bistrict Officer, Bindings, carried on 
the work, but in November, IBRAHIM, Forest Ranger, Grade II, Federated Malay 
States, was lent to the Colony to carry on the work under Mr. J. Lornie. 

48 In Penang Mr. FOX continued as Superintendent ot Forests and Gardens and 
drew the usual allowance from the department. 

49. In Singapore Mr. T. C. Malaya PilLAI continued as Forest Ranger 
throughout the year. 


7 


Subordinate Staff. 

50. In Singapore a forester was appointed on $240. One forest guard resigned 
and two were dismissed. 

51. In Penang the Forest Clerk, Mr. AERIA, died on 10th March and was replaced 
by Mr. L. S. Ingram. The Ranger, Foresters and Forest Guards remained 
unchanged during the year. 

52. In the Dindings, J. Sanib BIN Abdulla, Forest Ranger, Grade IV, was 
badly reported on, and his increment due on 1st July was deferred. 'The increment of 
one Forest Guard was withheld. 

The work of the other members of the staff was satisfactory. 

53. In Malacca one Forest Guard was dismissed for absence without leave. The 
staff are reported to have given satisfaction. 

54. The following was the staff employed during the year: — 


Settlement. 

t 

1 

Rangers. 


! 

Foresters. 

m 

i Forest 
Guards. 

Resigna- 

tions, 

1 Dismis- 
sals. 

Grade 

I 

Grade 

11 

Grade 

III 

Grade 

IV 

Singapore 


... 

1 


I 

IO 

I 

2 

Penang & P. Wellesley 


... 


1 

I 

6 

. . . 

• . . 

Dindings ... 

1 

*1 


1 

2 

6 



Malacca .. 

1 

... 

... 

1 

2 

16 


I 

Total 

■ ;• 

2 

1 

I 

3 

6 

38 

I 

3 


* Vice Mr. O'Hara, Forest Ranger, Grade I, transferred to Malacca. 


Kuala Lumpur, 

7 th March , 1910. 


A. M. BURN-MURDOCH, 

Conservator of Forests , 

Federated Malay States and Straits Settlements. 


Form No. i. 


. 

o 



Area in acres 

Area added 

Excluded 

Area on 

No. and date 
of Notification 
excluding 
land. 

I 

Settlement. 

* <u 

O tfl 

Civil District. 

Name of Forest. 

on i st Jan., 
1909. 

during 

year. 

or dis- 
afforested. 

31 Dec., 
1909. • 

Remarks. 


* 



< 

a. r . p. 

a. r. p. 

a. r. p. 


j 

r 

I 

Bukit Timah 

Bukit Timah 

847.O.OO 


129.1.12 ( a ) 

7 1 7.2.28 


{«)' Transferred to Municipa- 
lity, 

(f>) Handed over to P.W.D. 

* 

i 

2 

Jurong 

Jurong ... 

412.0,16 


0.1.25 (b) 

411.2.31 



■ 

3 

Pan dan & Peng- 











kang 

Pandan . . . 

3 ' 334 - 2 ’ 22 

82.018 (c) 

0.032 {d) 

* 3,416.1.08 

• . . 

t (c) After plotting & comput- 






I 17.2.16 





ing area it was found to 



4 

Jurong 

Bukit Panjang 

. * * 

\ * . 

1 17.2.16 


have increased. 









| D) Handed over to P.W. 1). 



5 

Kran j i 

Chua Chu Kang 

49.0.00 



49.0.00 





6 

Do. 

Kranji 

756 .C >32 

... 

1 1 .0.00 ( e ) 

745 ‘°' 3 2 


(e) For village site. 



7 

T uas 

Tuas 

1,601.3.32 

6.3.10 {/) 

• * • 

1,608.3.02 

* ■ * 

(/) By adding C. L, Survey 










No. 6901. 

Singapore 5 


« 

Lim Chu Kang . . , 

Sungai Murai 

3 14. 1. 05 

... 


3141-05 





9 

Do. 

Sungai Buloh 

770,2.16 



770.2. 16 





to 

Sembawang 

Sembawang 

1,046.3.38 

... 

296.2.33 (g) 

750.1.05 j 


(g) Of this 1 66a. ir. 33^. were 









transferred to Municipa- 



1 1 

Mandi 

Mandi ... 

407 . 0.32 

' 

... 

407.0.32 j 


lity and 130 acres sold. 



f 2 

Changi 

Changi ... 

1 , 393 - 0.00 


... 

1,393.0.00 





r 3 

Seletar East 

Seletar North 

1,492.1.08 



1,492.1.08 l 





l 4 

Do. 

Seletar East 

1,256.0.32 

- 


1,256.0.32 





r 5 

Mandi 

Chan Chu Kang 

8 1 3.3.08 


8 13.3.08 (/?)i 

• 


( h ) Transferred to Municipa- 
lity. 


■ 

16 

* 

Ang Mo Kio ... 

Ang Mo Kio 

296.0.02 



296.0.02 






Total ... 

14,908.3.19 

88.3.28 

1,251.2.30 

13,746.0.17 










Form No. I . — Continued. 


Settlement. 


No. of 
Reserve. 


r 


Penang 


1 


r 


Province 

Wellesley 


< 


Civil District. 


Name of Forest. 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

io 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

io 


r 

i 

North-East 

1 

L 

r 

l 

South-West 


N.-E. &S.-W. 


I 


Northern 


Central 


< 


Southern 


Government Hill 
Highlands 
Penara Bukit 
Pulau Jerejak 
Pantai Acheh 
Laksamana 
Telok Bahang 
Bukit Ginting 
Bukit Gemuroh 
Relau Hills 

Total 


Tasek Glugor 
Bukit Juru 
Gajah Mati 
Bukit Seraya 
Bukit Mertajam 
Bukit Gua Gempas 
Bukit Langkap 
Kubang Ulu (K xperi 
mental Garden) 
Bukit Goa Ipoh 
Bukit Panchor 

Total 


Area in acres 
on ist Jan., 
1909. 

Area added 
during 
year. 

Excluded 
or dis- 
afforested. 

Area on 
31st Dec., 
1909. 

No. and date 
of Notification 
excluding 

O 

land. 

Remarks. 

a. r. p. 

a. r, p. 

a . r . p. 

I 

a . r. p . 



5,741.0.00 

« • • 

105. 1 .29 

5,635.2.1 1 



252.2.36 


... 

252.2.36 



233 - 2 - 3 . 1 

. . . 


233.2.31 



887.0.00 

■ ■ • 

887.0.00 

■ • . 



3,208.3.08 


» . . 

3,208.3.08 



465.2.30 

» . . 

. .. 

465.2.30 

* 


616.3.32 


> • • 

616.3.32 



21. 2. 14 

. . . 

. . . 

21.2. 14 



205.3.05 

... 

... 

205.3.05 



15 1 .0.00 

19.3. 19 

• * * 

1 70.3.19 



1 1,784.0.36 

19.3. 19 

992.1.29 

10,81 1.2.26 



1,761.0.00 

• 

140.2.02 

1,620.1.38 



4 I 7 - 3* r 4 

... 


4 G- 3 -I 4 



94.0.31 

• . * 


94.0.31 



1 12.0.04 


. . . 

1 12.0.04 



162.1.22 

. . . 

. . . 

162.1.22 



13.3.20 

. . . 

— 

13.3.20 



189.2.10 

... 

. .. 

189.2.10 



3.2.03 

. » « 

« * . 

3 2.03 



3300.00 

2.1.21 


332.1. 21 



' 1,476.0.00 


506.0.16 

969.3.24 



4,560 1.24 

2 . 1. 21 

646.2.18 

3,916 0.27 




FORM NO. i — Con tin a ed. 



<j-i <u 

O > 



Area in acres 1 

Area added 

Excluded 

Area on 

No. and date 
of Notification 
excluding 
land. 


Settlement. 

. Vh 
. CD 

O & 

<U 

Civil District. 

Name of Forest. 

on i st Jan., 
1909. 

during 

year. 

or dis- 
afforested. 

31st Dec., 
1909. 

Remarks. 




( 

a. r, p- 


a. r. p. 

a. r. p. 




I 

r 

Ulu Bruas 

750.0.00 


200.0.15 

549 - 3-25 




2 

Ulu Bruas ... 1 

Tanjong Burong 

4,672.1.12 


. . . 

4,672.1.12 




3 

l 

Telok Sera 

5,000.0.00 


• ■ « 

5,000.0.00 




4 

( 

Gunong Tunggal 

1,225.0.00 

... 

■ • • 

1,225.0.00 




5 

Beting Luas ... ' 

Batu Undan 

6,500.0.00 


2,670.0.00 

3,830.0.00 



Bindings •< 

6 

< 

Bukit Senangin 

Lumut 

1,000.0.00 


200.0.00 

800.0.00 



7 

r 

1 .237.3 . 1 5 

. . . 

. . . 

1,237.3.15 




8 


Telok Muroh 

2,326.0.00 

... 


2,326.0.00 




9 

Tan ah Merah <( 

North Pangkor 

433.0.09 

. . . 


433.0.09 

2,566.3.18 


■ 


IO 

Sungai Pinang 

2,566.3.18 

. . . 




• 

1 1 


South Pangkor 

766.2.25 



766.2.25 



l 

12 


Tanjong Hantu 

537 - 3-30 

• * * 

. . 1 

537 - 3 - 3 ° 






Total ... 

27,015.2.29 

. . . 

3,070.0.15 

23,945.2.14 




Form No. i.- — Concluded, 


Settlement. 

No. of 

Reserve. 

Civil District. 

Name of Forest, 

Area in acres 
on ist Jan., 
1909. 

Area added 
during 
year. 

Excluded 
or dis- 
afforested. 

Area on 
31st Dec., 
1909. 

No. and date 
at Notification 
excluding 
land. 

Remarks. 




■ 


1 ■ 

< 

• 

v 

a. r. p . 

a. r. p. 

! 

a, r. p. 





i 



Merlimau ... 

6,216.3.06 



6,216.3.06 





2 



Bukit Senggeh ... 

9,526.0.34 

... 

... 

9,526.0.34 





3 

Jasin •< 


Batang Malacca 

3,549.0.00 

t t 1 


3,549.0.00 





4 

■r 


Ayer Panas 

3,460.3.04 

it# 

. . . 

3,460.3.04 





5 



Nyalas 

2,468.3.01 

* • • 

... 

2,468.3.01 





6 

Alor Gajah and 







■ 




Jasin 


Bukit Sedanan 

7 , 593 - 3 - 3 8 

241.2.15 

... 

75835*2.13 



Malacca ... * 


7 



Bukit Panchor 

2,852.3.00 

* * • 


2,852.3.00 





8 



Brisu 

• • * 

91 I .2.19 

• ■ • 

* * ■ 

91 1 .2.19 





9 

Alor Gajah ... *< 


Sungai Udang 

0 4 > 39 2i ° 35 

... 

... 

45392 . 0.35 





IO 



Ramuan China and 










l 

Sungai Siput 

2,591.2.09 

• c • 

• • • 

2 , 59 i * 2 -09 





1 1 

Central and Alor 











Gajah 


Bukit Bruang 

6,103 .0.28 


22.0.05 

6,081 .0.23 





12 

Central 


Bukit Sebukor 

44.2.27 


1 . 

44.2.27 







Total 

49,71 1 .2.01 

241. 2. 15 

22.0.05 

l 

49,931.0 1 1 


J 




Form No. 2. 

Statement showing Progress made in forming new Reserves during the Year 1909. 


Settlement. 


Area finally gazetted during year. 


Area of reserves 
already finally j 
gazetted on. 


Name of 
Reserve. 


No. of 
Notifi- 
cation in 
Gazette. 


Area 
of acres. 


Total area 
finally gazetted 
at close of 
year 1909. 


Areas proposed and 
not yet finally gazetted. 


Name. 


Singapore 


Penang 


< 


Area. 



a. r. f>. 

Government Hill 

5,635.2.11 

Highlands 

252.2.36 

Penara Bukit 

233.2.31 

Pantai Acheh 

3,208.3.08 

Laksamana 

465.2.30 

Telok Bahang 

616.3.32 

Bukit Ginting 

2 l .2.14 

Bukit Gemuroh 

205.3.O5 

Relau Hills 

I7O.3. 19 

Total ... 

IO,8l 1.2.26 


Remarks. 


to 


Form No. 2. — Continued. 


Statement showing Progress made in forming new Reserves during the Year igog. — Continued '. 




Area finally gazetted during year. 

Total area 
finally gazetted 
at close of 
year 1909. 

Areas proposed and 
not yet finally gazetted. 


Settlement. 

Area of reserves 
already finally 
gazetted on. 

Name of 
Reserve. 

No. of 
Notifi- 
cation in 
Gazette . 

Area of 

acres. 

Name. 

Area. 

Remarks. 

> 





r 

Tasek Glugor 

a. r . p . 
1,620.1.38 



■ 



• 


Bukit Juru 

4 I 7 - 3 -I 4 


✓ 






Gajah Mati 

94.0.3 1 








Bukit Seraya 

1 12.0.04 








! Bukit Mertajam 

162.1.22 


Province Wellesley 

■ • ■ 

... 

, ## 

... 

... j 

Bukit Gua Gempas ... 

13.3.20 








Bukit Langkap 

189.2.10 






* 


Kubang Ulu ^ 

(Exp. Garden) f 

• 

8-2.03 








Bukit Gua I poll 

332.1.21 







V 

Bukit Panchor 

969.3.24 

> 






1 

Total ... 

3,916.0.27 



FORM No. 2. — Continued. 

Statement showing Progress made in forming new Reserves during the Year 1909, — Continued . 


* 


Area finally gazetted during year. 

Total area 
finally gazetted 
at close of 
year 1909. 

Areas proposed and 
not yet finally gazetted. 


Settlement. 

Area of reserves 
already finally 
gazetted on. 

Name of 
Reserve. 

No. of 
Notifi- 
cation in 
Gazette . 

Area of 
acres. 

Name. 

Area. 

Remarks. 


Dindings 


Ulu Bruas 

a. r. p . 
549 - 3-25 

Tanjong Burong 

4,672.1.12 

Telok Sera 

5,000.0.00 

Gunong Tunggal 

1,225.0.00 

Batu Undan 

3,830.0.00 

Bukit Senangin 

800.0.00 

Lumut ... 

*>237.3.15 

Telok Muroh 

2,326.0.00 

North Pangkor 

433 - 0-09 

Sungai Pinang 

2,566.3.18 

South Pangkor 

766.2,25 

Tanjong Hantu 

537 - 3-30 

Total ... 

23,945.2.14 


Form No. 2. — concluded. 


Statement showing Progress made in forming new Reserves during the Year igog. — concluded. 




Area finally gazetted d 

uring year. 

Total area 
finally gazetted 
at close of 
year 1909. 

Areas proposed and 
not yet finally gazetted. 


Settlement. 

Area of reserves 
already finally 
gazetted on. 

Name of 
Reserve. 

No. of 
Notifi- 
cation in 
Gazette. 

Area of 

acres. 

Name. 

Area. 

Remarks. 


Malacca 


Merlimau 

a. r, p . 
6,216.3.06 

Bukit Seraya 

9,526.0.34 

Batang Malaka 

3,549.0.00 

Ayer Panas 

3,460.3.04 

Nyalas ... 

2,468.3.01 

Bukit Sedanan 

7,835-2-13 

Bukit Panchor 

2,852.3.00 

Brisu 

91 1.2.19 

Sungai Udang 

4.392.0.35 

Ramuan China and ^ 
Sungai Siput \ 

2,591.2.09 

Bukit Bruang 

6,081.0.23 

Bukit Sebukor 

44.2.27 

Total ... 

49,931.0.11 


Form No. 8. 
Area of Plantations 


\ 

\ 


ft 



Area in Acres. 

• 

Of Year. 


Settlements and Districts. 

Name 

of Reserves. 

Kind of 
Plantation. 

On. ist 
January, 

Added 

during 

On 31st 
December, 

Receipts, 

Charges. 

Remarks. 

i 



1909. 

year. 

1909. 




r 

Bukit Timah... 

Getah and rubber 


1 

$ c. 

$ c. 


Singapore ... 


plantation 

97 

. . . 

97 

* . - 

609 00 


1 

Sembawang . . . 

Para rubber planta- 









tion 

10 

... 

10 

200 

. . . 



4 

Total ... 

107 


1 07 

200 

609 00 


Penang ... 

Batu Feringgi 

Getah Tab an 

68 

i * * 

68 

. . . 

75 2 5 


P. Wellesley 

* • « 


• • * 

• «» 


... 

... 


Dindings 

Small nursery 

on Crown Land at 

lumut 

about ^ an 

acre in size 







Getah perclia 

131 


* 3 * 

• 4 . 

2,570 94 





Getah sundek 
Tembusu 

8 

) 

, . . 

8 


* • • 





Mahogany 

r 43 

. . . 

43 

. . • 






Para trees 

) ... 

. . ' 

• 1 * 

3,491 38 

. 4 4 


Malacca 

Bukit Bruang<( 


Merbau 

32 

• • » 

32 

* • • 






Penak 

x 7 


1 7 

* • * 






Penaga 

8 

• » m 

8 

4 • ■ 

4 4 * 





Nibong 

3 2 

4 4 . 

3 ' 2 

» • • 






Kledang 

8 


8 

• * * 

4 . . 




v. 

Sale of old mangle 

• * • 

• 44 

• • • 

30 00 

• • • 



Bukit Sebukor 

Para trees 

2 


2 

• * fe 




Bukit Panchor 

Durians 

• * • 


• m • 

200 OO 





Dukus 

... 

... 


IO OO 



• 


Total . . . 

281 

... 

28l 

373 1 38 

2 ) 57 ° 94 



SINGAPORE, 


Form No. ii. 


Revenue. 

Expenditure: Personal Emoluments. 

1 

Expenditure : Other Charges. 

Total. 

I.— Timber and other forest pro- 

$ c. 


$ c . 

Annually Recurrent. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

duce removed from forests by Gov- 

. 






ernment Agency — 


Conservator's salaries and 10 per 


Contingent Expenses ... 

163 00 


(a) Timber 


cent Loan Allowances 

3)394 20 




(b) Firewood and Charcoal 

• * * 



Maintenance of Forest Reserves ... 

117 u 


(c) Bamboos and Canes 


General Assistant’s salaries 

300 00 




(id) Getah 




Personal and Transport Allowances 

903 94 


(V) Other Produce 


Clerk's salaries 

720 00 








Planting and Cultural Operations... 

609 00 


Total l ... 


Forest Ranger’s salaries 

1,020 00 







Working Plans, Pandan Reserve ... 

286 97 


II. — Timber and forest produce 


Forester’s salaries 

220 00 




removed from forests by purchasers 




Uniforms ... 

142 75 


and licensees — 


Forest Guards’ salaries 

1,330 00 




(a) Timber 

1 7 1 73 






(b) Firewood and Charcoal 

4,251 15 



Special Expenditure. 



(c) Bamboos and Canes 

17 80 






(d) Getah 

200 00 



Purchase of Plane Tables 

69 27 


(<?) Other Produce 

255 90 






Total II ... 

4,896 60 






III. — Unclaimed and confiscated 


* 





timber and forest produce 

... 

1 

I 


1 



IV, — Miscellaneous... 

38 00 






Grand Total 

4,934 60 


6,984 20 

11 - -- 

2,292 04 

1 

9,276 24 


PENANG AND PROVINCE WELLESLEY. 

FORM No. i i — Continued . 


Revenue, 

Expenditure : Personal Emoluments. 

Expenditure : Other Charges. 

Total. 

I. — limber and other forest 
produce removed from forests by 
Government Agency — 

[a) Timber 

( b ) Firewood and Charcoal 
(r) Bamboos and Canes 

(d) Getah 

( e) Other Produce 

$ c. 

Salaries ... 

[ 

$ c. 

2,945 26 

Annually Recurrent. 

Contingent Expenses... 

Uniforms ... 

Improvement of Forest Reserves ... 

Maintenance of boundaries and 

$ c. 

« 

130 92 

83 84 

283 92 

$ c. 

t 

Total I ... 

... 



paths ... ... 

300 50 


II. — Timber and forest produce 
removed from forests by purchasers 
and licensees — 

{a) Timber 

(b) Firewood and Charcoal 

(c) Bamboos and Canes 

(d) Getah 

( e ) Other Produce 

659 87 

1 62 44 

1 00 

• ■ 1 

128 10 



Transport and Field Allowances ,. 

Protection of Forests ... 

Weeding and maintenance of Gutta- 
percha trees 

357 46 

296 40 ; 

75 25 


Total II ... 

95 1 4 i 





V 

III. — Unclaimed and confiscated 
Timber and Forest Produce 

Go 

O 

Ln 

O 






IV. Miscellaneous ... 




- - 

- 


Grand Total ... 

981 91 j 

V 


2,945 26 


r, 5 2 8 29 

1 

4,473 55 


BINDINGS. 

Form No. ii — Continued. 


Revenue. 


Expenditure : Personal Emoluments. 


Expenditure : Other Charges. 


S 

I. — Timber and other forest ^ 
produce removed from forests by 
Government Agency — 

( a ) Timber 

( b ) Firewood and Charcoal 

(c) Bamboos and Canes 

(d) Get ah 
(, e ) Other Produce 


c. 


Total I ... 


II. — Timber and forest produce 
removed from forests by purchasers 
and licensees — 

(a) Timber 

(< b ) Firewood and Charcoal 
(' c ) Bamboos and Canes 

(d) Getah 

( e ) Other Produce 


2,016 3 8 
2,480 00 
603 00 

'1,042 22 


Total II ... 6,141 60 


III. — Unclaimed and confiscated 
timber and forest produce 

IV. — Miscellaneous ... 


1 50 


103 00 


Revenue on timber supplied to j 
the Public Works Department ... 150 00 


Grand Total .. 


6,396 10 



$ c. 

Annually Recurrent. 

$ c. 

Salaries ... 

4*728 75 

Bicycle Allowance to Forest Ranger 

10 0 00 

fiilteen per cent Dindings Allow- 


Contingent Expenses ... 

99 59 

ance ... 

399 7i 





Maintenance of boundaries and 


Ten per cent Local Allowance 

112 13 

paths ... 

583 60 



Planting and Cultural Operations ... 

300 06 



Transport and Personal Allowances 

350 84 



Uniforms for Forest Guards 

1 19 55 

1 


Special Expenditure. 




Purchase of Boats 

40 OO 


1 

Purchase of Bicycle ... 

• 

% 

73 53 


5.240 59 


1,667 17 


dotal. 


$ 


6,907 76 


MALACCA, 

Form No. ii.— Concluded. 


Revenue, 

» 

Expenditure : Personal Emoluments. 


$ c. 


$ C. 

I. — Timber and other forest pro- 




duce removed from forests by 


Salaries ... 

5,857 8l 

Government Agency — 




{a) Timber 


Ten per cent Local Allowance 

I2Q 22 

(< b ) Firewood and Charcoal 




(e) Bamboos and Canes 




(< d ) Getah 

1 38 53 



(e) Other Produce 




T otal I 

138 53 



II. — Timber and forest produce 




removed from forests by purchasers 




and licensees — 




( a ) Timber 

4,024 91 



( b ) Firewood and Charcoal 

804 77 



(c) Bamboos and Canes 

42 00 



(d) Getah 

120 00 



{ e ) Other Produce 

505 00 



Total II 

* 

5,496 68 



III. Unclaimed and confiscated 




timber and forest produce 

0 

00 

GC 

r 


IV. — Miscellaneous. — 




Compensation and fines ... 

551 09 



Grand Total ... 

6.274 34 

1 

5.987 04 


Expenditure : Other Charges. 



$ c - 

Annually Recurrent. 


Clearing paths in Forest Reserves . . . 

26 80 

Contingent Expenses ... 

no 25 

Maintenance of Reserve Boundaries 

227 60 

Transport and Personal Allowances. 

1,099 72 

Uniforms ... 

190 50 

Upkeep of Ayer Kroh Plantation... 

2,510 94 


• 

; 

4,225 8l 


A. M. BTJRN-MURDOCH, 

Conservator °f Forests, 

PYni h/fnlnw Stf.ntPS and AtVaits Spf r 


Total. 


$ 


10,212 85 


STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. 


ANNUAL REPORT 

ON 

* 

FOREST ADMINISTRATION 

IN THE 


STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 


FOR THE YEAR 

1910 

1 


A, M. BURN-MURDOCH, 

Conservator of Forests,. 

Federated Malay States and Straits Settlements . 



PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY. 


% \ ii o a pore: 


Printed at the GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, Singapore, 
by J. E. Tyler, Government Printer. 




Annual Report on Forest Administration in the 
Straits Settlements, for the Year 1910. 


PART I. 

Extension and Constitution of Reserved Forests. 

1. During the year progress was made in the legal constitution of the resenes 
as follows : — 

Singapore, all reserves were preliminarily notified on 4th March, i9 IO > anc ^ 
finally notified on 21st October, 19 10. 

In Penang and Province Wellesley the reserves preliminarily notified on 22nd 
October, 1909, had not been completely settled by the end of 19 10, but have since 
been finally gazetted on 22nd January, 1911, except Bukit Juru and Bukit Panchor. 

In the Din dings the reserves were not finally gazetted at the end of the year, 
but have since been notified, except Gunong Tunggal, Batu Undan and Bukit 
Senangin. 

In Malacca the reserves have still to be finally notified. 

The total area of all reserves in the Colony will be, when finally gazetted, 102,156 
acres as compared with a previous area of 102,350 acres. 

The following were the areas preliminarily and finally notified in the Gazette : — 


1 

Acres. ^ 

Roods. 

Poles. 


I 

' 1 

Singapore 

13,646 

2 

34 

Final. 

Penang ... 

10,741 

3 

3 1 

Preliminary. 

Province Wellesley ... 

3,916 

0 

27 

Do, 

Dindings 

24d45 

2 

14 

Do. 

Malacca ... 

49,93 1 

0 

1 1 

Do. 

Total ... 

* 102,381 

1 

37 



2. The delay in Bukit Juru and Bukit Panchor is due to the fact that parts of 
these reserves will have to be excluded. In the case of the three Dindings reserves 
above mentioned, due to the fact that they have not yet been surveyed and reliable 
descriptions could not be prepared. 204 acres were excluded from the Ulu Bruas 
reserve, and alienated to the Sandycroft Rubber Co. 


* Areas as preliminarily notified, subject to alteration before final notification. 


2 


The delay in final notification of the Malacca reserves is due to some discussion 
as to the method of describing the boundaries, but descriptions were prepared and the 
reserves are practically settled. 


Demarcation and Up-keep of Boundaries. 


3. The total length of artificial or cut boundaries of reserves in the Colony is 
353 miles. 

In Singapore 70 miles were kept clean by the forest guards. 

Tn Penang and Province Wellesley 87 miles of boundaries were cleared on 
contract for $272.94 or at $3.14 per mile, and Telok Bahang, Pantai Acheh and Tasek 
Glugor boundaries were cleared by the forest staff. Notices were served on the owners 
of lands adjoining the Bukit Mertajam and Bukit Serayah reserves instructing them 
to clear their boundaries. 

4. In the Bindings 59^ miles of boundaries were cleared departmentally at $305. 
average of $5.12 per mile. 

In Malacca 86 miles of boundaries were re-cleared at $404.40, average of about 
$4.70 per mile, 22 miles were in good order and required no repairs. 

The work under this head has been well and cheaply carried out. 


Surveys. 

5. In Singapore the Forest Ranger completed a rough survey of North Seletar 
reserve. 

In the Dindings the Southern boundary of Telok Sera reserve and the Western 
boundary of Batu Undan reserve were surveyed. No other surveys were taken in 
hand and much remains to be clone in the Dindings. 


PART II. 


Management of Forests. 


Working Plans. 

6. In Singapore five Mangrove reserves were worked under a plan as shown in 
this table : — 


Name of 
Coupe. 

No. of 
Coupe. 

Time allowed for working. 

Area 

Amount 

realized. 

Opening. 

• 

• 

Closing. 

in 

acres. 

Pandan 

2 

March, 1910. .. 

March, 1911... 

too 

$ 

450 

c . 

00 

Seletar 

1 

October, 1910. 

October, 1911. 

60 

276 

00 

Tuas 

1 

Do. 

Do. 

80 

360 | 

00 

Kranji 

1 

Dec. 1909 ... 

Dec. 1910 ... 

30 j 

1 20 ! 

00 

Changi 

2 

Do. 

Do. 

L 

27 

| 

05 ; 

50 

Total ... 

5 

* • * 

■ * • 

1 

1 

2 97 1 


50 


3 


297 acres were leased for one year for $1,381.50. 

In Penang and Province Wellesley no working plans exist. 

7. In Malacca the Merlimau, Ayer Panas and Sungai Udang reserves were 
worked under a rough plan for timber. Extraction of selected and marked trees of 
Class I being permitted. 

Some large Meranti trees were also felled in Cape Rachado. 

The following trees of Class I of not less than six feet in girth were selected and 
marked for felling : — 


Merlimau 
Ayer Panas 
Sungai Udang 
Cape Rachado 


1 17 

realized $190 

. 104 

do. 

224 

44 

do. 

480 

9 

do. 

40 

274 

as compared with 
332 in 1909. 


Paths in Reserves. 


8. Paths were made as follows : — 

In Singapore from Kuala Sungai Tuas to Kuala Sungai Blukang at a cost of $42. 
In Penang the paths in the hill reserves are upkept by the Public Works 
Department. 

In the Bindings existing paths were upkept by the forest guards. 

In Malacca inspection paths were re-cleared during the year at a cost of $115.95 
and a new path opened across the Brisu reserve, costing $26.80. 

Buildings. 

9. Temporary huts for forest guards in Singapore were erected at Tanjong 
Karang and cost $15* 

In the Bindings a rubber shed and store was built for $210. 

Forest guards' quarters and other buildings were kept in repair by the Public 
Works Department. 

Protection. 

10. No alterations were effected in the forest laws during the year. 

The general protection of reserved forests by the staff has been good. 


Fire Protection. 

11. A few small fires occurred in Singapore during the year, 10 acres in Ang Mo 
Kio and two acres in South Seletar reserves, and one man was fined $10. A very 
small fire occurred in Sungai Buloh. 

No fires are reported from Penang. Dindings or Malacca in reserved forests, but 
some lalang fires on Crown land were reported and the authors of them fined. 

12. In Province Wellesley about 60 acres of lalang were burnt over in Tasek 
Glugor reserve on five occasions and 25’ acres of lalang in Bukit Panchor reserve 
on two occasions. Fines were inflicted in both cases, also in a case of fire on Crown 
land. 

Forest Offences. 


13. The following were the cases taken to Court : — 


0 

Cases pending 
from 1909. 

New cases 

Total 

Disposed of during year. 

of the year. 

cases. 

Convic- 

tions. 

Acquit- 

tals. 

Pending at 
close of year. 

2 

153 

^55 

r 37 

T 5 

3 


4 /m 


4 


t-it 


Besides these ri cases were compounded for $343 as follows: — 

$ 

10 

115 

218 


$343 


The percentage of convictions of cases tried is 88 per cent as compared with 78 
per cent in 1909. 

There were 12 cases in Singapore, 47 in Penang and Province Wellesley, 38 in 
the Dindings and 69 in Malacca. 

14. In Penang and Province Wellesley there were 16 convictions for offences in 
reserved forests and 23 on Crown land, and forest damages amounted to $119.77. 

In the Dindings 21 persons were convicted for offences in reserved forests and 17 
on Crown land, and $10 realized as forest damages. 

Four cases were compounded for $115. 

15. In Malacca there were 63 prosecutions, and six cases were compounded for 
$218, and $72.94 were awarded as damages to the department. 

16. Fines realized by the Courts in all cases amounted to $1,590.45. 

In Penang and Province Wellesley the number of cases was nearly double that in 
1909. 

In the Dindings it fell off, in Malacca there was an increase of 41 cases, owing, 
no doubt, to the increased demand for timber and fuel and the activity in opening out 
new country for planting. 


In Singapore 1 case was compounded for 
In Dindings 4 cases were compounded for 
In Malacca 6 cases were compounded for 


Improvement of Forests. 

Natural Reproduction. 

r 7 . In Singapore natural reproduction of Tampines and of Getah Taban are 
reported as good. 

In Penang seedlings of Gutta Percha have been noticed in Telok Bahang reserve 
and also small trees of Dacrydium elatuiti. Damar laut is well reproduced in the 
Dindings, in many places the ground being carpeted with young seedlings. 

In Malacca a poor seed year is reported. 


Artificial Reproduction. 

( Vide Form 8). 

• 

18. In Singapore one acre was added to the Gutta Percha plantation in Bukit 
Timah reserve and five acres planted with Para in South Seletar reserve. Ten acres 
of Para in Sembawang reserve were given up to the Municipality. The area of the 
Bukit Timah plantation at the close of the year was 98 acres, and was maintained at 
a cost of $576. Thinnings of useless species were made to give more light to the 
young Gutta Percha trees, with very beneficial results. A Para nursery was also 
established. 

19. It was decided to tap the Para trees at Bukit Timah and the Government 
advanced $360. Preparations for tapping were made and it has since commenced. 

20. In Penang small nurseries of hardwood trees were made in Tasek Glugorand 
Bukit Panchor reserves, and 400 Para rubber stumps were planted out in the experi- 
mental gardens on Penang Hill at 2,000 feet elevation. In Batu Feringgi the planta- 
tion of 68 acres was upkept, undergrowth interfering with Gutta Percha trees and 
Para being cleared. 


U 


5 


The Para planted here ten years ago has done very badly ; 300 Para stumps 
were planted out. Total cost $146.65. $80.40 was realized on lease of some Para 

trees on Government Hill. 

21. In the Dindings 10 acres were planted with Para at Lumut, one acre with 
cocoa-nuts and one acre of fruit trees on reclaimed marsh land. The total cost was 
$370.50 including nursery. The prisoners assisted by digging out lalang. 

Sale of rubber from the trees near the rest-house yielded a revenue of $578.86, 
out of which $210 was spent on making a* drying shed and store, etc. $160 was 
realized by sale of plants and fruits. 

22. In Malacca the area of plantations at Ayer Kroh and Bukit Sebukor was 
erroneously shown in the 1909 report as 281 acres at the close of 1909, whereas it 
should have been 345 acres, as 64 acres were added in 1909. The area was further 
added to in 1910 by 10 acres of Merbau, Penaga and Nibong, vide Form 8. 

This plantation was upkept by the Gardens Committee, from funds yielded by 
sale of rubber. The accounts of the Gardens Committee are appended. 

$ c. 

2,468 22 brought forward from 1909 

5,127 60 receipts 1910 

— e 

$7,595 82 Expenditure during 1910 w as $2, 1 12.74. 


The available ground on the Mahogany block was planted up with Para plants, 
nearly one-third have died out, but these were replaced. Those planted in the avail- 
able ground in the Para block are -doing well. 

Afgood many of the plants in the Penak, Penaga, Merbau and Nibong blocks 
proved failures, but were replaced. The Nibong plants in compartment 2 situated on 
hilly ground proved a failure, although still living, the plants being stunted, those 
growing in compartments 1 and 3 on low-lying ground are thriving. 

The Merbau block, compartments 1 and 3, Penak No. 7 ; Resak, Tembusu, 
Kledang, Mahogany, Gutta Percha and Getah Sundek show great improvement. 

The hardwood timber nursery of Merbau, Penaga, Penak, Resak, Tembusu and 
Nibong are doing well, except Niatoh and Kledang which were abandoned, and these 
beds were converted into a Para nursery in which 19,180 seeds were sown. These 
seeds were collected at the plantation. 

During the last two months of the year, the Para block in the Bukit Sebukor 
reserve was divided into two compartments (A and B) and all the trees, except those 
below 6 inches in girth were measured at 3 feet from the ground and numbered by the 
Forest Ranger and a record kept with sketches in a register. Blocks C and D situated 
at the sixth and seventh mile in the Bukit Bruang reserve were completed. A sample 
plot consisting of one hundred Getah Taban trees in the block at the seventh mile was 
measured, numbered and registered during June. The Para blocks A, B, C and D 
were attended to, drained, weeded, and lalang and undergrowth removed. 

Failures were replaced, and planting up of available ground with Para seedlings 
was completed. 

During the latter part of the year the block boundaries of Nibong, Penak, 
Merbau, Penaga, (compartments 1, 2 and 3) Kledang, Resak, Penak No. ’7, which 
were overgrown with lalang and resam were cleaned up. Bridging of swamps in 
some of the blocks was completed. 

The undergrowth round the Taban trees in the blocks was cleaned 18 inches 
round each tree. 

o 

The Merbau and Penak nursery in the Merlimau reserve did not prove a success, 
but the Tembusu seedlings are doing well, a good number of these have been planted 


6 


out into the reserve. Fifty Penak, too Merbau and 150 Resak seedlings were obtained 
from the Ayer Kroh plantation and planted out in the Merlimau reserve during 
October, by the Forester and forest guards. 

During the year Merbau and Resak seedlings from the Sungai Udang nursery 
were transplanted into the reserve by the forest guards and are doing well. 


Ayer Kroh Plantation. 

Statement of Revenue And Expenditure for 1910. 




Receipts. 

] 

Expenditure. 

Months. 


Payments. 

Consignment 

Nos. 

Salaries. 

* 

1 

Miscellan- 

eous 

Expenses. 

Total 

Amounts 

Spent. 



$ c. 


$ c. 

$ c> 

$ c. 

January ... 

« • * 

766 57 

4/09 

... 

* • • 

• * » 

February 

* ■ * 

• * . 

• • * 

125 62 

8 56 

134 18 

March 

... 

310 62 

5/09 

147 85 

1 7 4 2 

165 27 

April 

. . . 

473 *7 

6/09 

213 45 

1 7 16 

230 61 

May 

... 

... 

• . . 

166 20 

3 i 7 

169 37 

June 


15 83 

Bank interest. 

189 50 

2 16 

19 1 66 

» 

• 

July 

it* 

. • • 

. . . 

207 70 

9 77 

217 47 

August . . . 

• * * 

... 


183 15 

9 90 

193 05 

September 

• • • 

... 

• * • 

236 35 

i8 23 

254 58 

October ... 

1 

1,664 09 
M 7 2 34 

| I& 2 /IO 

*79 15 

11 83 

190 98 

November 

. . , 

387 96 

3/1° 

147 60 

3 *6 

150 76 

December 


337 02 

4/10 

208 75 

6 06 

214 81 

Total 

• * • 

$5,127 60 


2,005 3 2 

107 42 

2,1 12 74 

Balance 1909 


2,468 22 





Grand total 

• • • 

7.595 82 






Out of $7,595*82, $2,000 lias been placed in the bank on fixed deposit. 


7 


Exploitation. 

Timber and Fuel. 


From Reserved Forests. 


23. This table shows the timber and firewood removed from reserved forests: — 



Name 

Timber, 

Settlement. 

of 

(tons of 50 


Reserve. 

! 

cubic feet.) 


Piles. 


hi re wood 
(tons.) 





Tons. 

Tons. 


r 1 Changi 

, * , 

5 ° 

360 


\ Kranji 

• • . 

• , • 

245 

Singapore 

Pandan 

1 , « 

213 

521 


J Seletar 

* . . 

196 

45 


V Tuas 

' 1 


274 

55 


* i 


733 

1,226 

Penang and 

Province 




Wellesley 

... ; Batu Feringgi 

C Tel ok Sera / 

5 trees 

1 79 tons 



Dindings 

< Lumut ( 




b Tanjong Rurong . . . 


1,060 Fishi 

ng-stakes. 


f Merlimau 

1 1 7 trees 


Malacca 

< Ayef Panas 

104 „ 




6 Sungai Udang ... 

44 ). 




24. In Singapore 1,226 tons of firewood and 733 tons of piles were extracted 
Irom reserved forests, the revenue realized being $1,381.50. 

One hundred and seventy-nine tons of Class I timber were extracted in the 
lelok Sera and Lumut forest reserves, the former reserve being closed in June, and 
the latter in September, and timber cutting carried on on Crown land outside reserves. 
No tenders were received for the Mangrove reserve 1910 block, but 1,060 fishing- 
stakes were taken out as thinnings and disposed of. 

Five Class I trees were»removed from Batu Feringgi reserve, in Penang realizing 


25. In Malacca 265 selected trees were cut in Merlimau, Aver Panas and Sungai 
Udang reserves, realizing $989, in Bukit Bruang reserve Class II trees were cut on 
permits. 

From Crown and Alienated Lands. 


26. This table gives the total for each Settlement : — 


Settlement. 

Timber. 

Class Class 

I. 11. 

1 

Poles. 

Total 
timber in 
tons. 

Free grants. 


Fire- 

wood. 

Char- 

coal. 



trees. 

No. 


No. 

* 



Singapore 


102 

17,270 


1,790 rollers. 




Penang and Pro- 









vince Wellesley 

. . , 

... 

• ■ * 

* » 1 

* * * 

VNo. re 

cord. 


tons. 

tons. 







Dindings 

438 

167 

21,825 

1,041 

* m v 





trees 








Alalacca 

9 

» * 1 

• • * 

* « * 

• * * 

j 





8 


(Tons of 50 cubic feet for timber. Poles for total tonnage are taken at r cubic 
foot each). 

27. In Singapore permits were issued for 102 Class II trees and 17,270 small poles, 
realizing $122.10 revenue. 370 monthly permits were issued for Mangrove, realizing 
$1,850 as compared with $4,251 during the previous year, and free permits to native 
landholders lor 1,790 poles. 

28. In the Bindings 328 tons of Class I timber, 81 tons of Class 11 timber and 
21,825 fishing-stakes were extracted from Crown land on payment of royalty, and 23 
tons of timber taken by the Public Works Department free of royalty. 

A great deal of good timber was wasted owing to the opening out of forest land 
for rubber cultivation. 

20 tons of Class I and 29 tons of Class II timber were removed from alienated land 
and paid royalty, also 69 tons of Class I and 55 tons of Class II were removed free of 
royalty. Firewood realized $1,550.47. 

29. In Malacca nine Class I trees were selected in Cape Rachado and extracted. 
The total revenue from timber on Crown land was $3,748 as compared with $3,315 in 
1909. Firewood realized $295 and charcoal $149.75, a big fall as compared with 1909. 

Minor Forest Produce. 

30. In Singapore bamboos and canes, nibongs, etc., realized $221.16 as against 
$287 in 1909. 

31. In Penang and Province Wellesley licences for rotan , bertam , langkap , akar 
gharu and nibong realized $337.48 as compared with $128.10 in 1909, mostly from 
reserved forests, and $65 was realized by lease of a few rubber trees. 

32. In the Dindings canes realized $845, other produce $575 and rubber $443.86. 
For tin taken from the Telok Sera reserve $238.71 was paid to the department and 
$120.50 from cocoa-nuts and fruits on Crown land. Sale of seedlings $40. 

33. In Malacca minor produce realized $376.17, a decrease as compared with 
1909. The price paid for right to extract wood-oil fell during the year. 

The Para rubber trees in Ayer Kroh and Bukit Sebukor were tapped departmen- 
tally, throughout the year. The yield was 1,712! lbs. sheet and 329! lbs. scrap as 
compared with 1,194! lbs. sheet and 2 gi\ lbs. scrap in 1909. The amount realized 
from sale of rubber was $5,127.60 and was credited to the Gardens Committee 
account. About 85 lbs. of sheet rubber in the store at the Ayer Kroh plantation valued 
approximately $360 were stolen between the 5th and 7th May. 

54, The Conservator inspected this plantation in November, and found great 
improvement in tapping. Blanks in the plantation have been filled up and general 
improvement effected. The whole cost of plantations both of hard-wood trees 
and rubber in the Bukit Sebukor plantation is now met from the proceeds of the sale 
of rubber. 

PART III. 

Financial Results. 


35. This table shows the comparative revenue for 1909 and 1910 : — 


Settlement. 

Revenue 

1909. 

Estimated 

revenue 

1910. 

Revenue 

1910. 

Increase or 
decrease over 
Estimate. 


$ c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 

4 . 934.60 

5,000.00 

3,587-21 

- B412.79 

Wellesley ... 

Dindings 

981.91 

6,396.10 

j- 8,000.00 

| 990-97 

f 6,034.37 

- 974.66 

Malacca 

6,274.34 

6,000.00 

5 . 943*58 1 

- 56.42 

Total ... 

18,586.95 

19,000.00 

16,556.13 

- 2 , 443*87 


9 


36. The fall in revenue over 1909 figures is $2,030.82 due in all Settlements to 
heading, " Firewood and Charcoal/’ as may be seen from Form 1 1. 

0 The fall in royalty on fuel is undoubtedly due to the alienation of Crown land and 
fellino-^of virgin forest. A certain amount of felled trees are converted into firewood, 
and in many cases the fuel is not chargeable with royalty. 

57. Penang and Province Wellesley showed a small increase in revenue, owing 
to the diligence of the forest Ranger, Mr. BORGES, who has also done much to give 
an impetus to the revenue in the Dindings, and who maintained the timber revenue at 
its 1909 level in spite of a lowered rate of royalty. The large fall in revenue on 
firewood in Singapore is chiefly due to the fact that most of the Mangrove on Crown 
lands is worked out and that the price for permits on Crown lands was raised. 

Expenditure. 


38. This statement shows the total expenditure in each Settlement, as compared 
with 1909 and estimates for 1910 : — 


Settlement. 

Expenditure 

1909. 

Estimated 

expenditure 

1010. 

Expenditure 

1910. 

Savings on 
Estimates 

Singapore 


$ c. 
9,276.24 

$ c. 
9,440.00 

$ c. 
9,08 1 .97 

$ c. 

- 358.03 

Penang and 
Wellesley ... 

Province 

4 , 473-55 

5,360.00 

4 , 7 8 4-34 

- 575-66 

Dindings 

. . , 

6,907.76 

7,430.00 

6 , 395-05 

- 1,034.95 

Vlalacca 

■■■ 1 

10,212.85 

0 

8,332.0° 

9 , 7 i 6 . 7 S 

+ i, 3 8 4-75 


Total .. | 

30,870.40 1 

30,562 OO 

29,978.1 1 

- 583.89 


or $892.29 less than in 1909. 

As usual Singapore took one-third of Conservator of Forests’ salary and a portion 
of his office establishment amounting to $1,080 also of course the transport, field and 
other allowances of Conservator when on tour in the Colony, as shown in Form 1 1, 
but the Malacca plantations were not upkept from votes, but from proceeds of sale 
of rubber as already explained. 

There was an increase in transport, field and other allowances in Penang, 
Province Wellesley, Dindings and Malacca. 

Administration, 

39. Mr. A. M. Burn -Murdoch held the appointment of Conservator of Forests 
throughout the year and visited the iollowing reserves: — 

Singapore. — Sembawang and Bukit Timah reserves. 

Penang. — Government Hill and Telok Bahang reserves. 

Province Wellesley . — Bukit Gua Ipoh and Bukit Langkap reserves. 

Dindings. — Pangkor Island, Tanjorig Hantu and Luiriut reserves. 

Malacca. — Bukit Bruang and Bukit Sebukor reserves. 

40. Mr. BORGES returned from leave on 14th April, and took over charge of 
Penang, Province Wellesley and Dindings forests, his headquarters being fixed at 
Penang, and the Ranger, Grade I, Dindings’ appointment transferred to Penang. 
Mr. BORGES has been given office accommodation in the Government Offices and 
quarters in the town. This new arrangement has proved satisfactory. The 
Superintendent of forests and Gardens ceased to draw the allowance of $600 
per annum on 7th March, when he retired and this allowance will not be renewed. 

41. In the Dindings, the District Officer had general direction of the department 
and was assisted by Che Ibrahim bin Ahmat, Forest Ranger, Federated Malay 
States, until 2nd May, when he was relieved bv Mr. BORGES. 




IO 


4 2. Mr, O'Hara, Forest Ranger, Grade I, was in charge of the Malacca forests 
throughout the year. 

43. Mr. Malaya Pillai, Forest Ranger, Grade III, assisted the Collector of 
Land Revenue in charge of the Singapore forests. 


Subordinate Staff, 


44. In Singapore two forest guards resigned and two were dismissed. 

45. In Penang and Province Wellesley, Mr. J. Abrams, Forest Ranger, Grade IV, 
retired on 31st December, and his appointment was abolished. Forest Guard, 
H. Paul, retired on 1st September. One forest guard was dismissed, one was fined, 
and the increment of another was withheld for six months. 

46. In the Dindings, J. Sanib, Forest Ranger, Grade IV, was dismissed on 10th 
April, and succeeded by Andak who was transferred to Malacca in August. His 
place was taken up by Sheik Ahmat from Malacca. One forest guard was 
dismissed. 


47. In Malacca, Sheik Ahmat, Forest Ranger, Grade IV, was transferred from 
Ayer Kroh plantation to the Dindings in September, Andak coming from the 
Dindings. The latter suffered continuously from bad health in Malacca, and returned 
to the Dindings on 9th November, and died shortly after the close of the year. The 
appointment of Forest Ranger, Grade IV, Malacca, was kept vacant and a Mandor 
was appointed on $25 per mensem. Sheik Ahmat’S salary was reduced from $660 
to $510 per annum on account of a theft of rubber from the Ayer Kroh store between 
the 5th and 7th May, in connection with which he was held to have been negligent. 
Mr. J. Felix was appointed Forest Clerk, on 21st January. Forest Guard, Dualip 
bin Jatim, retired on 31st December, and two forest guards resigned. 

48. The following was the staff employed during the year: — 


Settlement. 


Singapore 

Penang & P. Wellesley 
Dindings ... 

Malacca ... 


Total 


Rangers. 

Foreste rs. 

Forest 

Resigna- 

tions. 

Dismis- 

Grade Grade 
I. II. 

Grade 

III. 

Grade 

IV. 

Guards. 

sals. 

t 1 1 * • «. 

1 * 

... 

I 

IO 

2 

2 

i 

. . . 

1 

I 

6 

... 

I 

I 

• • * 

1 

2 

6 


2 

1 

» « • 

1 

2 

16 

2 

* * * 

| 2 

f 

I 

3 

6 

3 * 

4 

5 


Kuala Lumpur, 

18 th March , 191 1. 


A. M. BURN-MURDOCH, 

Conservator of Forests , 

Federated Malay States and Straits Settlements. 


o 


Form No. i. 


Settlement. 

I 

! 

Civil District. 

No. of 

Reserve. 

— 

Name of Forest. 

Area in acres 
on 1st Jan., 
1910. 

Area added 
during 
year. 

Excluded 
or dis- 
afforested. 

Area on 

31 Dec, 
1910. 

No. and date 
of Notification 
excluding 
land. 

Remarks. 



1 


a. r. p. 

a. r. p. 

a. r . p. 

a. r. p. 


• 

■ r r 

Lim Chu Kang 

I 

Sungai Buloh 

770.2.16 

• • * 


770.2.16 

. . . 



Kranji 

2 

Kranji 

745 - 0*32 


... 

745 - 0-32 

... 



Lim Chu Kang 

3 

Sungai Murai 

3 * 4 * 1-05 


* * « 

3 I 4 -I -05 




Tuas 

4 

Tuas 

1,608.3.02 



1,608.3.02 




Kranji 

5 

Chua Chu Kang 

49.O.OO 


« • * 

49.O.OO 




Jurong - 

6 

Bukit Panjang 

1 17.2,16 



1 1 7.2.16 




Mandi 

7 

Mandi ... 

407.0.32 


• ■ • 

407.0.32 




Seletar 

8 

North Seletar 

1 ,492.1.08 



1,492.1.08 



Singapore S 











Bukit Timah 

9 

Bukit Timah 

7 17.2.28 



717.2.28 




Ang Mo Kio . . . 

IO 

Ang Mo Kio 

296.0.02 



296.O.O 2 




Seletar 

j i 

South Seletar 

1,256.0.32 



1,256.0.32 




Changi 

12 

Changi... 

1 , 393 * 0*00 


64.2.1 1 

1,328.1.29 

1240 of 21 .10. IO 



Jurong 

L 3 

Jurong ... 

41 1. 2. 31 

• • • 

• * * 

4 **- 2 . 3 i 

• ■ • 

■ — .. . 


Pandan & Peng- 






; ’ " 




kang 

14 

Pandan... 

3,416.1.08 

5.2.30 

* • * 

3 , 42 I. 3*38 

I24O Of 21 , 10 , IO 



Sembawang 

15 

Sembawang 

750.1.05 

1 


40.2.02 

7O9.3.O3 

1519 of 30.12.10 





Total ... 

13,746.0.17 

1 

5.2.30 

IO5.O.13 

13,646.2.34 




Form No. i. 


Settlement. 

f! 


r 


Penang 4 ' 


s 

Ij 

s. 




Province 

Wellesley 




’ * 

j 

Civil District. 

( 

No. of 
Reserve. 

Name of Forest. 

Area in acres 
on ist Jan., 
1910. 

t 



a. r. p. 

r 

i 

Government Hill 

3.635 2.11 

North-East , 

2 

Highlands 

252.2.36 

L 

3 

Penara Bukit 

233-2. 31 

• f 

4 

Pantai Acheh. 

3,208.3.08 

! i, 

5 

Laksamana 

465 2.30 

; South-West 

6 

Telok Bahang 

616.3.32 

! 1 

7 

Bukit Hinting 

21.2.14 

l 

8 

Bukit Gemuroh 

205.3.05 

;N.-E. & S.-W. 

9 

• 

Relau Hills 

170 3.19 



Total 

10, 81 1.2.26 

, 

■ 

Northern 

i 

Tasek Glugor 

1,620.1.38 

' 

2 

Bukit Juru 

417.3.14 


r\ 

J 

Gajah Mati 

94.O.31 


4 

Bukit Seraya 

1 12.O.04 

1 pnfral J 

5 

Bukit Mertajam 

162. 1.22 


6 

Bukit Gua Gempas ... 

13.3.20 


i 

Bukit Langkap 

189.2.10 


8 

Kubang Ulu 

3-2.03 

Vv. 

9 

Bukit Goa Ipoh 

332.1.21 

Southern 

LO 

Bukit Panchor 

969.3.24 



Total . . . 

3,916.0 27 


Continued . 


Area added 
during 
year. 

; 

Excluded 
or dis- 
afforested. 

... - ... ... 

Area on 
31st Dec., 

19 lO. 

- • 

j 

No. and date 
jot Notification 
excluding 
land. 

Remarks. 

a. r. p. 

a. r. p. 

a. r. p. 



* . . 1 

::: 

t * * * 

... 

\r\ 

<T) 

. . . ci 

: : : & - : : : : 

5,635.2.11 

252.2.36 

233.2.31 

3, r 39.0.13 

465.2.30 

616.3.32 
21.2.14 

205.3.05 

1 7°-3- l 9 

1 

1066 of 9.9. 10. 


... 

69.2.35 

10,741.3.31 



• . . 

. » V 

• . - 


1,620.1 .38 
417.3.14 
94.0.31 

1 r 2.0.04 
162. 1.22 
13.3.20 
189.2.10 
3.2.03 
332.1.21 
969.3.24 


* 

* * * 

... 

3.916.0.27 




FORM No. i. — Continued. 


Settlement. Civil District. 


'S 


r 


Dindings < 


Ulu Bruas 


Beting Luas . , . 


Tan ah Merah 5 


^ <u 

o > 

u 

. CD 

O W 
o 

* & 

Name of Forest. 

Area in acres 
on ist jan., 
1910. 

Area added 
during 
year. 

Excluded 
or dis- 
afforested. 

Area on 

3 ist Dec., 

1 9 1 0. 

f 

No. and date 
of Notification 
excluding 
land. 



vT 


a. r. p. 

a. r. p. 


I 

Ulu Bruas 

549 - 3-25 



549 - 3-25 


2 

lanjong Burong 

4,672. 1. 12 



4,672.1.12 


3 

Telok Sera 

5,000.0.00 

... 

» 

* * • 

5,000.0.00 


4 

(iunong Tunggal 

1,225.0.00 

* • ■ 

... 

1,225 0.00 


5 

Batu Undan 

3,830.0.00 

... 

» • » 

3,830.0.00 


6 

Bukit Senangin 

800.0.00 

... 


800.0.00 


7 

Lumut 

U 237 - 3 -I 5 



1,237.3.15 


8 

lelok Muroh 

2,326.0.00 

, - 


2,326.0.00 


9 

North Fangkor 

433.0.09 


... 

433.0.09 


IO 

Sungai Pinang 

2,566.3.18 

• • * 


2,566.3.18 


1 1 

i 

South Fangkor 

766.2.25 


... 

766.2.25 

■ ' si 

12 

l anjong Hantu 

537 - 3-30 

. • . 

• • ■ . 

537 - 3-30 

1 


Total 

23,945-2-14 


• 

23,945.2.14 

ij 



Remarks. 





FORM No. i. — Concluded. 


Settlement. 

Civil District. 

No. of 

Reserve. 

Name of Forest. 

Area in acres 
on ist Jan., 
1910. 

Area added 
during 
year. 

Excluded 
or dis- 
afforested. 

Area on 
31st Dec., 
1910. 

No. and date 
of Notification 
excluding 
land. 







a. r.p. 

a. r . p. 

a. r. p . 

a. r. p. 



r- 



i 

Merlimau 

6,216.3.06 

■ • * 


6,216.3.06 






2 

Bukit Senggeh 

9,526.0.34 

• • • 


9,526.0.34 




J^sin 5 


3 

Batang Malacca 

3,549.0.00 

at* 

... 

3,549.0.00 






4 

Ayer Panas 

3,460.3.04 

4 a ■ 


3,460.3.04 

i 





5 

Nyalas 

2,468,3.01 


... 

2,468.3.01 




Alor Gajah and 










Jasin 


6 

Bukit Sedanan 

7.8 35-2.13 

• » • 


7^35.2.13 


Malacca . .. < 




7 

Bukit Panchor 

2,852.3.00 

• ■ ■ 

. . . 

2,852.3.00 




■■ ‘ 


8 

Brisu 

91 1. 2. 19 

* * • 

• • * 

91 1. 2. 19 




Alor Gajah . .. 

1 

9 

Sungai Udang 

4)39 2 -°-35 

. . . 


4,392.0.35 






IO 

Ramuan China and 











Sungai Siput 

2,591.2.09 

» * * 

. . . 

2,591.2.09 




Central and Alor 










Gaj ah 


it 

Bukit Bruang 

6,081.0.23 

... 

• • • 

6,081.0.23 




Central 

• 

12 

Bukit Sebukor 

44.2.27 

» * * 

. . . 

44.2.27 

' 

1 





l 

Total . . . 

49,931.0.11 

■ • • 

« • *■ 

l 

49,931.0.11 



Remarks. 


Form No. 2. 


Statement showing Progress made in forming new Reserves during the Year igto. 


Settlement. 


Singapore 


Area finally gazetted during year. 

Areas proposed and 
not yet finally gazetted. 

| 

Name of Reserve. 

No. of 
Notifi- 
cation in 
Gazette. 

Area 
of acres. 

Name. 

1 

Area. 

• 


a. r. p. 



Sungai Buloh 

Kranji ... 

Murai ... 

Tuas 

Chua Chu Kang 

Bukit Panjang 

Mandi ... 

North Seletar 

Bukit Timah 

Ang Mo Kio 

South Seletar 

Changi ... 

Jurong ... 

Pandan 

Sembawang 

1240/10 

)) 

>> 

>> 

n 

yy 

3 ) 

}} 

yy 

yy 

\> 

\y 

yy 

1 5 1 9 / 1 0 

770.2.16 

745.0. 32 
314.1.05 

i ,608.3.02 
49.0.00 

1 17.2.16 

407.0. 32 
1,492.1.08 

717.2.28 

296.0. 02 
1,256.0.32 
1,328.1.29 

41 1. 2. 31 
342 I. 3-38 
709 - 3-03 


• 

Total ... 


13,646.2.34 




Remarks. 


Form No, 8. 
Ar%a of Plantations 









« 

Area in Acres. 

Of Year. 

% 

Settlements and 
Districts. 

Name 

of Reserves. 

Kind of 
Plantation. 

On rst 

T ' 1 

January, 

rgio. 

Added 

during 

year. 

On 31st 
December, 
1910. 

Receipts. 

Charges. 

Remarks. 


Singapore i 

Rukit Tim ah | 

South Seletar 
Sembawang . . . 

Detail 1 aban and 
Para rubber j 

Para rubber 

Para rubber 

97 

III 

I 

5 

98 

5 

$ C . 

*250.00 

$ c . 
576.00 

* Sale of if acres of Para trans- 
ferred to Agricultural deposits. 



Total 

ml-* 

OO 

0 

t— < 

1 1 

6 

IC 3 

25O.OO 

576.00 

Penang | 

Batu Feringgi 
Govt. Hill 

Getah Taban 

Para rubber 

- * ’ 

68 

•t 

8 

68 

8 

| 8O.4O 

146.65 




Total 

68 

8 

76 

80.40 

146.65 

• 

P. Wellesley 


... 

• * m 



... 



Dindings 

■ f 

Para rubber 
Cocoa-nuts 

Fruit trees 

Nursery 

• • • 

10 

1 

1 

1 1 1 

« 

10 

1 

1 

578.86 

1 60.00 

2 10.00 

I I 5-50 
5-00 
40.00 




Total ... 

h 

12 

I 2 \ 

738.86 

* 

370.50 





H 

G\ 


6 




Form No. 8. — concluded. 


Area of Plantations. — concluded . 


Settlement and 
District. 

Name of 
Reserve. 

Kind of 
Plantation. 

Area in Acres. 

Of Year. 

Remarks. 

On 1st 
January, 
1910. 

Added dur- 
ing year. 

On 31st 1 
December, 
1910. 

Receipt. 

Charges. 






! 

$ c. | 

$ c. 

$ c. 

r 


Getah percha 

1 3 1 

• * • 

I 3 I 


• • • 

Coolies’ wages including 









Mandor and Tindal 









tapper ... ... 1,998.40 



Getah sundek 

8 


8 

* • . 





Tembusu - T 









Mahogany £ t 

44 


44 

5,127.60 

2,112.74 

Allowance to Tindal 


Bukit Bruang^ 

| Para rubber \ 






tapper to Kuala Lum- 



1 Merbau 

37 

4 

4 i 

, . « 

. . . 

pur to learn tapping 6.92 


| 

Penak 

32 


3 2 

• ■ * 

* * • 

Miscellaneous expenses 

Malacca 


Penaga 

18 

2 

20 

■ ■ • 

■ * 

incurred during the 



Nibong 

39 

4 

43 


• • ■ 

year ... ... 107.42 



Kledang 

8 

* • • 

8 

• * * 

* * * 



V 

Resak 

26 

. . . 

26 

* * * 

• • • 

2,112,74 


Bukit Sebukor 

Para rubber 

2 


2 


* « » 

Balance brought for- 









ward from 1 909 ... 2,468.22 


Bukit Panchor 

Durian 



. , ( 

* 19.25 

. . . 

Receipts on rubber sold 









in 1910 ... 5,127.60 









7 , 595-82 



Total ... 

1 

345 

10 

1 

355 

5.H6.85 

i 

2,112.74 

i 



* This was the balance due in 1909, but was paid during this year. No dusuns sold this year. 


Singapore. 

Form No. ii. 


Revenue. 


Expenditure : Personal Emoluments. 


Expenditure : Other Charges. 


I. — Timber and other forest pro- 
duce removed from forests by Gov- 
ernment Agency — 

(a) Timber 

(b) Firewood and Charcoal 

(c) Bamboos and Canes 

(d) Getah 

(e) Other Produce 


Total I ... 

II, — Timber and forest produce 
removed from forests by purchasers 
and licensees — 

(a) Timber 

ip) Firewood and Charcoal 

(c) Bamboos and Canes 

(d) Getah 

(t?) Other Produce 

Total II ... 

III. — Unclaimed and confiscated 
timber and forest produce 

IV— Miscellaneous ... 

Grand Total ... 


$ £. 


$ c. 




Annually Recurrent . 

$ c. 


Conservator of Forests 

3.582.72 

Forest Reserves (Improving) 

165.25 


Allowance to conservator’s general 


Miscellaneous 

135-95 

. . . 

assistant 

300.00 


It* 

Clerk 

753-79 

Planting and Cultural Operations ... 

576.00 




• • • 

Forest Ranger 

1,080.00 

Transport, Field and other Allow- 

7 75.76 


ances ... ... ... 

■ 

Forester 

255.00 

Uniforms ... 

99-50 

I 22.10 

Forest Guards 

U342 00 

Working Plans, Pandan Reserve ... 

16.00 

3,228.75 




18.20 




- 

203.16 



. 


3,572.21 





. . * 

• 




15.00 









3.587.21 


7,3.3-51 


1,768.46 


Total. 



c. 


9,081.97 


Penang and Province Wellesley. 

FORM No. rr — Continued 


Revenue. 


Expenditure: Personal Emoluments. 

i 

Expenditure : Other Charges. 

Total. 

I. limber and other forest 

$ c. 


$ c . 

Annually Recurrent . 

$ c. 

$ c. 

produce removed from forests by 
Government Agency — 

{a) Timber 

( b ) Firewood and Charcoal 

(c) Bamboos and Canes 


Salaries .... 

Rent Allowance 

2,661 .30 

251.00 

Boundaries and Paths (Mainten- 
ance) 

Purest Reserves (Improving) 

403.74 

241.64 

© 

(d) Getah 





293.30 


( e) Other Produce 

• * ■ 



Forest Protection 


Total I ... 

* % • 



Miscellaneous 

148.87 


II. — Timber and forest produce 




Tr; nsport, Field and Other Allow- 

548.74 


removed from forests by purchasers 
and licensees — 




ances ... 


89.10 

(a) Timber 

(£) Firewood and Charcoal 

494-39 

43.46 



Uniforms ... 


(c) Bamboos and Canes 



Weeding, Gutta Percha plantation 

146.65 


(< 7 ) Getah 

1 5.40 

Ck 





(<?) Other Produce 

33748 





• 

Total II ... 

890.73 






III. — Unclaimed and confiscated 
Timber and Forest Produce 

bo 

O 








* 

• 


IV. Miscellaneous ... 

92.44 






Grand Total ... 

990.97 


2,912.30 


1,872.04 

44 8 4-34 


Bindings. 

hORM No. II — Continued. 


Revenue. 

Expenditure : Personal Emoluments. 

Expenditure : Other Charges. 

Total. 

I.— Timber and other forest 
produce removed from forests by 
Government Agency — 

(a) Timber 

(A) Firewood and Charcoal ... 

(c) Bamboos and Canes 

(d) Getah 

(e) Other Produce 

$ c. 

443-^6 

Salaries 

Fifteen per cent Bindings Allow- 
ance ... ... - 

1 en per cent Focal Allowance 

$ c. 

4,546.69 

418.80 

in. 34 

Annually Recurrent . 

; Miscellaneous 

J 

Boundaries and Paths (Maintenance) 

Transport, field and other Allow- 
ances ... 

$ c. 

143.26 

267.00 

566.69 

$ c. 

Total I ... 

443.86 



Planting and Cultural Operations 

245-32 

• 

II. — Timber and forest produce 
removed from forests by purchasers 
and licensees — 

(a) Timber 

(d) Firewood and Charcoal 

(c) Bamboos and Canes 

(d) Getah 

(<?) Other Produce 

2,049.11 

1 > 55°-47 

845.00 

• • t 

575.00 

-- f v : ' 


writ* . 

Uniforms ... 

9595 


Total II ... 

5,019.58 





0 

III. Unclaimed and confiscated 
timber and forest produce 

4-97 






IV. — Miscellaneous ... 

528.21 






Timber supplied to the Public 
Works Department 

37-75 

\ - 




- 

Grand Total 

6,034.37 

l 


5,076.83 


1,318.22 

6.395.05 


20 


Malacca. 


Form No. ii.— Concluded. 


Revenue. 

Expenditure : Personal Emolum 

ents. 

Expenditure: Other Charges. 

Total. 


$ c. 

-j 

$ c. 

- 

$ c. 

$ c. 

I. __ Timbei and other forest pro- 
duce removed from forests bv 

Government Agency y 

(d) Timber 

(l) Firewood and Charcoal 


[ 

Salaries ... 

7,865.55 

Annually Recurrent. 

Boundaries and Paths (Maintenance) 

404.40 




Poorest Reserves (Improving) 

H 5-95 


w) Bamboos and Canes 
id) Getah 




Miscellaneous 

132.17 


i e ) Other Produce 




Transport, Field and Other Allow- 

999-68 


Total I 


£> 


ances 

Uniforms ... 


II. — Timber and forest produce 
removed from forests by purchasers 


0 

199.00 




and licensees — 







(a) Timber 

(b) Firewood and Charcoal 

(c) Bamboos and Canes 

4 , 737-00 

444-75 

o n r\r\ 


• 




( d ) Getah 

(e) Other Produce 

£ j .C-KJ 

5 -oo 

344 ’ 21 





* 

Total II ... 

5 , 557 - 9 ^ 






III. — Unclaimed and confiscated 
timber and forest produce 

117.68 






IV. — Miscellaneous. — 

267.94 



0 



Grand Total ... 

5,943-58 


7,865.55 


1,85 1. 20 

9,71:6.75 


A. M. BURN-MURDOCH, 

Conservator of Forests, 

Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States . 


Annual Report on Forest Administration in the 
Straits Settlements, for the Year 1911. 

u v | * r 'i : ' v ' • i • ! SUB 1 Eft K KJ 9 . B 

■ — — . — * 

PART I. 

Extension and Constitution of Reserved Forests. 

i. Form I shows progress made during the year in the final constitution of 
reserved forests. 

All the reserves in the Colony have now been finally gazetted except three in the 
Dindmgs which await survey. 

This table shows the areas finally gazetted, and preliminarily notified up to the 
end of 191 1 


— * — — — 

Settlement. 

Area Preliminarily 
Notified. 

1 

Area Finally 
Notified. 

Total. 


Acres. 

Acres. 

Acres. 

Singapore ... ... 

1 


13.647 

i 3>647 

Penang ... • ... j 

, . . 

10,744 

10,744 

Province Wellesley 


3.934 

3.934 

Dindings ... ... 

5.855 

18,091 

23,946 

Malacca 

... 

49 . 5 U 

49.5 r 4 

Total 

5»855 

95.930 

101,785 


2. Besides these a large area m the Dindings has been explored and the 
demarcation nearly completed, lying between the Bruas— Lumut cart-road and the sea. 
It is chiefly hilly and contains fine forest. 

3. During the year 82,283 acres in Penang, Province Wellesley, Dindings and 
Malacca were finally constituted reserves. When the remaining reserves in the 
Dindings are finally notified we will have in the Colony about 106,000 acres or 165 
square miles, about 10 per cent of the area of the whole Colony. In Singapore there 
were no alterations m area. In Province Wellesley 23 acres were excluded from 
Bukit Juru reserve. In Malacca a reduction of 416 acres was effected in the Nvalas, 
Bukit Sedanan and bungai Udang reserves. 

Demarcation and Upkeep of Boundaries. 

* i ► 

miles 4 ' The t0taI le ” gth ° f artificialIy Cut boundaries at the close of the year was 368 

Sf , J" . Singapore ' 55 i miles of boundaries were kept clean by the Forest Guards, the 
peietar boundary was not cleared. 


In Penang and Province Wellesley 97 miles of boundaries were kept clean for 
$372.20. Bukit Goa Ipoh reserve boundaries were not cleared owing to difficulty 
in obtaining labour. 

Bukit Mertajam and Bukit Serayah reserves which are bounded by holdings were 
cleared by the owners, and 150 boundary notices were purchased for reserve 
boundaries. The boundaries of Tasek Glugor, Gajah Mati and Bukit Panchor 
reserves, where they adjoin Kedah State, were opened and cleared by the Survey 
Department, also the boundary between lot 210 and Highlands reserve in Penang. 

in the Dindings, the Gunong Melintang proposed reserve was demarcated all but 
a couple of miles, and 28^ miles of boundaries of existing reserves were re-cleared 
at a cost of $446.84. Road reserves for Gunong Melintang and Gunong Tunggal 
were also demarcated. 

In Malacca the boundaries of nine reserves were re -cleared during the year at a 
cost of $562.05. 

The total length of boundaries consisting of natural features is 128 miles, making * 
a total mileage of boundaries of 496 miles. 

Surveys. 

5. In Penang and Province Wellesley, the Survey Department demarcated 
portions of boundaries of Tasek Glugor, Gajah Mati and Highlands reserves, and 
surveyed the Bukit Panchor reserve. In the Dindings, the Federated Malay States 
Survey Department made a topographical survey of the country and it is hoped that 
maps of the forest reserves will soon be available. The Straits Settlements Survey 
Department were also at work in the Dindings. 

PART II. 

Management of Forests. 

Working Plans. 

6. In Singapore five Mangrove reserves were exploited for firewood as shown in 
this table : — 



No, of 
Coupe. 1 

Time allowed for working. 

• 

Area 

Amount 

realized. 

Name of Coupe. 

1 

1 

Opening. 

Closing. 

in 

acres, j 

Changi ... 

3 

February, 19 1 r. 

1 

Dec. 1 9 1 1 ... 

1 

27 

1 

162 

Pandan .. 

' 3 

June, 1 9 1 1 ... 

June, 1912 ... 

IOO 

535 

Kranji ... 

2 

January, 1911. 

Dec. 19 1 1 

30 

123 

Tuas 

2 

August, 1911. 

August, 1912. 

80 

440 

Seletar ,.. 

2 

Do. 

Do. 

60 

285 

Total ... 

5 


... 

297 

G 545 


1 wo hundred and ninety-seven acres were leased in five blocks for $i,S45 f° r 
the year, as compared with $1,381.50 in 19 10, an average of $5.20 an acre. 

7. I n Province Wellesley, Class I trees were selected by the Forest Ranger and 
marked for felling in Gajah Mati and Tasek Glugor reserves. 

8. In the Dindings no tenders were received for the Tanjong Burong Mangrove 
reserve, but it was thinned out and fishing-stakes exploited. No other reserves in the 
Dindings were exploited. 


fe 


3 




J 

r 


9. In Malacca, the following Class 1 trees over six feet girth were selected and 
marked for felling in a demarcated coupe in each of the following reserves: — 


Merlimau 
Bukit Sedanan 
Ayer Pan as 
Sungei Udang 


1 14 
132 
1 77 
1 17 


realizing $75$, and Class II trees were felled realizing $193. Total Class 1 trees 
felled 540, as compared with 274 in 1910. 


Paths in Reserves. 


10. In Singapore, the path from Kuala Sungei Tuas to Sungei Blukang was 
repaired at a cost of $16.50, and another path made in Kranji reserve at a cost of $30. 


H, In the Bindings $110 were expended in clearing the old road from Tanjong 
Hantu to Sungei Batu, from Sungei Puyu to Segari, a length of about IO miles, and 
$68 on a path to Gunong Tunggal reserve from the sea-beach. 

12. In Malacca, inspection paths in five reserves were re-cleared, the other paths 
were in good order. 

Buildings. 

13. A halting bungalow and Forest Guards' quarters at Tuas in Singapore were 
erected for $200. 

14. In Penang, the forest stations at Balik Pulau and Penara Bukit were repaired 
by the Forest Department for $30.30. 

15. In the Dindings quarters for a Forester and Forest Guard were erected at a 
cost of $200 and other stations were kept in repair by the Public Works Department. 

16. In Malacca, Forest Guards’ quarters were repaired by the Public Works 
Department where necessary. 

Protection. 

17. No alterations or additions were made to the rules under the Forest 
Ordinance during the year. 

General Protection. 

« 

18. The Forest Ranger, Singapore, reports that general protection of the forest 
reserves was adequate with the exception of Seletar. 

19. In Province Wellesley the reserves were patrolled by Forest Guards, 
accompanied by coolies employed by the day when required. 

20. In the Dindings and Malacca protection of reserves was efficient. 


Forest Fires. 


21. In Singapore, in South Seletar reserve, there was a lalang fire over about 200 
acres, and some few acres of fires of resam and small undergrowth in Tuas, Kranji, 
and Ang Mo Kio reserves. A small fire occurred in Sungei Buloh reserve. For 
these, fines vveie inflicted to the extent of $25, besides $26.40 received as compensation. 

22. In Province W ellesley there were two cases of fire spreading into the Juru 
reserve, in both cases the men responsible were fined. A case of fire on Crown land 
was compounded for $70 damages. 

23. In the Dindings a small fire occurred in Pangkor reserve, and the offender 

fined. Forty-three dollars were awarded for damages in three cases of fire on Crown 
land. 


24. In Malacca, about one acre was burnt in the Bukit Panchor reserve, and the 

case was compounded for $25 Another case occurred on Crown land near Alor 
Gajah and the offender was fined $20. 



4 


4 


Forest Offences. 


25. The following cases were taken into courts : — 


Cases pending 
from 1910. 

New cases 
of the year. 

11 ‘.V 

Total 

cases. 

Disposed of during yeqr. 

Convic- 

tions. 

Acquit- 

tals. 

1 

t Pending at 
close of year. 

— 

105 

105 

91 

10 

3 


1 case absconded. 


I c. 

26. Besides these 12 cases were compounded for 215 92 

In Singapore 3 „ „ 26 40 

In Penang and Province Wellesley 1 case was compounded for 70 00 
In the Din dings r case was compounded for 16 00 

In Malacca * 7 cases were compounded for 103 52 

12 $215 92 


The percentage of convictions of cases tried in courts was 90 per cent, as 
compared with 88 in 1910. There were 105 cases, as compared with 155 in 1910, of 
which 101 were tried, with 91 convictions, 10 acquittals, three pending at the close of 
the year and one absconded. 

Malacca had most cases with 85 per cent of convictions, the Dindings had 22 
cases all convictions, Penang and Province Wellesley, 29 cases with only one acquittal, 
Singapore had only five cases of which four were tried and two acquitted. 

27. Fines imposed by courts realized $794.85. 

In the three cases pending from igio, summons could not be served as the 
offenders could not be found. 

The reduction of cases was chiefly in Malacca. 


Improvement of Forests. 

Natural Reproduction. 

28. As in the Federated Malay States the year 1911 was a phenomenal one for 
fruiting of trees. 

In Penang and Province Wellesley, Damar-laut and Resak fruited profusely in 
Pantai Acheh, felok Bahang and Laksamana reserves, Penaga in Tasek Glugor, and 
Meranti in all reserves from October to December. Taban trees in the Botanical 
Gardens bore a good crop of seed. In Batu Feringgi and Pulau Jerejak, portions of 
the reserves were noticed to be carpeted with Taban seedlings. Fourteen thousand 
were collected and sent to the Dindings and 3,000 to the Deputy Conservator of 
Forests, Perak, for which $45 was received. 

In the Dindings, Damar laut, Meranti and Serayah were observed to seed 
profusely. 

Malacca also reports a good seed year, Rambai daun and Meranti noticeably in 
Ayer Panas reserve, also Niatoh, Medang and Petaling. Keruing also seeded well in 
Sungei Udang reserve. Meranti, Rambai daun and Niatoh seedlings were observed 
well scattered over part of Merlimau reserve, and Resak seedlings in Bukit Sedanan. 
In Bukit Senggeh reserve, Penak and Merbau seedlings were noticed besides Resak 
and Keruing. 

In Bukit Bruang reserve, Tampines is found to be re-produced extremely well, 
also Bintangor. 


1 


5 


Artificial Reproduction. 


29. For particulars see Form 8. The area of plantations was at the commence- 
ment of the year 546 acres to which was added 47 acres during the year, bringing 
the area at the close of the year to 593 acres. 

The additions were, in Singapore five acres in Seletar reserve, Para rubber. Blanks 
in the Gutta percha plantation at Bukit Timah were planted up with Para. This 
plantation of 98 acres was upkept for $596. The Para trees were tapped and the cost 
of tapping and upkeep of the Para areas was $624.63 and yielded $586.31, of which 
buildings, including drying shed, store, and quarters for tapper cost $277.57. 
Tapping of 80 trees was commenced in January, 1911. The initial cost was met from 
an advance from Government to be paid back out of proceeds of tapping. The yield 
was 301 lbs. 

The accounts of this plantation are appended. 

The 10 acres of Para at Sembawang was leased for $300, also credited to 
Agricultural Deposit. 

30. In Penang, the experimental plantation at 2,000 feet elevation now contains 
12 tapable trees and 490 seedlings. $107.73 was spent in clearing and supplying and 
they are doing well. The Batu Feringgi plantation of Gutta percha, 68 acres, was 
upkept for $97.45. Two hundred and fifty Taban seedlings were planted and 1,200 
are on hand to supply failures. This plantation now contains 1,141 Taban (Gutta 
percha) and 531 Para trees. 

In Tasek Glugor, the small experimental teak plantation of 5 acres, 2 roods and 28 
poles was chankolled and interplanted with 380 Tembusu at a cost of $26.60. 

The nursery here now contains 10,000 Penaga (Mesua ferrea) seedlings. 
The Tembusu seedlings in Bukit Panchor reserve will be used in planting up 
“ lalang ” areas. 

At Penara Bukit at 1,600 feet elevation 18 cedar seedlings were raised from the 
seed sent from Japan. 

fn the Dindings, two acres were added to the Para plantation at Lumut, two 
acres planted in 1910 with coconuts and fruit trees are reported to have been 
a failure, which is regrettable. 

The reason given is insufficiency of prisoners to keep them dean, but it appears 
that they were neglected in favour of the Para trees. The nurseries here contain 
some thousands of Tembusu seedlings, some Para and about 20,000 Taban 
merah. One thousand Merbau seedlings were planted out in the felling coupe of 
Lumut reserve. The total cost of planting and cultural operations was $571.66. 
Eighty-two thousand Damar laut seed was sold to the Federated Malay States 
Government for $44.22. Coconuts realized $24. 

Some Para trees at Lumut were tapped and yielded 185 lbs. of rubber, 
$270.66 was realized by sale of rubber. 

31. In Malacca, 40 acres in Ayer Kroh were planted during the year as 
follows : — 


Nibong 

Penak 

Merbau 

Penaga 

Resak 

Various 


3 1 acres. 

18* „ 



The area of these plantations at the close of the year was 395 acres. They are 
maintained from the Gardens Committee funds which are supplied bv the sale 
of Para rubber fiom this plantation. A statement of account appears in paragraph 33. 

The expenditure during the year was $4,307.95 and the receipts $4,485.33. 



I 


6 

In the Gutta percha plantation the trees were freed from undergrowth and 
inferior species of trees were thinned out, where necessary. The Para was drained and 
cleared. 

Four hundred and twenty-seven Para trees were numbered and measured, 
and entered in a register, the balance was measured in 1910. Thirty-four additional 
trees came into bearing, making a total of 861 tapable trees, and 3,309^ lbs. rubber 
were obtained as against 2,172 lbs, in 1910. The Conservator paid two visits 
during the year. Over 30,000 Para seeds were sown in the nurseries and are 
doing well. 

The 50 Penak and 150 Resak seedlings planted out in the Merlimau reserve 
in 1910, did not prove a success. The 100 Merbau seedlings planted are doing well. 

In the Sungei Udang reserve most of the Merbau seedlings planted out last year 
have been destroyed by rats. The Resak seedlings are doing well. 

Bukit Timah Plantation. 


32. Statement of Revenue and Expenditure for 1911. 


Month. 

Receipts. 

Details of Expenditure. 

Amount. 


$ c 


$ c. 

January 


! Buildings 

277 57 

February 

... 

Tools and Plants 

1 12 29 

March 

88 92 

: Sundries 

3 07 

April 


Wages of tapper up to') 

221 70 



the end of December j 

May 

83 20 

Transport 

10 00 

June 

1 16 13 



July 

59 60 : 



August 

# * • 



* 

September 

124 68 j 


■ . 

October 




November 

% 

• • • 

■ 


December 

1 

1 13 78 

1 



Total ... 

$586 31 i 

1 


$624 63 



1 


7 



Ayer Kroh Plantation. 


33- Statement of Revenue and Expenditure for 1911. 



1 

Receipts. 


Expenditure. 

Month. 

Amount. 

1 

1 Consignmen 
Nos. 

Salaries. 

t 

| 

Miscellan- 

eous 

Expenses. 

Total 


$ c . 


$ c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

January ... j 

303 85 
9 50 

5/10 

Refund of salary 

308 82 

39 36 

348 18 

February 

448 68 

6/IO 

336 35 

10 76 

347 11 

March .... 

263 40 

7/10 

j 294 75 

82 66 

377 4 i 

April 

I 446 27 

! 8/lO 

293 7 o 

156 91 

450 6 1 

May 

431 81 

I/! I 

381 80 

19 96 

40 r 76 

June 

16 85 

Bank interest. 

368 70 

4 76 

373 46 

July ... ... j 

872 82 

2 & 3 /II 

289 25 

4 86 

294 n 

August ... 

340 86 j 
3 23 

! 

4/l I 

Refund of salary,! 

299 02 

12 41 

! 

3 i 1 43 

September ... 1 

442 74 

5 / 11 

344 50 

104 30 

448 80 

October 

• * * • • 



217 74 

21 12 

238 86 

November 

887 02 

6&7/H 

324 86 

* 4 * 

324 86 

December 

18 30 

Bank interest. 

374 20 

17 l6 

39 i 36 

Total ... 

$4,485 33 

, . . 

3,833 69 

474 26 

4,307 95 

Balance 1910 ... 

3,483 08 


1 




7,968 4r 
- 

■ 

1 

l 



Expenditure ... 

4 > 3°7 95 

, 

I 

1 



Balance igii 

$3,660 46 


i 





: 


* 


8 


Exploitation. 

Timber and Fuel. 

From Reserved Forests. 

34. This table shows the timber and firewood removed from reserved forests : — 


Settlement. 


Singapore 


Province Wellesley 


Di'ndings 


Malacca 



1 

Name 

of 

Reserve. 

Timber 
50 cubi 

Class 

I. 

(tons of 
c feet.j 

Class 

II. 

Firewood 

Tons, 

Fishing- 

stakes. 

I 

Changi 



45 0‘V 

» 

Kranji 


■ • • 

280 

* • • 

Pandan 

... 

• * * 

688£ 

• * » 

Seletar 


... 

4862 

* # • 

Tuas 


* * - 

7°4 


Total 



2,609^ 



Trees. 

Trees. 



Gajah Mati 

27 

221 



Tasek Glugor ... 

4 

15 


, - . 

Total ... 

3 r 

236 



Tanjong Burong 

* 


■ • * 

2,673 


Trees. 




Bukit Sedanan 

132 

• 

• ■ • 

• ■ • 

Merlimau 

114 



• • • 

Ayer Pan as 

1 77 

... 

* • p 


Sungei Udang. .. 

117 




T otal 

540 



. . . 


In Singapore, 2,604.4 tons of Mangrove firewood were extracted from reserved 
forests, the revenue realized being $1,545. 

In Province Wellesley, 31 trees of Class I and 236 trees of Class II timber were 
extracted from Gajah Mati and Tasek Glugor reserves. 

In the Dindings no tenders were received for the Mangrove reserve 1911 block, 
but 2,673 fishing-stakes were taken out as thinnings and disposed of, the revenue 
realized being $55.62. 

In Malacca, 540 selected trees were cut in Bukit Sedanan, Merlimau, Ayer Panas 
and Sungei Udang reserves, realizing $938, in Bukit Bruang, Sungei Udang and 
Nyalas reserves Class II trees were cut on permits. 

From Crown and Alienated Lands. 

35. This table gives the total for each Settlement so far as figures are available : — 



Timber. 

Settlement. 

Class 

I. 

Class i 

II. 

Singapore 

T rees, 
6 

Tree. 

1 

Dindings 

Tons. 

75 i 

Tons. 

64 

Malacca 

r~ 

$M 95 

$!,794 


Poles. 

Total 
timber in 
tons. 

Free grants. 

Fire- 

wood. 

Char- 

coal. 

• 

2,700 

i 

54 

3,215 rollers. 
30 nibongs. 

2 serayah 
planks. 

l 

)> No. re 
1 

1 

j 

cord. 

26,667 

i.34 8 



quantity unknown. 

1 


« • • 

$3,289 


$360 

$101.70 




(Tons of 50 cubic feet for timber. Poles for total tonnage are taken at 1 cubic 
foot each). 

In Singapore, permits were issued for six Class I, and one Class II trees and 2,700 
small poles, realizing $58. Four hundred and fifty-two monthly permits were issued 
for Mangrove, realizing $2,260, as compared with $1,850 during the previous year, and 
free permits to native iand-holders for 3,215 poles, 30 Nibongs and two Serayah planks 
to the Police Department. 

In the Dindings 635 tons of Class I timber and 26,667 fishing-stakes were 
extracted from Crown land on payment of royalty, and 23 tons of timber taken by 
the Public Works Department free of royalty, but a paper credit of $65.20 is entered 
in Form II. Thirty-three tons of Class I and 54 tons of Class II timber were removed 
from alienated land and paid royalty, also 58 tons of Class I and 9 tons of Class II 
were removed free of royalty. Firewood realized $1,501.77. In Malacca, the total 
revenue from timber on Crown land was $3,289, as compared with $3,748 in 1910. 
Firewood realized $360 and charcoal $101.70, as against $295 and $149.75, res- 
pectively, in 1910, 


Minor Forest Produce. 

36. In Singapore minor forest produce yielded $442.10 mostly from Nibongs and 
royalty on sand in Changi reserve, as compared with $203.16 in 1910. 


Bamboos and canes yielded in Singapore 


>> 




>> 


>! 

V 

•! 



$ 

c 

Singapore 

8 

20 

Penang and Province Wellesley 

70 

10 

Dindings 

720 

00 

Malacca 

18 

00 


Total ... $816 30 


IO 


Other minor produce including wild rubbers yielded in : — 


Singapore 

• m * ► 

$ c. 
... 442 IO 

Penang and Province 

Wellesley... 

... 738 35 

Bindings 

. 

... 1,593 16 

Malacca 

> ’ • * * 

... 574 65 

\ 


Total ...$3,34826 


This shows an all round and very satisfactory increase, 

The Para rubber trees in Ayer Kroh plantation, Bukit Timah and Lumut were 
tapped during the year by the department. 

The yield in Ayer Kroh and Bukit Sebukor was 2,852 lbs. sheet and 447 lbs. scrap, 
as compared with 1,712 lbs. sheet and 329 lbs. scrap in 1910. The tapping of the 
trees has much improved. Sale of rubber realized $4,485.33, credited to Gardens 
Committee account. 

In Singapore, 80 trees were tapped at Bukit Timah. The yield was 301 lbs. of 
rubber, realizing $586.31. 

In the Bindings some Para trees weie tapped and yielded 185 ibs. of rubber, 
realizing $270,66. 


PART III, 


Financial Results, 


37. This table shows the comparative revenue for 1910 and 1911 : — 


* 

Settlement. 

* * 

Revenue 

1910. 

/ • 

Estimated 

revenue 

1911. 

Revenue- 

1911. 

Increase or 
decrease over 
Estimates. 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley ... 

Dindings 

Malacca 

■ 

Total ... 

$ c. 

3^87 21 

990 97 
6,034 37 

5,943 58 

- 

$ c. 

3,000 00 

| 5,630 00 
7,500 00 

$ c. 

4,308 20 

( 2,348 87 ) 

\ 6,816 26 ( 
5,542 77 

$ c. 

+ 1,308 20 

+ 3,535 13 

~ T 957 2 3 

16,556 13 

16,130 00 

19,016 IO 

-f- 2,886 10 


The rise in revenue in Singapore is due to firewood, bamboos and canes, and 
other produce. A better price was obtained for the Mangrove coupes than in 1910. 
The revenue realized from Para rubber was not credited to the department, but to the 
Agricultural Deposit. 

In Penang and Province Wellesley there was a large increase in revenue due to 
timber, other minor produce, and compensation. Doubtless more efficient supervision 
has aided. 

In the Dindings there was a rise of about $800 due to timber, other minor produce 
and compensation. 

In Malacca, the estimate was not reached and the revenue actually fell off by 
about $400, chiefly on timber and other minor produce. The Forest Ranger gives as 
the reason the prevalence of Rinderpest and Foot-and-mouth diseases in Malacca 
in August and September, which killed about two-thirds of the buffaloes which are the 
only means of transporting timber in the forest. 


Expenditure, 


38, This statement shows the total expenditure in each Settlement, as compared 
with 1910 and estimates for 1911 :■ — 


Settlement. 

Expenditure 

1910. 

Estimated 

expenditure 

1911. 

Pxpenditure 

1911. 

Savings on 
Estimates 

*’ 

$ 

$ G 

$ <?. 

$ c. 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 

9,081 97 

10,300 OO 

9,706 17 

* 1 

593 83 

Wellesley ... 

4 > 7 8 4 34 

6,678 OO 

6,403 5 8 

274 42 

Dindings 

6,395 05 

6,249 00 

6,109 03 

*39 97 

Malacca 

9,716 75 

8,766 OO 

8,260 87 

505 i 3 

Total ... 

29,978 11 

3 C 993 00 

•30,479 65 

1.513 35 


an increase of $501.54, as compared with 1910. 

Increase in Singapore $624.20 and in Penang and Province Wellesley $1,619.24; 
decrease in Dindings $286 02 and Malacca $1,456.88. Increase in Singapore was due 
to purchase of bicycle $60, rest house at Tuas $200 and extra expenditure on 
Conservator of Forests, travelling. Singapore as usual paid one-third of the salary of 
the Conservator of Forests, and his expenses under transport and personal vote, while 
travelling on duty in the Straits Settlements. 

The increase in Penang over 1910 is chiefly in Personal Hlmoluments, partly 
compensated for by a decrease in the Dindings. 

Administration, 

39. Mr. A. M. Burn-Murdoch held the appointment of Conservator of Forests 

till 27th April, when he proceeded on leave and was relieved by Mr. B. H. F, Barnard, 
Deputy Conservator of Forests, Perak, who acted as Conservator till the end 
of the year. o 

The following reserves were visited by the Conservator and Acting Conser- 
vator : — - 

Singapore Bukit Timah, Tuas, Kranji, Seletar and Sembawang. 

Penang. — Batu Feringgi, Telok Bahang, Relau Hills and Government Hill. 

Dindings. — Lumut, Tanjong Hantu and Pangkor Island. 

Malacca,— Bukit Bruang and Bukit Sebukor. 

40. Mr. V. P. BORGES, Forest Ranger, Grade 1, continued to be in charge of the 
forests of Penang and Province Wellesley throughout the year under the direction of 
the Conservator of Forests. In all matters not purely technical he is subject 
to the direction of the Resident Councillor, Penang. 

41. In the Dindings, the District Officer had the general direction of the 
department, assisted by Mr. Borges. 

42. in Malacca, Mr. G. M. O'Hara, Forest Ranger, Grade I, continued in charge 
throughout the year subject to the directions of the Resident, Malacca, and the 
Conservator of Forests. 

The Resident, Malacca, and the Conservator of Forests formed a Committee 
to manage the finances of the Ayer Kroh and Bukit Sebukor plantations, the 
funds being in the charge of the Gardens Committee. 

43. In Singapore, the Collector of Land Revenue administered the forest 
department with the assistance of Mr. T. C. Malaya PlLLAl, Forest Ranger, 
Grade III. 


12 


Subordinate Staff. 

44. In Singapore, one forest guard resigned and one was dismissed. 

4$. In Penang and Province Wellesley, one forest guard was transferred to 
the Federated Malay States department by permission. 

46. In the Dindings one forest guard resigned and the widow of Andak bin Sidik, 
deceased, Forest Ranger, Grade IV, was granted a gratuity of $100. 

47. In Malacca, Forester Baba bin Hussein was appointed Forest Ranger, 
Grade IV, in place of Andak on nth May, and the Senior Forest Gi|ard Manap BIN 
Lam promoted to Forester. One forest guard was permitted to r sign, and one 
resigned on account of illness. The Tindal of Ayer ICroh plantation, Haji 
Seman, was dismissed in September. 

48. The following was the staff employed during the year : — 


Settlement. 

• 

Grade 

I. 

Ran 

Grade 

II. 

GERS, 

Grade 

III. 

Grade 

IV. 

Foresters. 

| 

Forest 

Guards. 

Resigna- 

tions. 

Dismis- 

sals. 

Singapore 

■ 

■ • a 

♦ # * 

I 

* * • 

I 

IO 

I 

1 

Penang & P. Wellesley 

1 

... 

• • * 

• • * 

2 

6 

*um 

* 4 * 

Dindings ... 

• »» 

• * • 

* « * 

1 

2 

6 

I 


Malacca ... 

I 

* ■ * 

m » • 

I 

2 

l6 

2 

j 

» • * 

Total 

2 

• • • 

1 

I 

2 

7 

3 « 

4 

I 


Kuala Lumpur, , 
ijth March , 1912. 


A. M. Bl/RN-MURDOCH, 
Conservator of Forests, S. S. and F. M t S. 


\ 


Form No tt 


Settlement. 

0 

Civil District. 

No. of 

Reserve, j 

Name of Forest. 

. 

Area in acres 
on ist Jan., 

19H. 

Aiea added 
during 
year. 

Excluded 

or dis- 
afforested. 

Area on 

3 1 Dec., 

191 1. 

No. and date 
of Notification 

excluding 

land. 

f 

Lim Chu Kang 

i 

' 

Sungei Buloh 

a. r. p. 

770.2.16 

a • r. p, 

» • * 

a. r. p. 

a. r. p . 

770.2. r6 



Kranji 

2 

Kranji 

745-0.32 

* • » 


745.O.32 



Lim Chu Kang 

3 

Murai ... 

314*1.05 

* » - 


314.1.05 


• 

Tuas 

4 

J uas ... ... 

1,608.3.02 



1,608.3.02 

... 


Kranji 

5 

Chua Chu Kang 

49*0.00 

• * • 

... 

49.0.00 

... 


Jurong 

6 

Bukit Panjang 

* 117.2,16 

■ • » 


1 1 7,2. 16 


1 

Mandi 

7 

Bukit Mandi 

407.0.32 

• • « 


407.0.32 

... 

Singapore 

Seletar 

8 

North Seletar 

C492.l.o8 

... 

... 

1,492.1.08 



Bukit Timah 

9 

Bukit Timah 

717.2.28 


1r 

717.2.28 



Ang Mo Kio ... 

10 

Ang Mo Kio 

296.0.02 

• • 0 


296.0.02 



Seletar 

n 

South Seletar 

1,256.0.32 

* * m 


1,256,0.32 



Changi 

12 

Changi ... 

1,328.1.29 

* » • 


1,328.1.29 



Jurong 

*3 

Jurong ... 

4H.2.31 

* * 1 


41 1.2.3 1 


j 

Pandan & Peng- 
kang 

14 

Pandan... 

3,421.3-38 



3,421.3.38 

. . . 

l 

Sembawang 

t j 

1 5 

Sembawang ... j 

709.3.03 

‘ * * 

... 

7°9-3-03 

... j 


i 


Total ... 

13,646.2.34 

... 

* • • 

13,646.2.34 



F0RM*N0. x. — Continued. 



i . 


Settlement. 

Civil District. 

No. of 
Reserve. 

Name of Forest. 

Area in acres 
on ist Jan., 
191 1. 

Area added 
during 
year. 

Excluded 
or dis- 
afforested. 

Area on 
31st Dec., 
191 1. 

No. and date 
of Notification 
excluding 
land. 

Remarks. 

f 

* 






a. r. p . 


• 

| 

r 

i 

Government Hill ... 




5,638.0.31 



i 

North- Past ...<J 

2 

Highlands 

• . * 



252.2.36 




L 

3 

Penara Bukit 

. . . 



233-2-3I 



n i 

r 

4 

Dantai Acheh 

# 



3,139.0.13 



renang 

i 

5 

Laksamana 




465.2.30 




South-West . ..<( 

6 

Telok Bahang 

• • « 



616.3.27 





7 

Bukit Ginting 

• • * 



21.2. 14 




• L 

8 

Bukit Gemuroh 

• f 1 



205.3.05 




N.-E. &S.-W. 

9 

Relau Hills 




I 7O.3.I9 






T otal 


• • • 

• • • 

[0,744.2.06 



f 

Northern 

i 

Tasek Glugor 




1,620.1.38 




r 

2 

Bukit Juru 

« • 1 



394.1.28 





3 

Gajah Mati 



... 

94.O.3I 





4 

| Bukit Seraya 




I 12.0.04 



Province 


5 

Bukit Mertajam 




162.1.22 



Wellesley ' 

V/vli l* l dJ . i ■ > 

6 

Bukit Gua Gempas ... 




T3.3.20 





7 

Bukit Langkap 



... 

[ 89.2.10 





8 

Kubang Ulu 




3-2.03 





9 

Bukit Goa Ipoh 




332.1.21 




Southern 

IO 

, Bukit Panchor 




1,01 1.3.10 






T otal 


■ • V 

... 

3,934.2.27 




* 


Form No. I. — Continued. 



f 





Settlement. ; 

Civil District. 

No. of 

Reserve. 

f 

Name of Forest. 

Area in acres 
on ist Jan., 

191 1. 

Area added 
during 
year. 

Excluded 
or dis- 
afforested. 

Area on 
31st Dec., 

1 91 1 . 

i 

No. and date , 
Df Notification 
excluding 
land. 

Remarks. 

■ 

* 

\ 





a. r.p . ‘ 





/ 

1 

Ulu Bruas 


... 

* * ■ 

545-1.23 





Ulu Bruas ... < 

2 

Tanjong Burong 

... 

• 


4,672.1.1 2 


1 



( 

3 

Telok Sera 

... 

• * * 

■ • # 

5,000.0.00 





Ff 

4 

Lumut 

a • • 


• *« 

• * * 

1,237.3-15 



Dindings < 



5 

Telok Muroh 


* . • 


2,331-1-39 






6 

North Pangkor ... 

* • t 



433.0.09 


- 



Tanah Merah ^ 












7 

Sungei Pinang 

* » * 

. . . 

. . . 

2,566.3.18 

* 





8 

South Pangkor 

• * » 

... 

• * * 

766.2.25 





v. 

9 

• 

Tanjong Hantu 

• * * 

. . . 


537-3-30 

\ 






Total ... 

... 

... 

' 

18,091.2.1 1 


• 


C/l 






• * 


% 


Form No. t. — Concluded . 


Settlement. 

Civil District. 

No. of 

Reserve. 

» 

' ~ 1 

Name of Forest. 

Area in acres j 
on ist Jan., 
1911. 

\rea added 
during 
year. 

Excluded 
or dis- 
afforested. 

Area on 

31st Dec., 
1911. 

No. and date 
Notification 
excluding 
land. 

f 


i 

1 

Merlimau 


, , , 

... 1 

a. r. p. 

6,216.3.06 




2 

Bukit Senggeh , 


1 1 • 

• * • 

9,526.0.34 



Jasin 

3 

Batang Malacca 


. .. 

... 

3,549.0.00 




4 

Ayer Panas 

* * * 

4 * « 

■ * *. 

3,460.3 .04 



* 

5 

Nyalas 

- • 

• ft • 

■ » ■ 

2,296.2.02 


\ 

Alor Gajah and 
Jasin 

6 

% 

Bukit Sedanan 


* * • 

• a a 

7,593-3*38 


Malacca ... 


7 

Bukit Panchor 

1 * * 

* » * 

... 

2,852.3.00 




8 

Brisu 

• • • 


... 

911.2.19 



• 

Alor Gajah ... \ 

9 

Sungei Udang 

* * *> 

1 

... 

f 

4,389.3.29 



! 

i 

I Central and Alor 
Gajah 

IO 

f i 

Ram u an China and 
Sungei Siput 

; Bukit Bruang 

mm* 

• * * 

1 

. . . 

a a * 

2,591.2.09 

6,o8i .0.23 



A Central 

12 

! Bukit Sebukor 

* * • 


... 

. 44-2.27 



• 


Total ■ • • 

| 

* • * 

* 

* * ■ 

i 

49,514-2.31 



Remarks. 


on 


Statement showing Progress made in forming new R eserves during the Year igit. 


i 


Area finally gazetted during year. 


Areas proposed and 
not yet finally gazetted. 


Settlement. 

Area of Reserves 
already finally 
gazetted. 

J 7 

Name of 
Reserve. 

No. of 
Notifi- 
cation in 
Gazette. 

Area 
of acres. 

Total area finally 
gazetted at close 
of year 191 1 

Name. 

Area. 

Remarks. 


A. r. p. 


A. r, p . 


A. r. p. 


Singapore 


13,646.2.34 


Penang ... 


Province Wellesley ... 


Dindings 


n 


Malacca ... 


f Vide 

\Form I 

Do. 

Do. 


Do. 


18 


10,744.2.06 


733 3.934*2-27 

119 18,091.2.11 


t * i8 9 49)5 i 4* 2 *3 i 


Gunong Tunggal 1,225.0.00 

! 

Batu Undan 3,830.0.00 

I 

Bukit Senangin 800.0.00 


Total 


5,855.0.00 


Form No. 8, 
Area of Plantations. 





Area in Acres. 

* 

Of Year. 

■n 

Settlement and 
District. 

Name 
of Reserve. 

Kind of 
Plantation. 

On 1st 
January, 

1 9 1 1 - 

Added 

during 

year. 

On 31st 
December, 
19 1 1 . 

Receipts. 

Charges. 

% 

Remarks. 

i 

— — — 1 — 


j 

f 

Singapore 4 

> 

Bukit Timah 

Seletar 

Getah Taban and 
Para rubber j 

Para rubber 

Acres. 

98 

5 

Acres. 

5 

Acres, 

98 1 

10 

$ c. 

586 31 

IM 

$ C. 

596 OO 

624 63 



Total ... 

103 

5 

108 

586 31 

1,220 63 

Penang j 

Batu Feringgi 
Govt. Hill ... 

Getah Taban 

Para rubber 

68 

8 

# * * 

... 

68 

8 

. . . 

97 45 
107 73 

i - 


Total ... 

76 

• * ■ 

76 

• * • 

205 18 

P. Wellesley 

Dindings 

• • * 

' 1 

• • • 

Para rubber 
Coconuts 

Fruit trees 

Nursery 

« • » 

10 

1 

1 

... 

2 

* « • 

. • * 

12 

I 

I 

h 

• * * 

270 66 '; 
24 00 

• • • 

44 22 j 


* « « 

57 1 66 



Total ... 

12^ 

2 

»• 

Hh 

338 88 

57 1 66 


Form No. 8 .—concluded. 

Area of Plantations*— concluded. 


i 



1 


Area in Acres. 

Of Year. 

Settlement and 
District. 

Name of 
Reserve. 

Kind of 
Plantation. 

On 1st 
January, 
191 1. 

Added dur- 
ing year. 

On 31st 
December, 

1 91 1 - 

Receipts. 

1 

Charges. 


— _ . . . — 


Malacca 


Remarks. 


H 


Bukit Bruang< 




Getah Taban 

Getah sundek 

Tembusu 

Mahogany 

Para rubber 

Merbau 

Penak 

Penaga 

Nibong 

Kledaug 

Resak 


Bukit Sebukor Para rubber 
1 Bukit Panchor { 


Total 


• ■ 
1 


Acres. 


J3 1 

8 

44 

41 

32 

20 

43 

8 

26 


355 


Acres. 


184 

104 

34 

' 54 


40 


Acres. 


$ 


I 3 I 

8 


45 4»485 33 


42 

504 

304 

46* 

8 

3U 


395 


223 65 
13 50 


4,722 48 


$ 


4,307 95 


\o 


4,307 95 


Singapore. 

Form No. ii. 


Revenue. 

ft* 

1 

Expenditure : Personal Emoluments. 

i 

— - 1 

Expenditure : Other Charges. 

Total. 

I. — Timber and other forest pro- 

$ c. 


$ C. 1 

— ; — — — — — — - 

$ c 

$ c. 

duce removed from forests by Gov- 


Personal Emoluments, 


Other Charges. 



ernment Agency — 



. 



• 

( a ) Timber 

... 

Conservator of Forests « 

3.055 17 

Annually Recurrent . 



(b) Firewood and Charcoal 

• * * 

Do. 10 per cent 

167 61 




(c) Bamboos and Canes 

. . . 

Allowance to Conservator’s general 


Forest Reserves (improving) 

142 23 


(d) Getah 


assistant 

0 

0 

0 

0 




(<?) Other Produce 




Miscellaneous 

1 1 5 80 





Clerk 

840 00 

h * 

* 



total I ... 

» * * 

Forest Ranger, Grade III 

r,o8o 00 

Planting and Cultural Operations ... 

596 00 


II. — Timber and forest produce 




Transport, Field and other Allow- 



removed from forests by purchasers 


Forester 

285 00 

ances 

1.224 i 1 


and licensees — 







(a) Timber 

58 00 

Forest Guards 

1,410 00 

Uniform ... 

98 00 


(b) Firewood and Charcoal 

3,767 5 ° 






(c) Bamboos and Canes 

8 20 



Working Plans 

132 25 


00 Getah 







00 Other Produce 

442 10 




2,308 39 


Total II ... 

4,275 80 


1 

Special Expenditure , 



IIP — Unclaimed and confiscated 




Bicycle 

bo OO 


timber and forest produce 




Rest house and Forest Guards’ 



IV. — Miscellaneous 

32 40 



quarters... 

200 OO 


Grand Total . . . 

4,308 20 

■ - 

7, >37 7 8 


2,568 39 

9,706 17 


20 


Penang and Province Wellesley, 

Form No. ii— Continued . 


Revenue. 


I. Timber and other forest 
produce removed from forests by 
Government Agency — 

(a) Timber 

(^) Firewood and Charcoal 
{c) Bamboos and Canes 

(d) Getah 

( e) Other Produce 


Total I . . . 

IF Timber and forest produce 
removed from forests by purchasers 
and licensees — 

{a) Timber 

\b) Firewood and Charcoa! ... 

(c) Bamboos and Canes 

(d) Getah 

(e) Other Produce ' 

Total II ... 

III. — Unclaimed and confiscated 
Timber and Forest Produce 

IV. Miscellaneous — Forest 
damages 

* * * * i * 

Grand Total ... 

— - 


V. . 

Expenditure : Personal Emoluments 

Expenditure : Other Charges. 

Total. 

$ R 

\ 

$ C. 

Annually Recurrent . 

$ 

$ c. 


Personal Emoluments 







3,929 16 

Rent Allowance 

360 00 


. . . 

Ten per cent Local Allowance 

• » * 

175 68 

Boundaries and paths (maintenance) 

402 20 





Forest Protection 

274 30 





Forest Reserves (improving) 

*99 95 





Miscellaneous 

129 04 





Transport, Field and Other Allow- 






ances ... 

479 67 


11,228 94 






50 08 



Uniforms ... 

94 83 


70 10 






. . . 

- 


Weeding, Gutta Percha plantation 

148 75 


738 35 







• 



2,088 74 


2,087 47 



Special Expenditure . 

/ ■ 1 



m 


Two bicycles 

120 00 


6 50 , 









Typewriter 

90 00 


254 90 






2,348 87 

1 


4,104 84 


2,298 74 

6,403 58 


Dindings. 


Form No. ii — Continued. 


Ji — - — _ ^ — - - 

Revenue. 

1 

Expenditure : Personal Emoluments. 

Expenditure : Other Charges. 

Total. 

I. — 'Timber and other forest 

$ c. 


$ c. 



• 

produce removed from forests by 




Annually Recurrent. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

Government Agency — 


Salaries 

3,439 62 




(a) Timber 

• * * 



Boundaries and Paths (Maintenance) 

556 84 


(b) Firewood and Charcoal 

• * • 

Fifteen per cent Dindings Allow- 


• 



(c) Bamboos and Canes 

. . • 

ance • • • • » • • * • 

424 17 

Miscellaneous 

144 24 


(d) Getah ... ... 

270 66 






(e) Other Produce 

' • * 

• 


Planting and Cultural Operations 

571 66 


Total I ... 

270 66 



Transport, Fielo and Other Allow- 







ances ... 

613 97 


II. — Timber and forest produce 







removed from forests by purchasers 




Uniforms ... 

98 53 


and licensees — 








(a) Timber 

2,546 17 




1,985 24 


( b ) Firewood and Charcoal 

1,501 77 





| 

(c) Bamboos and Canes 

720 00 



Special Expenditure . 



id) Getah 

220 00 






(e) Other Produce 

G 373 



Quarters for forester and forest guard 

200 OO 


Total II ... 

6,361 10 



Bicycle 

60 00 


III. — Unclaimed and confiscated 







timber and forest produce 

0 10 






IV. — Miscellaneous Forest dama- 







ges, etc 

1 19 20 







6,751 06 






- Timber supplied to the Public 




1 



Works Department 

65 20 

1 

1 





Grand Total . . . 

6,816 26 


3,863 79 

I ' 

II 

2,245 2 4 

6,109 °' 


Malacca, 

Form No. ii. Concluded . 


Revenue. 

Expenditure : Personal Emoluments 

Expenditure : Other Charges. 

Total. 

I. Timber and other forest pro- 
duce removed from forests by 

Government Agency. 

(V) Timber 

(b) Firewood and Charcoal 

(c) Bamboos and Canes 

( d ) Getah 

(e ) Other Produce 

$ c. 

• > * 

• • • 

* ■ * 

• * * 

, 

Salaries 

10% local allowance ... 

1 

$ c. 

6,160 07 

145 68 

Boundaries and Paths (maintenance) 

Miscellaneous 

Transport, Field and Other Allow- 
ances 

$ c. 

656 10 

'73 64 

942 22 

$ 

Total I ... 

t » • 



Uniforms... 

I83 l6 


If. — Timber and forest produce 
removed from forests by purchasers 
and licensees — 

(a) Timber 

(b) Firewood and Charcoal 

(c) Bamboos and Canes 

(d) Getah 

(^) Other Produce 

4,227 00 
461 70 
18 00 

574 65 






' Total II ... 

5.281 35 




• 


III. — Unclaimed and confiscated 
timber and forest produce 

17 1 5 






IV. — Miscellaneous. — ■ 
Compensation and fines 

244 27 







5.542 77 

1 

6,305 75 


'.955 12 

8,260 87 


A. M. BURN-MURDOCH, 
Conservator of Forests , S . S. and F. M, 


STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. 



Paper to be laid before the Legislative Council by Command of 

His Excellency the Governor. 


Report on Labuan for the Year 1912. 


Revenue and Expenditure. 

The Revenue for the year was $76,084.40, as compared with $78,990.44 in the 
previous year. The Expenditure amounted to $99, J 99-3 2 > as against $105,989.87 
in 191 1. 

Abstracts of Revenue and Expenditure are appended (A and B). 

Trade. 

The trade of Labuan showed an increase of $271828 under Imports and $72,105 
under Exports on that of 1911. The mines at Coal Point which were closed by the 
Labuan Coalfields Company, Limited, on the 9th March, 1911, have not yet been 
re-opened. This as was pointed out in the annual report seriously affected the pros- 
perity of the island as the Company formerly employed 13 Europeans and 800 Chinese 
and spent about $20,000 per mensem in the place. 

The comparative values of the trade of the island in the past three years were as 
follows 1 — 


Merchandise :■ 


1910. 

■ m f „ 

191/. 

1912. 

Imports 

• • • 

$ 

... L437>390 

$ 

1,258,885 

$ 

1,286,713 

Exports 


... 1,217,132 

% 

1,075,236 

iT47,34i 


Total 

... $2,654,522 

2,334,i2i 

2,434,054 

The imports 

and exports 

to ports other 

than the Straits Settlements ports 

were : — 


19 JO. 

/(?//. 

1912. 

Imports 

• * * 

$ 

602,743 

$ 

662,813 

$ 

664,809 

• * V 

Exports 

, . . 

727,724 

648,333 

805,602 


* 

• 

Total 

... $1,330,467 

1,311,146 

1,470,411 


The importation of Brunei coal from the Sarawak Government mines decreased 
slightly during the year. 

Eleven thousand six hundred and ninety-two tons were exported as cargoes and 
bunkers, being 656 tons less than in the previous year. 

The import trade with Singapore increased in value by $25,832. 

The export trade with Singapore decreased $85,164 and that with British North 
Borneo increased by $139,7*8. The exports to Brunei and Sarawak show a slight 

decline. 


2 


Considerable quantities of merchandise that formerly came from the neighbour- 
hood of the Limbang, Temburong and other rivers for shipment in Labuan now go 
to Singapore via Kuching by a Sarawak steamer. 

Imports of rice, sago flour, inferior getah and petroleum advanced. 

Marine. 

The tonnage of shipping which entered Port Victoria and cleared was 126,411 
(British 24,403 tons and foreign 102,008, tons), as compared with 136,884 (British 
42,288 tons and foreign 94,596 tons) in 1911, and 282,742 tons (British 152,668 tons 
and foreign 130,074 tons) in 1910. The decrease of 10,473 tons on the previous 
year’s returns is accounted for by the work having been stopped in the Labuan Coal 
Mines and less number of steamers calling in for bunker coal. 

Foreign tonnage which more than doubled that of British was mainly German 
(95,180 tons) as in 1908, 1909 and 1911. This, as explained in last year’s report, may be 
considered due to the monopoly enjoyed by the coast vessels of the Norddeutscher Lloyd 
which have for many years carried the mails, passengers and freight to and from 
Singapore. There is now a regular weekly service between Labuan and Singapore, 
maintained by four steamers of the company. 

The number of vessels under the heading “ Native Craft” trading between 
British North Borneo, Brunei and Sarawak, which entered and cleared was 4,080, being 
970 more than in 1911. 

H. M. S. Merlin arrived on the station in April, and remained till the end of the 
year, surveying these and Brunei waters — several new rocks and coral patches were 
found. Two shipments of Welsh coal and Briquittes (1,350 tons) were specially 
imported for the use of this vessel. 

H. M. S. Newcastle called on the 24th December, and sailed for Manila 
on the 27th. 

Small steam craft show an increase over 1911. Several of the officers of these 
have obtained certificates of competency as required by the Labuan Ordinance No. Ill 
of 19 1 1 , which came into force at the end of the year. 

The foundation for a steel light-house on Kuraman Island was commenced and 
completed during the year, and the light should be established in 1913. 

Land and Re-survey. 

The total amount collected by the Land Department was $10,459.99, being 
$2,999.55 more than in 1911, vide Statement C appended. 

The increase was due to land sales and survey fees. 

A larger revenue was expected but owing to the new grant forms having to be 
altered and printed in Singapore the grants could not be issued before the end of the 
last quarter of 1912. 

The Re-survey which commenced in 1910, was continued with a staff consisting of 
a Superintendent, two Draftsmen and two Demarcators. 

The Superintendent writes as follows on the work done 

“The Re-survey of the Island of Labuan, excluding the northern portion which is 
conceded to the Coal Company, was completed last year (1912). 

A sum of $22,000 was voted for this work which was started in April, 1910. The 
estimates provided for Cadestral survey, dividing the country into main and sub- 
circuits with the theodolite and filling in the rest with the plane-table. Since it was 
considered that a complete theodolite survey of allotments would be more suitable to 
settle and define the various boundaries of lands in dispute and also to issue accurate 
title plans, a triangulation of the island was made with theodolite surveys of holdings 
as well as main and sub-traverses based on it. 

The employment of a smaller staff of officers than was intended, dispensing with 
the services of higher salaried assistants, enabled this work to be executed within the 
original estimate of $22,000. 

Before the completion of the above survey, certain works for the Land Depart- 
ment were required to be taken up, for which a sum of $6,000 was granted. Of these, 
all application surveys, most of the sub-divisions, and 400 title plans on grants, were 

completed during the year. 


3 


* 


Both the Re-survey and Land Office requirements were expected to end in 
November last.. But, owing to the survey of the Coalfields Company's property 
tmg taken up in July last, on an estimate of $12,000, to be carried out by men of the 

same staff the sub-division surveys and the preparation of fresh titles could not be 
completed.” 

Police. 

The Police Force, under the charge of one European Chief Inspector, was on the 
31st December, 1912, as follows: — 

Sikhs : — 

1 Sergeant-Major. 0 
1 Corporal. 

5 Lance-Corporals. 

34 Constables. 

Malays : — 

1 Sergeant. 

4 Lance-Corporals. 

39 Constables. 

1 Chinese Detective. 

Of the above numbers 14 Sikhs (1 Corporal, 1 Lance-Corporal and 12 Constables), 
and 20 Malays (3 Lance-Corporals and 17 Constables) did duty in Brunei. 

Chief Inspector CRUMMEY reports that the conduct of both contingents was good. 
The Sikhs amongst whom there were many cases of drunkenness in 1911 have 
improved considerably in their behaviour. 

The general health of the force has been extremely satisfactory. Only 41 cases 
w r ere admitted to hospital as against 67 in 19 1 1, and 170 w^ere treated as out-patients 
as against 318 in 1911. The chief disease treated was Malaria. The percentage of 
sub-tertian cases appears to be gradually rising : this was specially noticed during the 
last three months of the year. No deaths occurred amongst the Police. 

The Police received 119 reports as against 108 in 1911 and 169 in 1910. The 
1912 reports included 9 of house-breaking and theft, 33 theft, 3 criminal breach of 
trust, 5 mischief, 9 voluntary causing hurt, 2 maiming cattle and 5 minor offences. 

The offences reported against property for the last three years, showing value 
lost and recovered, were as follows : — 



Property 

Property 


lost. 

recovered . 


% 

$ 

1910 

. m 
00 
l 00 

201 

1911 

... 1,949 

244 

1912 ... ... ... 

726 

100 

In all 1 16 Police Court cases (69 Police 

prosecutions), 152 

defendants 


before the Police Magistrate. Of these 65 persons were acquitted, 76 summarily 
convicted, 5 committed for trial to the District Court, the remaining 6 awaiting trial. 

The following writs were issued by the Magistrate: — 

Summonses 72, Subpoenas 108, Warrants of Arrest 4. 

Prisons. 

On the 1st January, 1912, there w^ere 20 male prisoners in gaol and 46 were 
received during the year. Of these 43 were discharged and 2 transferred to the 
Singapore Criminal Prison and 21 remained on the 31st December. 

The daily average of prisoners w'as 22-13. 

The Superintendent reports that their conduct was very good. 

There was one European prisoner who was transferred to Singapore. 

The Medical Officer writes that the health of the prisoners was good throughout 
the year. The short-sentence prisoners almost invariably increase in weight and 
health during their time in the gaol. No deaths occurred amongst the prisoners. 



4 


Census. 

The last census of the island was taken at midnight on the 10th March, igil, 
and the population was 6,546 persons, consisting of 3,662 males and 2,884 females. 
The European and allied -races accounted for 34 (25 males and 9 females), Eurasians 
20 (0 males and ir females), Chinese 1,799 (1,261 males and 53 s females), Malays 
3,163 (1,578 males and 1,585 females), Malays of Archipelago 1,271 (623 males and 
648 females), Indians 193 (140 males and 53 females), others 66 (males 26 and 

females 40) . . 

About 1,000 Chinese and 7 Europeans employed in and about the coal mines left 

the island before the census was taken. ^ 

C' 

Medical. 

The total number of births registered was 211 and deaths 125. The birth-rate 
was tr8o and the death-rate 18 84. Of the total number of deaths, Malaria accounted 
for 34, Pulmonary Tuberculosis for 17, Old age and Debility for 16 Ber.-ben for 3 
and Dysentery for 3. Of the infantile mortality one-third of the deaths were ascribed 
to “ Fever ” and one-fourth to “ Convulsions.” 

The Medical Officer states that the birth-rate is the highest for the past ten years 
or more and the death-rate shows a distinct improvement. He attributes the satis- 
factory state of the general health of the community to the fact that no new coolies 
have been imported into Labuan, and of those who were originally imported nearly a 
have left the island, leaving behind only natives and Chinese who aie well 
acclimatized. The whole year must be regarded as the most satisfactory on record 

from the Public Health view. 

One mild case of small-pox was removed from the s.s. Mau Sang and isolated in 
the hospital buildings. She was detained at the quarantine anchorage for three days 
during which time a temporary atap and kajang shed was erected on Pulau ap 
for the accommodation of the 127 deck passengers, and all the members of the 
were re-vaccinated. After the removal of the deck passengers to Pulau Papan, on the 
fourth day, the s.s. Mau Sang was allowed to come alongside to discharge her carg , 
being subject to daily inspection of the Medical Officer. No further cases of small- pox 
occurred, either amongst the crew or deck passengers All the latter who did no 
bear obvious signs of recent small-pox were re-vaccinated on Pulau Papan. 

The’ total number of patients treated in hospital was 210 as against 296 in 1911 
and 338 in 1910. 

Dr. ClEVERTON writes as follows regarding Malaria : 

“ There has been much less sickness from this disease and the percentage of 
deaths from this infection was only 27*2 of the total death-rate, as against 31*1 m 
ion Only 58 cases were admitted to hospital as against n8 in 1911 and only 198 
cases of Malaria were treated as out-patients as against 479 in 1911. This shows a 
very considerable decrease on all cases of Malaria but the percentage of sub-tertian 
cases has risen throughout the year. About $2,000 were spent by the Public w orks 
Department upon anti-malarial works: these included further concrete drains in he 
town of Victoria: the filling up of a large areaof swampy and uneven land at the 
eastern extremity of the town : the cutting and burning ol ^ large areas of j ? 
(secondary) in the suburbs. These works have been of real benefit to the health ot 
town and suburbs. Ninety-seven ounces of quinine were used as a curative and 
prophylactic agent during die year. The Sanitary nspector has been ^instructed to 

see to the removal of empty tins, bottles, coconut shells, etc., in ie own. 

Only 16 cases of Beri-beri were treated in hospital as against 44 in 191 1 and there 
were only 3 deaths attributed to this disease as against 10 m I 9 »- Polled ** 
was used throughout the year. . 

The chief diseases treated in hospital during the year were :-Ma ana 581^2 
deaths Beri-beri 16 with 1 death, Pulmonary Tuberculosis 13 4 deaths, 

Dysentery 9 with 2 deaths and Venereal diseases 21 with no deat . 

The total number of vaccinations done were 459 as against 229 m 1911. e 

of the deck passengers and crew of the Mau zang uom nu ig £ 

small-pox# « ■« • • rtf 

Meteorological.- The North-east Monsoon blew from January to the beginning o 

Mete g , | v 0 f water for domestic purposes began to fail, until 

in a InruTheCervoirsup 5 fylng P the town of Victoria completely failed and trains were 
requisitioned to bring water down from Coal Point Reservoir, a distance of eight to 


nine miles. The hospital well was dry from January to April, with short intervals of 
water immediately after rain. The South-west Monsoon blew from the beginning of 
May to the middle of November, when the wind blew from the North-east and South- 
west about equally, the morning records showing South-west and the evening records 
North-east. 

The total rainfall was 1 1 7’54 inches as compared with 99*82 inches in 1911 and 
151-25 inches in 1910. The wettest month was May with 20*67 inches: the greatest 
rainfall in 24 hours was on the 8th of June, when 6*02 inches fell. The mean 
temperature of the air was 81*9° F. (mean maximum 87*9° F. and mean minimum 
73*6° F.), as compared with 81*51° F. (maximum 87*47° F. and minimun 75 ' 7 ^" ^ •) * n 
ig 11, and 83*51° F. (maximum, £$3*55° F. and minimum 76*38° F.) in 1910. The highest 
temperature recorded was 95*5° F. and the lowest 71° F., as against 94°,, F. and 71° F. 
in 1911, and 93° F. and 72° F. in 1910. j 

Post Office. 

The District Officer was in charge of the Department throughout the year. 

The nett receipts for the year amounted to $2,276.77 as against $2,686.80 in 
1911. The expenditure was $2,175.70, being $28.41 less than in the previous year. 

The total number of postal articles dealt with including those received for 
transmission to other countries was 125,056, as compared with 104,947 in 1 9 1 1 - The 
registered articles numbered 7,642, as against 7,050 in 1911. The parcels delivered 
numbered 923 and those despatched 378. The total Money Order transactions 
(issued and paid) amounted to $40,943.46, an increase of $7,622.01 as compared with 
the previous year. The principal increase was in the remittance to Singapore which 
amounted $19,678.23, as against $10,643.12 in 1911, an increase of $9,035.11. 

The sale of British Postal Orders amounted to $3,330.24, a decrease of $2.93. 
Local Postal Orders showed a decline, closing with a decrease of $98. 

Insured articles of a total value of $5, 164.08 were handled. The cash- on-delivery 
work has slightly increased since 1911, 48 packets valued at $489.14 were received 
from London, and 82 packets valued at $633.07 from Singapore. 

A regular weekly mail service with Singapore was maintained by the 
Norddeutscher Lloyd steamers Darvel , Sandakan , Marudu and Chow Fa which reached 
Labuan on Tuesdays and Wednesdays. 

Public Works Department. 

The total expenditure of the Department including $3,650.42 for Personal Emolu- 
ments was 132,640.99 as against $35,378 in 1911. 

Several lengths of street drains were regraded and 300 lineal feet of concrete 
drains were constructed in the town during the year. Several existing timber culverts 
and bridges were repaired. 

A new Contagious Ward for the hospital (a steel skeleton structure) and the stone- 
built quarters for the crew of the Kuraman Light-house were the only important works 
carried out during the year. 

The number of contracts entered into were 12, and 1 1 were completed. 

Schools. 

The number of boys on the register of Victoria (S. P. G.) School, which is still in 
charge of Mrs. Fell, was 28 on the 1st January and 32 on the 31st December, 
1912. The daily average attendance was 27. The total on the roll of the Government 
Vernacular School was 49 on the 1st January and 51 on the 31st December, 1912. 
The average daily attendance was 40. 


General. 

His Excellency F. R. Ellis, C. m. G., Governor of British North Borneo, paid the 
Settlement a brief visit on the 5th February. 

MOHAMED Yusoff and his son who were committed for trial at the Singapore 
Assizes for the murder of a Sikh Police Constable in 1911 were found not guilty and 
discharged. 

The following officers went to Singapore in connection with the above-mentioned 
murder case: — 

Messrs. S. E. Dennys, J. R. Dissanaike, Chief Inspector Crummey and 
Dr. Cleverton, Dr. GIBBS from Singapore acted as Medical Officer during the 
absence of the latter. 


6 


Mr. E. ROBERTS, Executive Engineer, went on long leave on the 1 8th April and 
returned to duty on the 6th December. Mr. N. WILKINSON, Assistant Engineer, 
Singaporej acted for him during his absence. 

Mr. J, K. Webster, Harbour Master, went on long leave on the 25th June and 
returned to duty at Singapore on the 5th December. During his absence Mr. H. 
WALPOLE of the Colonial Yacht Sea Mew acted for him. 

His Excellency F. R. ELLIS, C.m.G. and Mrs. Ellis passed through here en route 
for Europe on the 27th June, 

The following Heads of Departments visited the Settlement on inspection duty 
during the year : — 

The Inspector-General of Police, the Auditor-General, and Mr. H. V. TOWNER, 
Executive Engineer, Singapore, who came on behalf of the Colonial Engineer. 

Dr. R. E. ADAMSON, the only private medical practitioner, who had been ailing 
for some weeks, died on the 24th July much to the regret of all. Dr. ADAMSON, first 
came to Labuan in 1894 as Colonial Surgeon but resigned the service in 1908. 

Mr. S. E. DENNYS, District Officer, was granted 14 days casual leave on the 5th 
August to proceed to Singapore. 

His Excellency J. SCOTT Mason, the newly appointed Governor of British North 
Borneo, with Mrs. SCOTT MASON, passed through Labuan to take up his appointment 
on the 30th October. Or, the 6th December the sad news of his sudden death was 
received here by telegram. 

HARVEY CHEVALLIER, 

Acting Resident , Labuan . 


A 

Abstract of Revenue, Labuan, — 1912. 




$ c. 

I. 

Port, Harbour, Wharf and Light Dues 

2,720 70 

2. 

Licences, Excise and Internal Revenue 



not otherwise classified... 

49 , 5 1 7 79 

3 . 

Fees of Court or Office, payments for 



Specific Services, and Reimburse- 



ments in aid 

*14,014 22 

4 - 

Posts and Telegraphs 

2,276 77 

5 - 

Rents on Government property 

4,767 77 

6. 

Interest 

106 12 

7 - 

Miscellaneous Receipts 

624 63 

8. 

Land sales 

2,056 40 


^6,084 40 


Total Revenue for the year ... $76,084 40 


* §5,142.88 contribution from Imperial Funds towards expenses of Consulate. $l,6oO Hospital Board 
Government contribution. 


7 

B 


Abstract of Expenditure, 

Labuan, — 1912 . 


Pensions, Retired Allowances, 

and 

$ C. 

$ c. 

Gratuities 

• * ■ 

210 96 

Resident's Office — 

Personal Emoluments 

• « • 

7,1 77 87 

210 96 

Other Charges, Annually Recurrent 

• * * 

670 95 


Land and District Office — 
Personal Emoluments 


6,900 58 

7,848 82 

Other Charges, Annually Recurrent 

• • . 

1**44 13 

© 

Marine — 

Personal Emoluments 


5,038 14 

8,044 7 1 

Other Charges, Annually Recurrent 


5452 67 


Special Expenditure 

» . . 

900 00 


Legal, Civil and Criminal— 
Personal Emoluments 

• a • 

1,500 00 

11,390 81 

Other Charges, Annually Recurrent 

* . a 

50 00 


Police — 

Personal Emoluments 


18,084 82 

1,550 00 

Other Charges, Annually Recurrent 

. . . 

2,909 29 


Prisons — 

Personal Emoluments 

• * * 

60 00 

20,994 11 

Other Charges, Annually Recurrent 

a a • 

2,148 83 


Medical — • 

Personal Emoluments 

a a a 

4,194 93 

2,208 83 

Other Charges, Special Expenditure 

* • * 

540 00 


Hospitals and Dispensaries— 
Personal Emoluments 

a a • 

1,937 60 

4,734 93 

Hospital Board — 

Expenditure, General, Miscellaneous 

• * • 

1,887 8° 

1,937 60 

Education — 

Personal Emoluments 

• • * 

476 81 

1,887 80 

Education Board — 

Expenditure, General, Miscellaneous 
English School — Mission School 

:::! 

379 48 

476 81 

Transport — 

Miscellaneous, Travelling and Personal 
Allowances ... 

1,924 24 

379 48 

Miscellaneous Services — 

Other Charges, Annually Recurrent 


194 17 

1,924 24 

Special Expenditure 

• a • 

599 3 6 


Post Office— 

Personal Emoluments 

* a * 

1,919 00 

793 53 

Other Charges, Annually Recurrent 


256 70 


Public Works Department— 

Personal Emoluments 


3,650 42 

2,175 70 

Other Charges, Annually Recurrent 

• • • 

398 96 


Recurrent Expenditure 

a a a 

6,649 24 


Extraordinary ... 

. * . 

21,942 37 



32,640 99 


Total Expenditure for the year ... $99,199 32 


c 


ABSTRACT OF LAND DEPARTMENT, 1912. 


Month. 

Land Rents. 



Forest Revenue. 

Market. 



i % j 

Assessment. 

Slaughter-house. 

Miscellaneous. 

Search, Registra- 

tion, etc. * 

Land Sales, 

Survey Fees. 

Boundary Stones. 

Registration and 

Preparation of 

Grants. 

- — 1 

Issue of Notices. 

Grand Total. 


S c. 

ft r. 

$ 0 

$ c. 

S c. 

§ £\ 

$ c . 

$ c. 

$ c. 

$ r. 

$ c. 

$ 

$ c. 

January 

1,456 82 

3 82 

80 00 

217 49 

12 OO 

19 2 5 

16 50 

... 

... 

... 

... 


1,805 88 

February 

Hi 94 

4 68 

80 00 

284 06 

8 00 

17 16 

t—4 

O 

O 

O 

*'* 


... 

... 

I 00 

546 84 

March 

487 47 

6 28 

80 00 

919 3° 

8 00 

28 82 

10 00 

... 

M* 

... 

... 

4 So 

L544 37 

April 

76 50 

4 97 

80 00 

no 03 

7 00 

10 OO 

14 OO 


• • • 

... 

... 

0 50 

303 00 

M ay 

146 70 

4 79 

80 00 

24 53 

12 00 

15 6 ; 

30 OO 

... 

• * • 

... 

... 

1 50 

3 i 5 14 

June 

18 67 

3 35 

100 00 

93 76 

13 OO 

20 OO 

6 00 

* • * 

* a • 

... 

... 

a * • 

254 7 8 

July 

32 17 

3 29 

90 00 

184 10 

7 00 

5 00 

0 25 

... 

... 



* ' * 

321 81 

August 

4 1 50 

6 33 

80 00 

80 57 

... 

21 60 

5 00 

... 

... 

... 

... 

* * * 

235 00 

September 

657 00 

4 09 

80 00 

521 67 

6 00 

1 08 

6 00 

2,056 40 

969 50 

8 25 

to 

O 

O 

* * * 

4 , 3 H 99 

October 

6 00 

8 02 

80 00 

I 5 2 7 ° 

8 00 

0 

0 

00 

4 00 

... 

... 

• a » 


0 50 

267 22 

November 

3 °° 

1 01 

80 00 

116 12 

... 

13 10 

12 00 

... 

... 

... 


*•* 

225 23 

December 

61 32 

8 05 

80 00 

89 11 

5 00 

* 1 2 5 

0 25 

... 

5° OO 

29 75 

6 00 

O 50 

3 28 73 


3,129 09 

58 68 

990 00 

2,793 44 

86 00 

i 5 8 3 8 

1 14 00 

2,056 40 

1,019 5° 

38 00 

8 00 

8 50 

io,459 99 


00 


* Debit balance. 







'2-Z'S 


v 


Annual Report on Forest Administration in the Straits 

Settlements, for the Year 1913. 


PART I. 


Extension and Constitution of Reserved Forests. 

i. The area of reserved forests finally gazetted under section 7 of “ The Forest 
Ordinance 1908 ’ was 96,644 acres or 151-0 square miles, and the area of reserves 
preliminarily gazetted under section 5 was 9,555 acres or 14-9 square miles. Includin 
the latter the proportion of reserved forests to the area of each Settlement is shown i 
the following table : — 


Settlement. 

Area of Settlement. 

Area of 

Reserved Forests. 


Square miles. 

Square miles. 

Singapore 

206 

213 

Penang ... ... ... 

107 

00 

Province Wellesley 

288 

5-8 

Bindings 

265 

43-2 

Malacca 

720 

77-2 

Total 

1,586 

165-8 


The proportions of reserved forests, and forests in course of reservation, to the 
area of each Settlement, were as follows : — 


Singapore 

Penang 

Province Wellesley 

Bindings 

Malacca 


[0‘3 per cent 

■ 17*1 

• • • f 20 , 1 

... 16*3 „ 

107 


The proportion for the whole Colony was 10*5 per cent. 

2. Additions and alterations are shown in Form /.*■ — The most important 
changes were 874 acres of Taban forest added to the Telok Bahang Reserve in Penang, 
and 12 3 acres to Government Hill in the same Settlement. Total additions 999 acres. 
Eighty-six acres were excluded from Bukit Bruang Reserve in Malacca. Twelve acres 
were excluded from Bukit Mandi in Singapore and 14 acres from Bukit Gua Gempas 
in Province Wellesley. Total exclusions 112 acres. 


* Not printed. 


b/j'C 


2 


* 


♦ 




3. New proposals for reservation . — These will be found in Form 2.* Gunong 
Tunggal and Batu Undan Reserves in the Dindings are awaiting final notifications 

\V but .are^really old reserves. The proposed Gunong Melintang Reserve of 4,500 acre, 
was 'also awaiting final notification throughout the year. 

Demarcation and Upkeep of Boundaries. 

4. The total length of artificial boundaries at the close of the year was 391 
miles, and natural boundaries not requiring upkeep 134 miles — 5 2 5 miles in all, 

5. In Singapore 97! miles of boundaries were kept clean by the forest staff. 

In Penang the Highlands Reserve was upkept by the staff, the remaining reserve 
boundaries, about 75 miles, were kept clean on contract for $228, or $3.04 per mile. 
Three miles of new boundary were cleared in Pantai Acheh Reserve at a cost of 
$17.60. The boundary of Kubang Ulu Reserve in Province Wellesley was cleared 
departmentally and the rest were cleared at $208.60, an average of $6.32 per mile. 

In the Dindings 70 miles of boundaries were re-cleared at a cost of $417, or $5.96 
per mile, and one mile of new boundary cut in Gunong Tunggal Reserve for $25. 
During the year 57 reserve signboards were purchased for $26.50. 

In Malacca 99 miles of boundaries were upkept at a cost of $600.30, the average 
cost per mile being $6.06. 

Surveys. 

6. I11 Singapore the Forest Ranger made a rough survey of the Sungai Buloh 
Reserve forming part of the Kranji working circle. 

In the Dindings the survey of the Batu Undan Reserve was undertaken by the 
Survey Department and completed at the close of the year, and those of Gunong 
Melintang and Telok Sera Reserves were nearly finished. 


PART II. 

Management of Forests, 
Working Plans. 


7. In Singapore five reserves were worked for Mangrove fuel under plans as 
. follows : — 



Coupe 

No. 

Time allowed for working. 

O 

Area 

Amount 

Total 

Revenue 

Reserve. 

! 

Opening. j 

Closing. 

in 

acres. 

at which 
leased. 

from 

Reserves, 

1913. 

Pan dan 

V 

6th May, 1913 

6th May, 1914 

IOO 

$ c. 
1,175 00 

$ c. 
1,500 00 

Changi 

V " 

17th Feb., 1913 

1 8th Dec., 1913 

30 

3°4 50 

333 75 

Kranji 

IV 

20th Feb., 1912 

19th Nov., 1913 

32 

179 20 

93 

Selelar 

IV 

3rd Sept., 1913 

2nd Sept., 1914 

60 

309 00 

154 5 ° 

Tuas 

IV 

3rd Sept., 1913 

2nd Sept., 1914 

80 

424 00 

420 00 

Total . . . 

~ - 1 ■ ~ 

• t t 

* 

it* 

302 

2 ) 39 l 7 ° 

2,501 25 


The average price realized per acre was $7 as against $5.78 in 1912. 

8. In the Dindings Tanjong Burong Reserve was worked during the year under 
a working plan. Four coupes — those of 1910-1913 — amounting to 800 acres were 
leased in 1912 at $3 per acre. The agreement expired on 31st December, 1913. Lim 
Joo.Ghee, the lessee, gave a great deal of trouble by felling undersized trees and was 
fined on two or three occasions, under the terms of the agreement. 


* Not printed. 


3 


9- Malacca trees of Class I were selected and marked by the Forest Ranger 
for felling as follows 5 

Buldt Sedanan Reserve... 

Bukit Senggeh ,, 

Batang Malaka „ 

Merlimau „ 

Ayer Panas ,, 

Sungai Udang 

Total 

10. Only trees of six feet girth and over were marked, 
and extracted by licensees, and Class II trees were felled without marking. 

Class I trees yielded $1,350 revenue, Class II $538 as against $1,160 and $465, 
respectively, for 1912. 

Paths in Reserves. 

11. In Singapore the path from 1 anjong Tuas to Sungai Blukang was upkept by 
the forest guards. 

A cart track was constructed along the boundary of the Tasek Glugor Reserve in 
Province Wellesley. 

In the Bindings all the paths were kept clean by the forest staff. 

The inspection paths in Malacca reserves were upkept for $97.20. 

i 

Buildings. 

12 . In Singapore the forest guards' quarters were upkept by the Public Works 
Department. 

Repairs to Forest Stations in Penang cost $177.96 and in Province Wellesley 
$43- 50- 

In the Dintlings and Malacca the necessary repays were made by the Public 
Works Department. 

Protection of Forests. 

13. The Forest Laws remained unaltered. Protection was effectually carried out 
by the staff of forest guards patrolling the reserves. 

14. In Penang a case of illicit felling of timber on Pulau Jerejak was taken 
before the Court and damages to the amount of $1,821.33 were awarded to the 
department. One hundred and ninety-six dollars and ninety-five cents were expended 
on coolies to accompany forest guards on patrol duty in the isolated forest reserves. 

Forest Fires. 

15. Small fires occurred in Telok Bahang Reserve in Penang and in Telok Sera 
Reserve in the Bindings. Thirty dollars was awarded by the Courts to the department 
as compensation for damage. 


257 

trees 

1 7 

>> 

48 

> ? 

57 

)> 

148 


5i 


... 578 

>) 

These trees were felled 


Forest Offences. 

16. Form 7* gives particulars as to the number of offences. The following cases 
were dealt with by Courts : — • 


Cases pending 
from 1912, 

New cases 
of the year. 

. 

f 

| 

Total 

cases. 

Disposed of during year. 

Convic- 

tions. 

Acquit- 

tals. 

Pending at 
close of year. 

6 

54 | 

60 

47 ! 

9 

4 



* Not printed. 


4 


Besides these 8 cases were compounded for $205.80 as follows : — 


$ c. 


Bindings 

Malacca 


4 cases for ... 
4 » 


100 00 
105 80 


Total 8 


$205 80 


The percentage of convictions of cases tried in Courts was 84 per cent, as 
compared with 94 in 1912. There were 60 cases, as against 90 in 1912, 

Singapore had 7 cases with all convictions; Penang and Province Wellesley, 21 
cases with 20 convictions and only 1 acquittal; the Dindings, 14 cases with 7 convic- 
tions and 7 acquittals; and Malacca, 14 cases with 13 convictions and 1 acquittal, 

17. Fines imposed by Courts realized $659.49 as compared with $707 in igri 2 . 

The reduction in cases was chiefly in Penang and Province Wellesley. The 
Forest Ranger believes that this is due to the increased vigilancy of the staff and to a 
corresponding reduction of opportunity for evasion of the regulations. 


Improvement of Forests. 


Natural Reproduction. 


18. In Singapore Meranti (Shorea sp.), Kemuning (Murraya exotica), Serayah 
(Shorea sp.), Taban (Palaquium) and Tampinis (Slcetia sideroxylon) have reproduced 
well in all the reserves. The mangrove in the old coupes has also reproduced well. 

Class II trees in the Telok Bahang and Government Hill Reserves in Penang 
were girdled in order to give more room and light to the more valuable species, such 
as Taban, etc. The natural reproduction of dacrydium in the Government Hill 
Reserve was reported as good. 

In the Bindings, Meranti (Shorea sp.), Damar laut (Parashorea stellata) and 
Resak (Vatica sp.) fruited well. 

The Forest Ranger, Malacca, reports that the natural reproduction in the various 
reserves was not so good as that of 1912. 


Artificial Reproduction. 


19. Form 8* shows particulars. The area of plantations was increased by 48 
acres making the total area 672 acres. 

The plantations in Singapore, Penang and Malacca contain chiefly Getah Taban 
(Palaquium oblongifolium). There are also Para rubber (Havea braziliensis), Teak 
(Tectona grandis), Getah Sundek (Payena Leerii), Tembusu (Fagroea fragrans), 
Mahogany (Swietoma sp.), Merbau (Afzelia palembanica), Penak (Balanocarpus sp.), 
Penaga (Mesua ferrea), Nibong (Oncosperma tigillaria), Kledang (Artocarpus 
lancifolius) and Resak (Vatica sp.). 

Blanks in the Bukit Timah plantation in Singapore were interplanted with Para 
and Durian seedlings. This plantation of 98 acres was upkept for $817.44. The 
revenue realized from the yield of rubber was $525.24 which was credited to 
Agricultural Deposits. The accounts of this plantation are shown in paragraph 20. 

Six thousand two hundred and thirty teak seeds from Burma were sown 
in Penang and Province Wellesley in the Penara Bukit and Bukit Serayah Reserves 
but all of them proved failures. Casuarina and Cedar (Acrocarpus) seeds were 
planted in the Penara Bukit Reserve and met with the same results. One thousand 
seven hundred and thirty-eight Taban seedlings in the Batu Feringgi nursery 
and 707 stumps in Telok Bahang Reserve are doing well, the. cost for 
upkeeping the former was $135-20 and the latter $30. One thousand nine hundred 
and sixty-one Taban trees in the Telok Bahang Reserve were upkept departmentally. 

The teak plantation in the Tasek Glugor Reserve was re-cleared during the year 
at a small cost. About 250 Tembusu (Fagroea fragrans) seedlings were planted out in 
the Telok Muroh Reserve. 


* Not printed. 


5 


Blanks in the I anjong Burong Reserve in the Dindings were planted with 8,200 
seeds of bakau (Rhizophora conjugata). The Para plantation (18 acres) in the Lumut 
Reserve was upkept during the year at a cost of $826.27. The greater part of 
this amount was spent on machinery, tools and tapping materials. The receipts from 
the sale of rubber were $161.06 which was credited to the Gardens Committee fund, 
i he plantation was in an unsatisfactory condition at the close of the year. Expendi- 
ture and revenue are shown in paragraph 21. 

in Malacca, 484 acres were added to the Ayer Kroh and Bukit Sebukor 
plantations during the year as follows : — 

4 acre 
5$ acres 

24 
39 

1 acre 


Total ... 484 acres 


Ayer Kroh . . 


Bukit Sebukor 


f Merbau 

l 

<( Penaga 

1 

C Para 
Para 


Mangos teen 


These plantations are upkept by the Gardens Committee, from the funds yielded 
by the sale of rubber which amounted to $4,127.58, during the year. The expenditure 
was $6,631.67. The accounts of the Gardens Committee appear in paragraph 22. 

Eight hundred and fifteen trees were tapped and produced 3,668$ lbs. of rubber 
as against 3,901 lbs. in 1912. The decrease in the yield is said to be due to bad 
tapping. 

Failures in the Penak, Resak, Penaga and Para blocks were replaced. Improve- 
ment fellings were carried out during the year in the Taban blocks. 

The Bukit Sebukor Reserve of 44 acres was cleared and planted with Para 
15' x 15' and I acre of swamp with mangosteens 12' X 12' at a cost of $800. One 
thousand and thirty Para trees were numbered and measured, and entered in a 
register. The tapping of 120 trees in block D. was discontinued on account of the 
carelessness of the tappers in the past. Twenty thousand Para seeds were sown in the 
nursery at Ayer Ivroh and about 17,500 seedlings were planted up in the Bukit Sebukor 
Reserve; 2,500 were used as supplies. The Merbau and Resak seedlings planted in 
the Merlimau and Sungai Udang Reserves are doing well. 


Bukit Timah Plantation. 

20. Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for 1913. 


Month. 

Receipts. 

Expendi- 
tu re. 


$ c. 

$ c . 

January 

201 71 

66 30 

P'ebruary 

* • • 

50 00 

March 

92 57 

143 30 

April 

38 12 

64 60 

May 

33 2 7 

64 60 

June 

* • • 

64 60 

July 

42 77 

64 54 

August 

. . . 

66 10 

September 

46 41 

50 60 

October 


60 60 

November 

7 ° 39 

55 60 

December 

• • • 

55 so 

Total 

525 24 

806 44 ■ 


Remarks. 


Of this sum $300 
was paid out of vote, 
“ Planting and Cul- 
tural Operations." 


* 


>0 


» 


6 

Lumut Plantation. 


21. Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for 1913. 


Month. ■ 

Receipts. 

Expenditure. 


$ c. 

$ c. 

February 

34 34 

t • * 

March 

9 50 

39 45 

April 

40 50 

73 50 

May 

* . * 

M 9 13 

June 

3 80 

145 15 

July ... .. .... 

. • « 

100 00 

August 

• • » 

75 00 

October 

19 76 

• • * 

December 

53 16 

29 52 

... ■ 


1 61 06 

611 75 

Balance 1912 

516 40 



677 46 


Expenditure 

611 75 


Balance 1913 

65 71 



> 


Ayer Kroh Plantation. 

22. Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for 1913. 


Month. 


Receipts. 


Expenditure. 


January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

$ c. 

454 03 

449 58 

493 20 

469 39 

47 7 3° 

34 38 

752 55 

288 Go 

209 62 

271 46 

227 47 

$ c. 

326 31 

33 6 63 

5 S 7 39 

860 12 

548 36 

795 31 

482 26 

449 2 7 

344 5 1 

446 91 

403 02 

1,051 58 

Total 

$4,127 58 

$6,631 67 

Balance 1912 

7> I 5 2 50 



11,280 08 


Expenditure ... 

6,631 67 


Balance 1913 

$4,64^ 41 



7 


Exploitation. 

Timber and Fuel. 
From Reserved Forests. 


23. The following statement shows the timber and firewood removed from 
reserved forests : — 


Settlement. 

Reserve. 

Timber (tons of 

50 cubic feet.) 

Firewood 

Tons. 

Stakes or 
Poles. 

Class 

I. 

Class 

II. 



Changi 

• • • 

« • « 

4 2 3 

!*■ 



Pandan 

• • ■ 

Mi 

i,i 44 




F 





Singapore ... < 


Tuas 

... 


769 

340 tons 



Kranji 


■ ■ • 

290 

• • • 


L 

Seletar 


• • • 

442 

60 „ 

- 


T otal . . . 

• • » 


3 >068 

400 „ i 

Penang 


Govt. Hill 

1 tree 

■ ■ • 

2,000 bi 

Jets 


r 

Tanjong Burong 

... 


3,362,285 

n • ■ * 

Dindings ... <( 

Pangkor 

3 tons 

• * • 


. . . 


1 

i 

Batu Undan ... 

* • • 

a • * 

609 tons 

... 


r 

Bukit Sedanan 

257 trees 

• • 1 

. . * 

* ■ t 



Bukit Senggeh 

1 7 „ 

... 


t * • 



Batang Mai aka 

48 „ 

• • * 


• • • 

Malacca ... -i 








Meriimau 

57 » 

a a a 


■ * ■ 

• 


Ayer Pan as 

148 „ 

a a a 

... 

• • • 

1 

l 

Sungai Udang 

>. 

... 

• • • 

■ a • 


I 

Total 

578 trees 


• « • 

• a a 


In Singapore the output from the five mangrove reserves was 3,068 tons as 
against 1,617 tons in 1912, the increase was due to the conversion of the tops of the 
trees cut for engine fuel into small firewood. 

The outturn of firewood from the Tanjong Burong Reserve in the Dindings was 
3,362,285 billets. 

In Malacca the output of Class I trees was 578, as compared with 988 trees in 
1912. These were selected and marked by the Forest Ranger. Class II trees were 
also removed, but no figures are available. 


8 




From Crown and Alienated Lands, 

24, In Singapore 285 permits were taken out for firewood as against 266 in 1912. 
The outturn of timber was insignificant. 

In Penang and Province Wellesley $2,198.93 was realized in royalty on timber 
and $606.13 011 firewood and charcoal as against $j,co6 and $264, respectively, in 1912. 

In the Dindings 1,824 tons of Class I and 17 tons of Class II timber and 31,534 
fishing-stakes were extracted on payment of royalty. Firewood realized $2,563.30. 
Four tons of Class I timber were taken by the Public Works Department free of 
royalty. From alienated land there were removed 126 tons of Class I and 42 tons of 
Class II timber. On the greater part of this timber no royalty was paid, in accordance 
with the terms of old grants. 

In Malacca Class I timber realized $685 and Class II $1,731. Firewood brought 
in $290 and charcoal $20, 

Minor Forest Produce. 

25. In Singapore other produce realized $192.10. 

In Penang and Province Wellesley, bamboos and canes realized $158 and other 
produce $458, a rise of $74 and $78, respectively, as compared with 1912. 

In the Dindings bamboos and canes realized $726, getah $65, tengah bark $285.95 
and other produce $1,504.32, of which $544.57 was derived from the tin in the 
Telok Sera Reserve. 

In Malacca bamboos and canes realized $62 and other produce $276. Wood-oil 
realized $So and wild rubbers $10. 


PART III. 

Financial Results. 


26. This table shows the comparative revenue for 1912 and 1913 : — 


Settlement. 

Reven ue 
1912. 

Estimated 

revenue 

L913. 

Actual 

revenue 

I 9 I 3 - 

Increase or 
decrease over 
Estimates. 


$ c. , 

>*" 

$ c. 

$ c. 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 

3,835 20 

3,000 00 

S.^o 35 

; 

+ 2,180 35 

Wellesley ... 

2,179 21 

1,500 00 

5,544 84 

+ 4,044 84 

Dindings 

9,390 18 

7,000 00 

8 , 7^7 58 

+ 1,787 58 

Malacca 

6,129 69 

6,000 00 

5,344 90 

- 655 10 

Total ... 

21,534 28 

17,500 00 

24,857 67 

+ 7,357 67 


an increase of $3,323.39 over 1912 revenue. 

The increase in Singapore was due to the good demand for mangrove firewood, 
and consequent increase in the prices obtained for the annual coupes. 

In Penang and Province Wellesley the increase in revenue was chiefly due to the 
large amount of compensation paid for illicit felling of timber on Pulau Jerejak and the 
increased number of permits issued for cutting timber for the construction of the railway 
in Kedah. 

In the Dindings the revenue exceeded the estimated revenue by $1,787.58 and a 
slight decrease of the receipts as compared with 1912 was due to the small output of 
timber on Crown Land on which royalty was payable. 

There was a decrease in Malacca of $784.79 as compared with 1912, and the 
■estimated revenue was not reached. This is attributed to the prevalence of disease 
among cattle and the consequent restrictions in their movement. Buffaloes and 
bullocks are the only means of transporting heavy timber, both in the forest and oil 
the roads. 


Expenditure. 


2j, This statement shows the total expenditure in each Settlement, as compared 
’with 1912 and estimates for 1913 : — 


Settlement. 

Expenditure 

1912. 

Estimated 

expenditure 

1913 - 

Actual 
expen ditu re 

1913. 

FT . 

Savings on 
Estimates. 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 

W ellesley ... 

Dindings 

Malacca 

# 

Total ... 

$ c. 
9 > 9 2 3 34 

6,457 48 
6,286 24 

8 , 7 2 3 39 

• 

$ c. 
10,909 00 

T 

.7,007 00 
5 > 9 i 5 00 
8,845 00 

$ c. 
10,149 40 

6,523 46, 
5-084 39 
8,627 92 

$ c. 
889 60 

4 2 3 54 
710 61 

,217 08 

3 * 139 ° 45 

32,676 00 

30,385 1 7 

2,290 83 



Personal Emoluments amounted to $22,235.39 


Other Changes ,, 8,149.78 


Total $30,385.17 as compared with $3 1,390.45 in 1912. 

Administration. 

♦ 

28. Mr. A. M. BURN-MURDOCH held the appointment of Conservator of Forests 
•until the 14th of August, when he proceeded on leave and was relieved by 
Mr. C. Hummel who remained in charge till the end of the year. 

The following reserves were visited by the Conservator and Acting Conservator 
of Forests : — 

Singapore. — Jurong, Pandan, Bukft Timah, Seletar, Sembawang, Kranji and 
Chua Chu Kang. 

Penang and Province Wellesley . — Government Hill, Telok Bahang, Tasek Glugor 
and Kubang UIu. 

Dindings. — •Lumut, Gunong Melintang, felok Sera, 1 anjong Hantu and 1 anjong 

Burong. 

Malacca,— Bukit Bruang, Bukit Sebukor and Merlimau. 

In Singapore the Collector of Land Revenue administered the Forest Department 
with the assistance of Mr. T. C. Malaya Pillai, Forest Ranger, Grade III. 

Mr. V. P. Borges, Forest Ranger, Grade I, Penang, held the appointment until 
the 20th of June, when he left for the Federated Malay States on promotion and was 
relieved by Mr. G. C. 1<EUN who held charge till the end of the year. 

In the Dindings the District Officer dealt with forest matters assisted by the 
Forest Ranger. 

Mr. G. M. O’Hara, Forest Ranger, Grade I, was in charge in Malacca throughout 
the year. 

Subordinate Staff. 

29. In Singapore one Forest Guard was dismissed. There was one resignation 
and one retirement of Forest Guards in Penang. 

O 

Sheik Ahmat BIN IMAM Mudin, Forest Ranger, Grade IV, Dindings, was retired 
on pension and relieved by ItAM BIN Uda Bandar from the Federated Malay States. 
Forester SAHID BIN Maidin’s salary was reduced for neglect of duty and one Forest 
Guard resigned. The Forest Ranger, Dindings, reports that the health of the staff 
throughout the year was very bad. 


I o 



In Malacca one Forest Guard was dismissed for absence from duty without leave. 
The staff on the whole have given general satisfaction throughout the year. 

30. The following shows the staff employed during the year : — 


Settlement. 

r 

Rangers. 

Foresters. 

Forest 

Guards. 

Resigna- 

tions. 

Dismis- 

sals. 

Grade 

I.* 

Grade 

II. 

Grade 

III. 

Grade 

IV. 

Singapore 


* 

... 

1 

. . . 

I 

IO 

# • * 

I 

Penang & P. Wellesley 

1 

. • • 

• B ■ 

• • * 

2 

6 

I 

• • • 

Dindings ... 

. . . 


... 

1 

2 

6 

I 

• * • 

Malacca ... 

1 

• * * 

• # ♦ 

1 

2 

16 

* * • 

1 : 

Total 

2 

• • • 

I 

2 

7 

38 

2 

'^r 

2 


B. H. F. BARNARD, 

Kuala Lumpur, Acting Conservator of Forests, S, S. and F. M, S. 

25 th March , 1914. 


♦ 





O 


STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. 



Paper to be laid before the Legislative Council by Command of 

His Excellency the Governor. 


Annual Report on Forest Administration in the Straits 

Settlements, for the Year 1914, 


PART I. 

Extension and Constitution of Reserved Forests. 

49 

i. The total area of reserved forests at the close of the year was 99.63 1 acres, or 
155*7 square miles. Five thousand and fifty-five acres, or y8 square miles were 
notified in the Gazette as proposed reserves. Particulars as to areas of reserved 
forests, and those in course of settlement appear in the following table: — 


Settlement. 

Area of 
Settlement. 

» 

Area of 

Reserved Forests, 

Proportion 
to whole area of 
Settlement. 

„ • 9 

w 

Square miles. 

Square miles. 

Per cent. 

Singapore 

* 

206 

i 9’5 

94 

Penang 

107 

1 7'9 

167 

* 

Province Wellesley 

# 

288 

5-6 

-9 

1*9 

• 

Dindings 

265 

43-2 

1&3 

Malacca 

720 

77*2 

107 

Total ... 

.1,586 

m w 

163-4 

* 

10-3 


2. Details of alterations in area are shown in Form 1 * The only new area 
finally gazetted was that in the Dindings known as the Gunong Melintang Reserve. 

The total area disforested was 1,512 acres, of which 1,120 acres were excluded 
from the Sembawang and Mandi Reserves in Singapore for military purposes. 
Twenty acres were excised from the Murai Reserve for agricultural purposes. In 
Penang 240 acres were excluded from the Government Hill Reserve. The hill railway 
passed through this area, some of which is likely to be required for residential build- 
ings. In Province Wellesley areas of 82 acres and 39 acres were excluded from the 
Tasek Glugor and Bukit Gua Ipoh Reserves respectively, for purposes of railway 
construction. The Bukit Bruang Reserve in Malacca was reduced by eight acres, as a 
result of an encroachment by a neighbouring estate. 

3. Proposals for reservation (Form 2)* — Gunong Tunggal and Ratu Undan, 
which were shown at the end of 1913 as awaiting survey, were still unsettled at the 
end of 1914. The surveys were completed. 


* Not printed. 


2 


Demarcation and Upkeep of Boundaries. 

(Form 3*). 

4. The total length of artificially marked boundaries of reserves is 368 miles, 
and that of natural boundaries 132 miles. Total 500 miles. The reduction from the 
figures of 1913 is due to the reductions in area referred to in paragraph 2. 

5. Boundaries in Singapore were kept in repair by the Forest Guards. 

In Penang 73 miles of boundary was kept clean at a cost of $208, in Province 
Wellesley 32 miles cost $148, in the Dindings 75 miles was maintained at a cost of 
$347, and in Malacca 109 miles cost $403. There was generally a slight reduction in 
the cost of this work compared with former years. 

Surveys. 

6. The only survey completed during the year was that of Gunong Tunggal. 
Work on the Gunong Melintang and Telok Sera Reserves was held up owing to 
alterations in the boundary lines which were found to be necessary. 


PART II. 

Management of Forests. 

Working Plans. 

7. The result of the working of the Singapore Mangrove Reserves is shown in 
the following table : — 


Reserve. 

Coupe 

No. 

Time allowed for working. 

Area 

in 

acres. 

Amount 
at which 
leased. 

Total 

Revenue 

from 

Reserves, 

1914. 

Opening. 

Closing. 






$ c. 

$ c. 

Pandan 

VI 

14th Oct., 1914 

28th June, 1915 

100 

550 00 

550 00 

Changi 

VI 

26th Feb., 1914 

22nd Dec., 1914 

30 

363 00 

363 00 

Kranji 

V 

26th Feb., 1914 

8th Dec., 1914 

30 

186 00 

186 00 

Seletar 

V 

14th Oct., 1914 

7th July, 1915 

60 

495 00 

495 00 

Tuas 

V 

30th Dec., 1914 

30th Dec., 1915 

69 

2 44 95 

122 48 

Total ... 

# * • 



289 

1,838 95 

1,716 48 


The difference between the figures in columns 6 and 7 is explained by the fact 
that the prices paid for the coupes are paid in two instalments, and these are not 
always both received in the same financial year. The average price obtained was 
$6.36 per acre. 

8. No offers were received for the mangrove coupe in the Tanjong Burong 
Reserve, Dindings. 


* 


Not printed. 


3 


4 


* 




9* In the forest reserves in Malacca 471 Class I trees were marked by the 
Forest Ranger and felled by permit holders. The number of trees so felled in each 
reserve was as follows : — 

Merlimau Reserve 
Ayer Panas ,, 

Euldt Sedanan ,, 

Sungai Udang ,, 

Batang Malaka „ 

Bukit Senggeh „ 

Ramuan China „ 

T otal ... 471 


37 trees. 

49 »» 

151 .1 

133 » 

1 7 11 

61 „ 

23 „ 


Trees of Class II were also felled, but without the restrictions imposed in the 
case of Class I. 

10. The revenue derived from Class I trees in reserves was $1,326, and that from 
Class II, $663. This is much less than it should be, having regard to the value of the 
timber taken by the permit holders. 

Paths in Reserves. 

11. A path 2 miles and 15 chains in length was constructed in Tasek Glugor 
Reserve in Province Wellesley. 

In the Bindings 10 miles of existing paths were maintained at a cost of $33.50, 
and in Malacca $56.25 covered the cost of upkeep of all paths. A great deal of this 
work is done by the Forest Guards without expense to Government. 


Buildings. 

12. A halting bungalow was built in the Pandan Reserve in Singapore: cost 
$737-33* There were no other new buildings. General repairs to buildings through- 
out the Colony cost $965.47. All work was carried out by the Public Works 
Department. 

Protection of Forests. 

13. There was no alteration in the Forest Laws. 

14. Fifty-one prosecutions under the Forest Ordinance were brought before the 
Courts. In 45 cases convictions were obtained, in four cases the defendants were 
acquitted, and two cases were pending at the end of the year. 

Nine cases were compounded, two in Singapore by the Collector of Land 
Revenue, and seven in Malacca by the Resident. 

The percentage of convictions — 88‘2 — in Court cases is creditable to the staff, 
except in the Dindings, where there were 3 acquittals out of 14 cases. 

Fines imposed by the Courts amounted to $664; $389 was awarded to 
Government as compensation for damage, and $474 was paid as compensation in 
compounded cases. 


Improvement of Forests, 

Natural Reproduction. 

15. Chengal and Sama Rupa are reported to have seeded well in the Dindings, 
and Resak and Meranti fairly well. 

In Malacca most of the more important species appear to have seeded freely in 
forest reserves. Meranti, Serayah, Rambai Daun, Resak, Nyato, Medang and 
■Rinfanrrnr are soeciallv mentioned. It is also reported that a large proportion of the 
seedlings of 1912, which was a prolific seed year, are thriving. 

Artificial Reproduction, 

16. There was no increase of importance in the area of plantations. One acre 
was planted with Merbau at Bukit Bruang in Malacca, to complete a block partly 
planted in former years. Three acres of ialang land at Tasek Glugor, in Province 
Wellesley, was planted with Tembusu, partly with nursery plants, and partly by 
broadcast sowing. The result of the latter experiment is not yet known. 


/ 



4 


One thousand two hundred and fifteen seedlings of gutta-percha were taken from 
Pulau Jerejak, near Penang, and planted in the Batu Ferringhi and Telok Bahang 
Reserves. 

17. The rubber and Gutta-percha plantation at Bukit Timah was kept in order at a 
cost of $620. The receipts from rubber were $234. Tapping was stopped entirely in 
August, when the price of rubber was low. Many of the trees required resting to 
renew their bark. The young gutta-percha trees at Bukit Timah have made very 
poor progress. 

The Penang plantations required very little maintenance; $122 covered the cost 
of all work. 

The rubber plantation at Lumut was upkept almost entirely by the staff. Sales 
of rubber realized $235. 

18. On the Malacca plantations the total charges for the year were $4,979i of 
which sum $1,125 was paid on account of first clearing and planting of rubber at 
Bukit Sebukor. An inspection in July showed that the old rubber trees at Bukit 
Sebukor had been heavily over tapped. The trees were too closely planted with the 
result that the bark renewal was very slow. Tapping was stopped, and the plantation 
was thinned. Owing to the scattered positions of the rubber trees at Bukit Bruang the 
plantation must always be expensive to upkeep. Supervision also is difficult. The 
sum mentioned above as the total expenditure includes expenditure on the hardwood 
plantations. The yield of rubber for the year was 3434 lb 3 -? a decrease ot 534 as 
compared with the previous year. This decrease was due to reduction in the number 
of trees tapped. 

19. I11 Tanjong Burong Mangrove Reserve, in the Bindings, 16,000 mangrove 
seeds were planted in situ in the areas on which clear fellings had been made in 
previous years. This method of regenerating mangrove has been found to be both 
cheap and effective. The area thus planted is not included in the return of planta- 
tions, as the areas, which are unsurveyed, are irregular and scattered. 

20. In the Merlimau Reserve, Malacca, Merbau seedlings were planted in 
openings in the forest caused by the felling of large trees. The experiment was on 
a small scale only and was carried out by the Forest Guards. 

Bukit Timah Plantation. 

21. Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for 1914. 


1 

Month. Receipts. , Expenditure. 



$ c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

Balance on 1-1-14 ... 


r,5 74 49 


January 

( j 


24 51 

February 

§9 55 


85 20 

March 

* * • 


44 00 

April 

* . > 


55 20 

May 

. • . 


68 85 

June 

97 02 


55 20 

July 

• • * 


54 00 

August 

* . . 


54 00 

September 

. . . 


44 00 

October 

• . • 


44 00 

November 

* . • 


45 80 

December 

47 88 

234 45 

44 85 



1,808 94 

619 61 




( For upkeep 




232 OO j of Mt. Zion 

Expenditure 

iai * * • 

851 61 

851 6l 

Balance on 31- 

12-14 

957 33 



5 


Lumut Plantation. 

22. Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for 1914. 


Month. 

- W __ 

Receipts. 

Expenditure. 


$ c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

Balance on 1-1-14 

January 

3 00 

123 84 

* * t 

February 

30 63 


• # * 

March 

29 40 


4 83 

April 

12 20 


2 20 

May 

28 98 



July 

57 &6 


■ ■ • 

October 

1 • • 


2 90 

December 

72 74 

234 81 

1 68 

Expenditure 

Balance on 3 1-12-14 


358 65 

11 61 

347 04 

11 61 


Ayer Kroh and Bukit Sebukor Plantations. 

23. Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for 1914. 


Month. 

Receipts. 

Expenditure. 


$ c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

Balance on 1-1-14 


4,648 41 


January 

193 47 


1,488 76 

February 

228 69 


387 40 

March 

3°4 05 


463 56 

April 

182 79 


444 11 

May * 

231 17 


401 01 

J 1106 . • • ••• • 

273 66 


395 96 

July 

357 36 


264 51 

August ... ••• ••• 

• • • 


2 33 30 

September 

156 24 


229 68 

October 

. . * 


196 81 

November 

262 52 


235 80 

December 

162 18 

2 ' 35 2 13 

238 1 6 



7 >°°o 54 

4,979 06 



4,979 06 


Expenditure 




Balance on 31-12-14 


2,021 48 




6 


Exploitation. 

Timber and Fuel. 

From Reserved Forests. 

24. The outturn of firewood from the Singapore mangrove coupes was 2,873 
tons, or 10 tons per acre. 

So long as the permit system is in force in the Malacca reserves it is impossible 
to record the outturn by volume. 

There was a marked decrease in timber cutting during August and September. 
During the last quarter business improved. 

In the Batu Undan mangrove reserve, in the Dindings, 461 tons (approximately) 
of firewood was cut under permits. 

From Crown Land and Alienated Land . 

25. Two hundred and sixty-three monthly permits to cut firewood on Crown Land 
were issued in Singapore. 

In Penang and Province Wellesley $1,854.68 was realized in royalty on timber 
and $782.43 on firewood and charcoal as against $2,198.93 and $606.13, respectively, 
in 1913. 

In the Dindings 1,866 tons of Class I timber, 27 tons of Class II, and 33,897 
poles for fishing stakes were cut on Crown Land, and paid royalty. 

One thousand one hundred and thirteen (approximate) tons of firewood was taken 
from Crown Land under permit. One hundred and eighty-five tons of timber was 
removed from alienated land, of which royalty was payable on 8 tons only. One 
thousand six hundred and eighty -two poles were also cut on alienated land free of duty. 

In Malacca royalty from timber permits amounted to $[,860. Firewood $260. 

It is to be regretted that royalty is not payable on all timber and forest produce 
removed from alienated lands. 

Minor Forest Produce. 

26. In Singapore minor produce realized $247, in Penang and Province Wellesley, 
$578, the chief items of which were rattans and bertam ataps. In the Dindings the 
revenue on minor produce fell from $2,286 in 1913 to $1,678. The decrease is due to 
the fact that no tin was worked in the Telok Sera Reserve as in former years. Minor 
produce in Malacca realized $382. 


PART III, 

Financial Results. 

27. The following table shows the total revenue from 1912 to 1914 : — 


Settlement. 

Revenue 

1912. 

Revenue 

1913. 

Estimated 

revenue 

1914. 

Actual 

revenue 

1914. 

Increase or 
decrease over 
Estimates. 


$ c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 

3,835 20 

5.180 35 

3,500 00 

4 J 44 19 

+ 644 1 9 

Wellesley 

2,179 21 

5-544 8 4 

1,000 00 

3 , 43 2 40 

+ 2,432 40 

Dindings 

9,390 18 

8,787 58 

7,000 00 

8,009 77 

+ 1 ,009 7 7 

Malacca 

6,129 69 

5.344 90 

5,500 00 

5 T 74 77 

- 3 2 5 2 3 

Total ... 

21,534 28 

24,857 67 

17,000 00 

20,761 13 

+ 3 > 7 61 1 3 


A decrease of $4,096.54 as compared with the previous year. 


7 


The fall in revenue was slight only in Malacca. Penang shows a decline of 
$2,000. Of this about $200 only is a decrease in royalty on forest produce, the 
revenue in 1913 having included an abnormal payment of $i,8oo. In Singapore 
there was a decline of $1,000 under mangrove firewood, one coupe remained unsold ; 
another of these coupes was only paid for in part, the balance being paid after 31st 
December, 1914. 

Royalty on timber in the Dindings shows an increase of $1,400, which is more 
than counterbalanced by a fall of $1,660 under firewood, due to the Tanjong Burong 
Mangrove Coupe being unsold. 


Expenditure. 


28. The following statement shows expenditure from 1912 to 1914: — 


Settlement. 

Expendi- 

ture 

1912. 

] 

Expendi- 

ture 

l 9 r 3- 

Estimated 

expenditure 

1914. 

Actual 

expenditure 

1914. 

Savings on 
Estimates. 


$ 

$ c. 

$ c. 

■$ <. 

$ <•. 

Singapore 

9,923 34 

10,149 40 

10,862 00 

9,455 11 

1,406 89 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley 

6,457 48 

6,523 46 

5,533 00 

5,389 3 6 

*43 64 

Dindings 

6,286 24 

5,084 39 

6,545 00 

6,106 27 

438 73 

Malacca 

8,7 2 3 39 

8,627 92 

9,045 00 

8,495 77 

549 23 

Total ... 

3 I ,39° 45 



30.385 '7 

31,985 00 

29,446 51 

2,538 49 


Personal Emoluments ... $22,070.74 

Other Charges ... 7.375-77 

Total ... $29,446.51 


Administration. 

29. Mr. C. HUMMEL acted as Conservator of Forests until 11th January, when 
Mr. A. M. Burn-Murdoch resumed duty on his return from leave. 1 he death of 
Mr. BURN-MURDOCH, which occurred on 5th March, is recorded with great regret. 
The late Conservator of Forests was the first officer to hold the appointment ol Con- 
servator of Forests, Federated Malay States and Straits Settlements, to which he was 
appointed in 1904, having previously acted in the appointment for three years on 
deputation from Burma. 

For the remainder of the year Mr. B. H. F. Barnard acted as Conservator of 
Forests. 

The following reserves were visited by the Conservator and Acting Conservators 
of Forests : — 

Penang . — Government Hill and Telok Bahang. 

Dindings, Pangkor, Guno ng Melintang, Lumut, Ulu Bruas, Telok Sera and 

Gunong Tunggal. 

Malacca , — Bukit Sebukor, Bukit Bruang, Sungai Udang, Merlimau, Bukit 
Senggeh and Bukit Panchor. 

In Singapore the Collector of Land Revenue administered the Forest Department 
with the assistance of Mr. T. C. Malaya Pillai, Forest Ranger, Grade III, who was 
retired on pension after three months’ half-pay leave. Since the end of October the 
supervision of forest reserves has been undertaken by the three Land Bailiffs, who 
were granted each a monthly allowance of $15* 

Mr. G. C. I<EUN, Forest Ranger, Grade I, held charge throughout the year in 
Penang. 


V) 


8 


In the Dindings the District Officer dealt with forest matters assisted by the 
Forest Ranger who attended to field work. 

Mr. G. M. O’HARA, Forest Ranger, Grade I, was in charge of the department in 
Malacca, when he proceeded on long leave on ist April, and was relieved by 
Mr. A. S. Mitchell from the Federated Malay States until 30th September, when 
Mr. O’Hara returned and resumed charge. 

Subordinate Staff. 

30. During the year there were three resignations of Forest Guards in Singapore. 

Forester Bahari bin Din of Province Wellesley died on 22nd January and his 
widow was granted a gratuity of $60. One Forest Guard resigned in Penang. 

Itam bin Uda Bandar, Forest Ranger, Grade IV, Dindings, was transferred to 
the Federated Malay States, and was replaced by Mohamed Ripin BIN AmaN on 26th 
September. There was one resignation of Forest Guard. The health of the staff is 
reported to have been unsatisfactory. 

31. The following statement shows the staff employed during the year : — 


Settlement. 

Rangers. 

Foresters. 

Forest Guards. 

Resignations. 

Dismissals. 

Deaths. 

Grade 

i- 

Grade 

II. 

Grade 

III. 

Grade 

IV. 

Singapore 

• * • 

t ■ • 

I 

* • * 

I 

10 

3 

• • * 

t * t 

Penang & Province^ 










Wellesley 

1 

it* 

• • • 

• • • 

2 

6 

* 1 

• • * 

I 

Dindings 


• • • 

• • ■ 

1 

2 

6 

1 

• * * 

• • • 

Malacca 

1 

• ■ • 

• • • 

1 

* 

2 

l6 


a * * 

* « a 

Total ... 

2 

• • • 

I 

2 

7 

38 

5 

• • • 

I 







. 

1* 




Kuala Lumpur, 

16 th March , 1915 . 


B. H. F. BARNARD, 

Acting Conservator of Forests, S. S and F. M . S. 

• m 

f •# 






* 



STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. 


Paper to be laid before the Legislative Council by Command of 

Mis Excellency the Governor. 


Annual Report on Forest Administration in the Straits 

Settlements, for the Year 1915. 


PART I. 

Extension and Constitution of Reserved Forests. 

i. The total area of reserved forests at the end of the year was 100,31 1 acres or 
156*7 square miles. Three thousand eight hundred and thirty acres in the Dindings 
were notified in the Gazette as proposed reserves but remained unsettled at the end 
of the year. Particulars as to areas of reserved forests in the different parts of the 
Colony appear in the following table : — 


Locality. 

Area. 

Area of 

Reserved Forests. 

Proportion 
to whole area. 

* , 

Square miles. 

Square miles. 

Per cent. 

Singapore * ... 

206 

i9'5 

9*5 

Penang 

• m * 
IO7 

180 

16*8 

Province Wellesley ... 

288 

5*6 

1*9 

Dindings 

265 

36-4 

13*7 

Malacca .... 

** * * • 

720 

• 

77-2 

10*7 

% 

Total ... 

• 

1,586 

1567 

9*9 


2. The only new area finally gazetted was one of 680 acres in the Dindings 
known as the Gunong Tunggal Reserve. 

No further areas were disforested, the apparent reduction in the area of reserves 
in the Dindings as compared with 1914 being due to the erroneous inclusion of the 
proposed Batu Undan Reserve (see section 3) in the 1914 report. The land dis- 
forested from the Sembawang and Mandi Reserves in Singapore for military purposes 
in 1914 remained unused and in the same condition as before it was taken over. 

3. The proposed Batu Undan Reserve in the Dindings, which was. surveyed in 
1914 and found to contain 3,830 acres, was still unsettled at the end of 1915. The 
reservation of a few other small areas was under consideration at the close of the year. 
These include an addition of about 340 acres of mangrove to the South Seletar Re- 
serve in Singapore, a strip of mangrove of unascertained extent on the West coast of 
Penang Island, and an extension of about 130 acres to Government Hill Reserve, also 
in Penang, the object of the latter being to retain for protective purposes what little 

forest still remains on the crests of the hills in the Balik Pulau District. 

# ' , 

The extension of cultivation in the south-west corner of Singapore Island again 
attracted attention to the forests in that part of the Settlement, and it is desirable that 
the tops of the higher hills, some of which are covered with virgin forest, should not be 
alienated, even if they are not included in forest reserves. One prominent hill near 


9 * 




2 


Pulau Damar has now been practically defined by the survey of adjoining lands, and 
the reservation of the hills adjoining Pasir Laba and of the mangrove along the north 
bank of the Sungei Tengeh to the Tuas Reserve should in the opinion of the Collector 
of Land Revenue be considered. There is also a considerable area of mangrove ad- 
joining some of the streams between Tanjong Kling and Tanjong G-ul and on some 
of the larger islands, which might prove worth reserving. 

Demarcation and Upkeep of Boundaries. 

4. The total length of reserve boundaries is 488 miles 71 chains, of which 128 
miles 26 chains are natural and require no demarcation, and 360 miles 45 chains 
artificial. 

5. In Singapore the boundaries were kept in repair by the Forest Guards. In 
Penang 73 miles 11 chains were maintained for $244.20, in Province Wellesley 31 
miles 56 chains for $142.40, in the Dindings 74 miles 77 chains (including 7 miles 
5 chains of the Proposed Batu Undan Reserve) for $218.35, an ^ in Malacca 104 
miles for $503.55, the total expenditure being $1,108.50 on 283 miles 64 chains, or 
$3.91, per mile. This expenditure excludes the cost of boundary boards, paint, etc,, 
which amounted to $191.55 in Penang and Province Wellesley, and $435.31 in the 
Dindings. The cost of maintenance is much too high and can easily be reduced, if 
the subordinate staff are made to do a fair share of the work themselves, as in 
Singapore and the Federated Malay States. 

Surveys. 

6. No surveys were completed during the year. 


PART II. 

Management of Forests. 

Working Plans and Plans of Operations. 

7. A working plan was drawn up for the reserved forests of Malacca in 1903, 
but is no longer in force, its existence having apparently been forgotten. It is 
however not entirely satisfactory. 

8. The mangrove forests of Singapore are worked according to a rough scheme 
of annual coupes, which were disposed of as usual. A similar scheme is nominally in 
force in the Dindings, but no coupe has been disposed of for two years. 

9. Annual plans of operations have hitherto only been drawn up for Penang, 
Province Wellesley, and the Dindings, but will in future be drawn up for Malacca 
also. In Singapore no such plan is necessary. 

Communications. 

10. An inspection path one mile in length was constructed in the Tanjong Burong 
Reserve in the Dindings at a cost of $5.20, and sites for several access roads to 
reserves were chosen. 

11. The maintenance of existing paths cost $194.20, namely, $180 for 15 miles 
in Malacca and $14.20 for 3 miles in Penang. In the other Settlements paths were 
kept in repair by the subordinate staff without expense to Government beyond their 
pay. 


3 


Buildings. 

12. No new buildings were erected. General repairs were carried out by and at 
the expense of the Public Works Department except in Penang and Province 
Wellesley, where repairs to buildings at Penara Bukit and Tasek Glugor cost the 
Forest Department $1 1 7. 


Protection of Forests. 

13. No changes were made in the forest laws. 

14. Forty-four cases were taken to Court, convictions being secured in 38, or 
86*4 percent. Two cases pending from 1914 were abandoned as the accused absconded. 
Fines amounting to $439.7° were inflicted in addition to $464.18 awarded to the 
department as compensation for damage to forest property. The latter sum includes 
$100 as damages for a fire in the Sungei Pinang Kechil Reserve. The percentage 
of convictions in the Dindings was again very low, 3 cases out of 9 being acquitted. 

15. Eleven cases were compounded for $180. 93 ) namely, 3 Malacca by the 
Resident for $119.93, 3 * n Singapore by the Collector of Land Revenue for $30, 
and 5 in the Dindings by the District Officer for $31. It is not clear on what authority 

* cases are disposed of in this way, as the compounding of forest offences is not 
provided for in the Forest Ordinance. 

Improvement of Forests. 

Natural Reproduction. 

16. Reports from Malacca show that 1915 was an exceptionally good seed year, 
many of the Dipterocarps producing heavy crops of seed, especially Meranti, Merawan, 
Rambai Daun, and Resak. There are no reports from the other Settlements. 

Plantations. 


17. The area of regular plantations remained unaltered. The experimental 
planting of Tembusu on lalang iand was continued on a small scale at Tasek Glugor 
in Province Wellesley, but the results cannot be considered satisfactory. 

18. The Lumut Para Rubber Plantation was farmed out for six years with effect 
from the 1st January, 1915, for the sum of $400 to be paid in instalments. Sales of 
rubber remaining from 1914 brought in $38*59. 

19. In the Tanjong Mangrove Reserve in the Dindings 18,000 mangrove 
seedlings were planted in areas which had been clear felled in previous years. The 
major part of this work, on which only $9.20 were spent, was done by the staff. The 
areas so treated cannot be included in the return of plantations, as the blanks treated 
were scattered and undefined. 

20. The Bukit Timah Rubber and Gutta-percha Plantation, which is financed from 
the Agricultural Improvement Deposit Account, was brought into good order, and 
tapping, which was discontinued in August, 1914, owing to the low price of rubber, 
was resumed in March, 1915. The sale of 521^ lbs. of rubber realized $384.76, 100 lbs. 
remaining in hand at the close of the year. The expenditure was considerable, 
namely $755.25, but the extra outlay and attention devoted to the plantation during 
the year should make future upkeep considerably less expensive. The small 
plantation at Seletar was allowed to rest. 

21. In Malacca the total expenditure on plantations was $2,344.24. The yield of 
rubber obtained from the Ayer Kroh and Bukit Sebukor plantations was 2,907 lbs., a 
decrease of 227 lbs. compared with the previous year. This is explained by the 
adoption of new tapping methods and resting of some of the older trees, which had 
been tapped .too heavily in the past. The revenue from sales of rubber amounted to 
$2,932.59. These plantations are managed by the Forest Department on behalf of the 
Gardens Committee, who provide the money for maintenance and are credited with all 
revenue realized. The work is a great tax on the time of the Forest Ranger in charge, 
and, so far as the rubber is concerned, is outside the scope of a forest officer’s duties. 
It is therefore proposed to lease the rubber plantations, or the right to tap the trees 
in them, and to transfer the area planted with forest trees to the Forest Department. 


4 


22. A detailed statement of accounts of the plantations is appended. 


Month. 

Bukit Timah. 

Lumut. 

Aver Kroh and 

j 

Bukit Sebukor. 


Credits. 

Debits. 

Credits. 

1 

Debits. 

Credits. 

Debits. 


$ c . 

$ c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

[ 

$ c . 

Balance on 1-1-15 

957 33 


34 7 04 


2,021 48 

m m m 

January 

. • . 

44 00 

2 5 00 


717 10 

217 51 

February 

• • • 

44 GO 

84 39 


195 86 

190 8l 

March 

• • * 

56 90 

• . . 


409 68 

l86 76 

April 

• • - 

44 OO 

2 00 



227 41 

May 

• 1 • 

44 60 

7 5 ° 


196 28 

234 

June 


44 60 

... 

458 43 

18 1 94 

219 06 

July 

178 32 

44 60 

45 8° 


18 1 81 

195 S 2 

August 

September 

53 74 

38 00 

• . . 


380 09 

l86 23 

47 90 

44 60 

, . 4 


162 90 

I84 OI 

October 

, . . 

44 60 




160 79 

November 

HM 

0 

-U 

00 

O 

32 75 


. . . 

50 6 93 

18 1 61 

December 


32 60 


4 i 57 

159 97 

Total 

Expenditure 

1,342 09 

515 25 

515 25 

5 1 1 73 

500 00 

500 00 

4,954 07 

2,344 24 

2,344 24 

Balance on 31 -12- 15... 

826 84 


u 73 


2,609 83 



Improvement Fellings. 

23. In the Dindings 5 00 acres in the Gunong Melintang Reserve were treated 
in favour of Class I trees at a cost of $523.90, but the results were not entirely satis- 
factory, and future operations will be carried out on a smaller scale so that the work 
can be supervised more thoroughly. 


Exploitation. 

Timber and Fuel. 

[a) From Reserves. 


24. The following table gives the result of the working of the Singapore Man- 
grove Reserves : — 


Reserve. 

Coupe 

No. 

Time allowed for working. 

Area 

in 

acres. 

Amount 
at which 
leased. 

Total 

Revenue 

from 

Reserves, 

I 9 I 5 - 

Out- 

turn 

Tons. 

Opening. 

Closing. 






$ c. 

$. c. 


Tuas 

V 

30th Dec., 1914 

30th Dec., 1915 

69 

244 95 | 

1 22 48 

545 

Kranji ... 

VI 

I Sth fan., IQI 5 

1 7th Jati., 191b 

30 

1 50 00 

150 00 

295 

Changi ... 

VII 

3rd May, 1915 

3 1st Dec., 1915 

26 

100 00 

100 00 

x 57 

Pandan 

VII 

9th Aug., 1915 

15th July, 1916 

100 

560 00 . 

560 00 

690 

Seletar ... 

VI 

23rd Nov., 1915 

7th Sept., 1916 

50 

190 00 

95 00 

1 80 

J otal ... 

... 


•" 

275 

1,24495 

1,027 48 

1,867 


5 


The difference between the figures in the sixth ?md seventh columns is explained 
by the fact that the purchase price of the coupes is paid in two instalments which are 
not always received in the same financial year. t he average price obtained for the 
new coupes was only $4.85 per acre compared with $6.36 in 1914, and the out-turn 
6*79 tons per acre against 9-94 tons. 

25. In Malacca 437 Class I trees exceeding 6' in girth were marked in reserves 
by the Forest Ranger for felling and extraction by permit holders, 423 trees, including 
some marked in 1914, being removed during the year. A detailed statement is 
appended : — 


Reserve. 

No. of 
trees. 

Revenue. 

'frees. 

Estimated 

out-turn. 


] 




Tons. 

Merlimau 

94 



93 

292'30 

Ayer Panas 

47 



34 

126-09 

Bukit Sedanan 

24 



54 

14076 

Sungei Udang 

205 


^ Details not 
available. 

168 

560-96 

Batang Malaka 

9 



9 

53'46 

Bukit Senggeh 

5 * 



61 

225*43 

Ram u an China 

1 

. . . 

J 


4 

io - 8o 

1 

437 

$980 

423 

i ,409-80 

In 1914 ... 

47 1 

. 

$1,326 


Not known. 


It is estimated that 135 trees and 37,279 poles of Class II species were also 
felled, mainly in the interest of trees of Class I and without previous marking, the 
revenue realized being $669 compared with $663 the previous year, and the estimated 
out-turn 1,131*87 tons. The revenue from charcoal was $120. 

26. In Penang, 14 permits at $5 each were issued for the extraction of Class II 
timber from the Telok Bahang Reserve, and one permit for $5 to collect dead wood 
from the Government Hill Reserve. A Dacridium tree from Government Hill 
plantation was sold for $2. The revenue realized was $77, but the quantity of timber 
extracted cannot be given. 

27. The question was raised during the year whether Government obtained a 
fair return on the timber exploited in Malacca and proposals were made to raise the 
rates. It was however decided to postpone action partly on account of the war and 
the generally depressed state of the timber market partly because no data were 
available as to the quantity of timber extracted under each permit, and partly because 
it was found necessary to insist on less wasteful methods than had hitherto obtained 
and it was thought that a sudden raising of rates in addition to much closer super- 
vision would result in many permit holders giving up work altogether. Account is 
now kept of all timber extracted from reserves, and the figures so far as they go show 
that the revenue realized on first class timber is only 71 cents a ton, which is absurdly 
low considering the quality of the timber. If this result is confirmed by those of the 
first few months of 1916 the matter of rates will have to be reconsidered. 

(b) — From Crown Land. 

28. I n Singapore, 4 tons of Class I timber were extracted, and 161 $5 permits to cut 
mangrove firewood were issued. The total out-turn of firewood is estimated to have been 
3,220 tons, compared with 5,260 tons the previous year. The demand was poor, and 
during part of the year large accumulations of firewood seemed almost unsaleable. 
15,371 were removed, of which 2,915 were cut under free permits. The out-turn of 
charcoal was 10 tons. The total revenue realized was $1,077.42. 


6 


In Penang and Province Wellesley $902.03 were realized on timber and $431 .55 
on firewood, but the quantities extracted cannot be given. 

In the Dindings royalty was paid on i, 039'I4 tons of Class I timber, 11*37 tons 
of Class II timber, 1,610 tons of firewood, and 27,760 fishing-stakes. 5-95 tons of 
Class I timber and 300 tons of firewood were removed free for use by Government 
departments. 

In Malacca the revenue on Class I timber was $445 ^nd on Cl ass II timber $1,404. 
The whole of this timber was extracted under monthly permits, but quantities cannot 
be stated. Charcoal realized $2 to. 

The above figures do not take into account timber and firewood removed free by 
Asiatic landholders for their own use. 

(c) From Alienated Land. 

29. There is no record of timber and firewood removed from alienated lands in 
Singapore, Penang, and Province Wellesley. 

In the Dindings 10 percent royalty was paid on 45‘23 tons of timber and 185 
fishing-stakes. 

In Malacca the timber on land to be alienated is now valued by the Forest Ranger 
and 10 per cent royalty demanded. The revenue from this source was $317.70. 

Minor Forest Produce. 

(a) From Reserves. 

30. A sum of $116.66 was received for the removal of sand in Singapore and 
6,056 cubic yards of road metalling were extracted free by the Public Works 
Department from the Bukit Gua Ipoh and Kubang Ulu Reserves in Province Wellesley. 

[b) From Crown Lands. 

31. From Crown Lands there was a general decrease in out-turn, the revenue 
realized in the different Settlements being as follows ; — 

In Singapore $57.30; in Malacca $271 chiefly on wood-oil and nipah ; in 
Penang and Province Wellesley $257.65 chiefly on bertam ; and in the Dindings 
$1,588.75. The last-mentioned sum includes $318.70 paid for granite from the 
proposed Batu Undan Reserve, $546 on bamboos and canes, and $111.55 011 
tengah bark. 


PART III. 


Financial Results. 

32. The following table shows the total revenue from 1 9 1 3 10 *9*5 ■ 


Settlement. 

Revenue 

I9I3- 

Revenue 

I 9 I 4» 

Estimated 

revenue 

I9I5- 

Actual 

revenue 

'9I5- 

Increase or 
decrease 

over 

Estimates. 


$ c. 

$ r . 

$ c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

Singapore ... 

5A8o 35 

4,144 19 

4,000 00 

3,37° 94 

— 629 06 

Penang and 
Province 
Wellesley 

5,544 84 

3,432 40 

2,400 00 

2,256 41 

- M3 59 

Dindings ... 

8,787 58 

8,009 77 

8,500 00 

6,519 95 

— 1,980 05 

Malacca 

5,344 90 

5> 1 74 77 

6,000 00 

4,570 83 

— 1,429 17 

Total . . . 

24,857 67 

20,761 13 

20,900 00 

16,718 13 

—4,181 87 


Increase or 
decrease 
over 1914 
actuals. 


$ 


c. 


-1,175 99 

— 1,489 82 

- 603 94 

-4,043 OO 


In Singapore the decrease is attributable to a falling off in the demand for 
mangrove firewood, due partly to the exhaustion of timber of good quality on Crown 
lands. The price realized for coupes in reserved forests was also unusually low. 


7 


There was an increase of $521.3600 permits for temporary cultivation in reserved 
forests, and an unusual item of $r t6. 66 on account of sand taken from the Changi 
Reserve. 

In Penang, Province Welleslev, and the Dindings almost ali heads of revenue 
show a decrease due to the genera! depression in the trade in timber and forest 
produce caused by the war. A similar decrease in Malacca is to some extent 
counterbalanced by the Io per cent ad valorem tax on timber on newly alienated land. 

Expenditure. 


33. The following statement shows expenditure from 1913 to 1915: — 


Settlement. 

Expendi- 

ture 

I 9 I 3 - 

Expendi- 

ture 

1914. 

Estimated 

expenditure 

I 9 I 5 - 

Actual 

expenditure 

1915. 

Savings on 
Estimates. 


$ c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 

10,149 4° 

9,455 11 

11,962 00 

9 , 75 i 46 

2,210 54 

Wellesley 

6 , 5^3 46 

5.389 36 

5,699 00 

5,081 85 

617 15 

Dindings 

5,084 39 

6,106 27 

7,483 00 

6,853 36 

629 64 

Malacca 

8,627 9 2 

8,495 77 

9,5 16 00 

9,439 33 

76 67 

Total ... 

30,385 *7 j 

29,446 51 

34,660 00 

31,126 00 

3,534 00 


The expenditure of the year, which amounted to $31,126 included $22,967.16 
for Personal Emoluments, and $8,158.84 for Other Charges, the savings on the estimates 
being $2,017.84 and $1,516.16 respectively. The savings on staff are chiefly due to 
the abolition of the post of ranger in Singapore and the appointment of a new clerk 
in Penang on a lower salary than that drawn by his predecessor. On Other Charges 
the savings, of which two-thirds were in Singapore, are distributed mainly over the 
heads connected with the maintenance and improvement of forests. 

34. The net result is a loss of $14,407.87. The department should however pay 
its way, if the Malacca and Dindings forests are developed. 

Administration , 

35. Mr. B. H. F. Bernard acted as Conservator up to and including the 
1 6th April. 

Mr. G. E. S. Cubitt arrived from India and took over charge on the 17th of the 
same month. 

Mr. Keun held charge in Penang till the 17th December and went on leave 
the following day, when he was relieved by Mr. Askey from the Federated Malay 
States. These officers were also responsible for field work in the Dindings. 

Mr. O’Hara was in charge in Malacca throughout the year. In Singapore the 
Collector of Land Revenue administered the Department with the help of the Land 
Bailiffs and Forester, who shared the travelling allowance allotted to the post of 
Forest Ranger vacated by Mr. T. C. Mai.aya Pillai, which it is not proposed 
to fill. 

36. These arrangements are adequate as far as Singapore is concerned and no 
change is recommended. Matters are however not so satisfactory in regard to Penang, 
the Dindings, and Malacca. I he forests in the Dindings are of considerable value 
and importance, but it is impossible to look for much development either there or in 
Malacca so long as a ranger is in almost independent charge. The annual 
expenditure, especially in Malacca, is ludicrously low, and has unfortunately not 
always been laid out to the best advantage. The Ranger in Malacca is also 
hampered by the supervision of the rubber plantations. It is becoming increasingly 
evident that a thorough re-organization of forest administration in the Colony 
(except Singapore) is necessary, and the lines on which re-organization can probably 
best be effected are the fusion of the services in the Federated Malay States and 


8 


Straits Settlements at any rate down to Ranger Grade I, and the subordination of the 
officers in charge of the different Settlements to one or other of the Deputy Con- 
servators in the Federated Malay States. It is hoped in due course to submit a 
scheme to give effect to these suggestions. 

37, During the year the Conservator as usual made tours of inspection to each 
of the Settlements. 


38. The following table gives particulars of the staff employed at the end of 
the year : — 


Settlement. 

Rani 

Grade 

f. 

GERS. 

Grade 

IV. 

Foresters. 

Forest Guards. 

» 

Clerks, 

Total. 

Remarks, 

Singapore 




I 

10 

(a) 1 

12 

p ^ 

(a) In Conservator’s 









Office. 

Penang & Province 1 









Wellesley 

- 

1 

. . . 

2 

6 

1 

) 


•»*' 







19 

- * 

Dindings 



1 

2 

‘6 

• * * 

** 

J 

# 

Malacca * . . 


1 

1 

2 

16 

1 

2 1 


Total 


2 

2 

m w 

7 

38 

3 

52 






** 






39, Two Foresters retired and one resigned ; one Forest Guard resigned and one 
absconded. There were no deaths. The work and health of the staff were on the 
whole satisfactory. 


G. E. S. CUB ITT, 

Kuala Lumpur, Conservator of Forests , S. S and F . M . S. 

27 th March , [916. 








♦ * 






£ 






i 






* * 

¥, 4 
















* 




* 4 * 



















Hi y^w. i<jii 'rimy ssYi- 


t’ 


(JM ' 






















4 














































































fs 

DRAFT 






G 17 



Annual Report on Forest Administration in the 
Straits Settlements, for the Year 1918. 


PART I. 

Extension and Constitution of Reserved Forests. 

Proposals which had been made in 1917, for the extension of the Simgei 
Buloh and Kranji Forest Reserves in Singapore were carried out and an area 
off about 3 58 acres was added to the former and of alfout 202 acres to the latter. 
These areas, which consist entirely of mangrove on the banks of tidal rivers, 
have not yet been fully defined, though a great part of their boundaries has 
been surveyed in connection with the recent alienation of Crown land. No 
progress could be made towards further extensions owing to delay in survey 
work. 

2. The re was no change in Penang or in the Dindings, but in Province 
Wellesley the Simgei Acheh Reserve, comprising about 358 acres of mangrove 
forest, was constituted. The contemplated excision of 300 acres from the 

* Tasek Ginger Reserve has not yet been carried into effect, but* the timber 
on the area, is being removed in anticipation of its early excision and aliena- 
tion. 

3. The {■evocation of the Bukit Sebukor Reserve in Malacca, which was 
sold in 19.17, was formally gazetted, thus reducing the area of reserved forests 
in that Settlement by about 44-J acres. 

4. The statement below gives the- proportion of reserves to the whole 
area of the Colony, the areas of the Settlement differing from those in the 
forest report for 1917, but agreeing with those on page 62 of the Blue Book 
tor that year. Details are. given in Form 1*. 


Locality. 

* 4 * 

Area. 

Area of 

Reserved Forests. 

Proportion 
to whole area. 

. 4 * * 

* 

Square miles. 

Square miles., 

Per cent. 

Singapore ... 

•- 

217 

2IO 

97 

Penang 

108 

1 90 

17-6 

Province Wellesley 

280 

6-3 

2*2 

Dindings 

183 

42 -i 

23 0 

Malacca 

720 

71 ‘ 2 
« 

107 

• 

'7 v * t . 

lotal 

£ 

1,508 

£ 

165*6 

I 1*0 


* Demarcation and Up-keep of Boundaries. 

5. In Singapore the boundaries of the newly constituted Simgei Buloh 
and Ivranii Extension Reserves were demarcated and the boundaries off all 
other reserves were maintained by the subordinate staff without expense. In 
Penang repairs to 81 miles 22 chains cost $78.15; in Province Wellesley 35 
miles 49 chains S45.35; in the Dindings 74 miles 66 chains $148.70; and in 


* Not printed. 


o 


C 


Q 


Malacca 84 miles 30 chains $564.50. The figures include in each case the 4 ' 

cost of boundary plates, which was unusually heavy, but exclude the salaries 

and night allowances of the subordinate staff employed who personally did 0* 

much of the work. In all, 358 miles 36 chains were repaired for $836.70 or . ( 

$2.34 per mile, compared with $1.81 per mile in I 9 1 ?- Details will be found 

in Form 3*. I 

Surveys. 

6. In August a beginning was made with the survey of communications 
in reserves, the Sungei Udang Reserve in Malacca being takhn in hand and 
17 miles 60 chains of cart and buffalo tracks surveyed at a cost of $294.47, a 
far too heavy expenditure for the; amount of work accomplished. 


PART II. 

MANAGEMENT OF FORESTS. 

Working Plans and Plans of Operations. 

7. There are still no regular working plans. Plans of operations were 
drawn up for all the Settlements except Singapore and were adhered to. 

Communications. 

8. No new communications were opened and existing paths in cnaige 
of the department we he maintained without expense by the subordinate staff. 

Buildings. 

9. New quarters were built at Bukit Mertajam by the Public. Works 
Department at a cost of $473 for forest department boatmen. Repairs were 
also carried out where necessary by that department. Details ate gicen 
in Form 6*r 

Protections of Forests. 

xo. There were no changes in the forest law. Forty-three breaches of 
the forest rules were reported, of .which twenty-six wefe dealt with in Court 
and seventeen compounded. Convictions were secured m all but two cases. 
The hues inflicted amounted to $ 393-75 in addition to compensation 01 8/82 5b 
raid to the department for damage done to the forest. One offender elected 
to go to o-aol. The compensation in compounded cases amounted to ^305.08. 
Norte of die offences were of sufficient importance to require separate mention. 

Details are given in Form 7*. 


Improvement of forests. 

Natural Reproduction. 

xi. From such reports as are available and from personal observation 
it would seem that the reproduction of Class I trees is adequate wherever 
there is sufficient light. Damarlaut reproduces itself freely in *6? Dindings, 
and in Malacca the cutting of second class timber has undoubtedly stimul- 
ated the growth of first class seedlings. 

Plantations and Cultural Operations. 

12 No additions were made to the area ot regular plantations, l apping 
was carried on at Bukit Timah until August, when it fas discontinued owing 

to the low price of rubber. The output-jtf lbs.. d/«^T te a noun 
scrap— was sold for $265.42, but owing to an oversight $a8./0 of this a . 
was not collected until 1919. Maintenance charges were $311.80- Lie - an 
plantation at Seletar was again leased to the Mandai Tekong Company., tor 


In Province Wellesley and the Dindings bakaumnyak was planted 
'a large scale. 100,000 ‘seed were planted in the Sungei Ac neh Rcweiie a a 
st of ,$42, but 50 per cent of these were washed away by a rough sea, the 

— J • 

* Not printed. * 


t 



t 



w 


3 


remainder are doing well. Another 400,000 were planted in blanks in the 
Tanjong Burong Reserve at a co»st of $276.49, of which 80 per cent are 
t, thriving. The plants put down in 1916 in the same reserve are reported to be 

now 8 feet in height. Lastly 83,000 were planted in the 20-acre block on the 
Bruas River which was exploited in 1917. Most of the work was done by 
| forest guards and boatmen, and more would have been accomplished but 

for the serious outbreak of influenza. 

14. A small area in the Bukit Panchor Reserve was cleared of bertam 
by a contractor in return for permission to sell the palm without payment of 
royalty. In this area a sum of $54.84 was spent in clearing the ground and 
sowing about 50,000 seeds of valuable species. Small sums were also spent 
in clearing bertam from an area in the Sungei Pinang Reserve where damatr 
but is plentiful but regeneration poor, and in removing piai raya from the 
Tanjong Burong Reserve. 

15. The Para rubber in the Ayer Kroh plantation was leased out for 
tapping at the rate of 5 cents per tree, but at the end of September the 
lessee stopped tapping as he found it was no longer profitable. Revenue of 
$349.20 was realized on 1,164 tappable trees. The output is said to have been 
2,216} lbs. of sheet rubber and 246^ lbs. of scrap, which sold for $932.15. 

16. The Lumut rubber plantation was still held on lease, for which the 
lessee paid during the year $75. The plantation is badly maintained and other 
arrangements will probably have to be made when the present lease lapses. 


§ 





'*•0 

V 


EXPLOITATION. 

Timber and Fuel. 

(a) From Reserves. 

17. Ten mangrove coupes in Singapore with a total area of 465 acres 
were open to regular exploitation during the year. For five coupes of 235 
acres leased during the year $10.83 P er acr * e was realized, compared with $6.06 
in 1917 and $4.64 in 1916. The total out-turn from leased coupes was 4,740 
tons, an increase of 1,302 tons over 1917. In addition four old coupes were 
open to exploitation under monthly permits. One hundred and twenty-one 
permits were issued for the removal of mangrove firewood and 61 to cut nyireh, 
the estimated out-turn being 2,421 and 1,220 tons respectively, and the revenue 
thereon $789. Out-turn from other sources was about 100 tons, represent- 
ing revenue of $94.36, and not needing mention in detail. The following 
table summarises the result of the year’s work in the mangrove forests: — 



Reserve. 

Coupe 

No, 

Area in 
acres. 

Amount at 
which 
leased . 

Total 

revenue rea- 
lized during 
1918, 

Approximate 
out-turn 
during 191S. 

Remarks, 

Pan dan 

* * • • • » 

9 

80 

$ c. 

748 00 

$ c. 

Tons. 

1,020 

r 

Old. 

Pan dan 

* « « 

10 

80 

1,308 00 

1,308 00 

SOO 

New. 

Changi 

... 

9 

10 

80 00 

... 

60 

Old. 

Changi 


10 

18 

117 00 

117 00 

240 

New. 

Kranji 

... 

9 

30 

138 00 

69 00 

440 

Old. 

Krangi 

... «*• 

10 

30 

150 00 

75 00 

240 

New. 

Seletar 

... 

8 

45 

164 25 

82 13 

480 

Old. 

Seletar 

... .«* 

9 

42 

298 20 

149 10 

... 

New. 

Tuas 

«•* • * • 

8 

65 

263 25 

131 63 

1,340 

Old. 

Tuas 

... • * ■ 

9 

65 

672 75 

336 38 

120 

New, 


Total 

- 

... 

465 

3,939 45 

2,268 24 

4,7*10 

... 

Pan dan 

... 

6 

100 

... 

180 00 

720 

| Open under 

Pan dan 


8 

105 

... 

156 00 

621 

Pand an 


9 

80 

• * • 

90 00 

360 

| monthly 

Tuas 

... 

7 

! 

65 

... 

180 00 

720 

| permits. 


Total 


350 

- J— 

• 

606 00 

2,421 

... 





4 

iS The reserves in Penang, Province Wellesley, and the Dindings were 
more treely opened to exploitation than in the past, and the revenue rose in 
conseouence from $1,499- to* $10,014-06. hour hundred and ten tons, 
mostiv poles, were extracted from the reserves on Penang Island. I he 
Province Wellesley reserves yielded 242 tons of timber, 340 tons of h re wood, 
and some charcoal, most of the timber coming from the portion of the J asek 
Glugor Reserve, which it is proposed to rescind. In the Dindings there was 
an output of 1,242 tons of timber and 7,429 tons °f firewood, a quarter of the 
timber and all the firewood coming from the fanjong Burong mangrove 
reserve, and most of the rest of the timber from the Segari-Melintang Reserve. 

19. In Malacca the system of marking trees in reserves for felling was 
continued, and the output, 1,752 tons of timber and 171 tons of charcoal, 
slightly exceeded that of 1917. Efforts have been made to secure more 
economical working, and some measure of success seems to have been 
attained, for the yield per tree of Class I timber rose from 2*9 to 3*6 tons. 

20. The out-turn from the reserved forests in all Settlements was 3,742 
tons of timber, 16,154 tons of firewood, and 171 tons of charcoal, on which 
revenue to the amount of $15,519.66 was realized. Further details are given 
in Form 9*, 

(T) From Ci own Lands . 

21. The number of permits issued in Singapore to collect mangrove and 

nyirch firewood rose from 227 in 19*7 to 2 5° i n the y ear °t report, which, 
at 20 tons per permit, represent an output of 5,000 tons. Other firewood 
accounts for the additional 203 tons shown in Form 9*. 756 tons were taken 

out in the form of poles. The revenue realized was $2,141.60. 

22. In Penang and Province Wellesley there was a decrease in the out- 
put of poles, but this was counterbalanced by an increased out-turn of Class I 
timber. In the Dindings there was an increase in output both of timber and 
firewood, the latter showing a rise of over 15 per cent. The total yield from 
the two Settlements was 2,578.38 tons of timber and 6,959 tons °f firewood, 
compared with 2,133.81 and 4,211 tons respectively in 1917, with a correspond- 
ing rise in revenue from $6,718.08 to $7,808.04. 

23. In Malacca also all classes of timber and fuel were worked in increased 
quantities, the out-turn being 1,108 tons of timber and 255 tons of firewood, 
compared with 861 and 122 tons respectively in 1917, the revenue rising from 
$1,279 to $ 2 >°38- 

24. The total revenue on timber and fuel from Crown lands in all Settle- 
ments was $11,987-64^ details of the quantities extracted, amounting m all 
to 4,442 tons of timber and 12,417 tons of firewood, being given in Form 9*. 

(c) From Alienated Lands. 

% 

2;. No reliable figures can be given of the yield of timber from alienated 
land? Royalty at the rate of 10 per cent ad valorem, as nearly as can be 
estimated, is paid in Malacca on forest produce, when land is alienated, and 
from this source a sum of $1,8 19-99 wa s realized. Crown lands are now 
rourhly classified and the royalty payable fixed for each class, thus saving the 
time and trouble involved by an inspection of each parcel of land disposed of. 

26. In the Dindings 40 tons of timber and 25 tons of firewood from 
alienated land brought in $78.72. 

Minor Forest Produce. 

(a) From Reserves, 

27. Minor forest produce from reserved forests paid revenue of $1,306.50 
as follows : — 

Singapore $8 for nibong, Penang $261 chiefly for bertam and rotan, 
Province Wellesley $79-30 almost entirely for bertam, the Dindings $457.50, 
of which $263 were for road metal, and Malacca $500.70 including $349- 2 o 


* Not printed. 


5 




for Para rubber, and $102.50 for durians from the dusuns in the Bukit 
Panchor Reserve. 3,843 cubic yards of road metal were taken free by the 
Public Works Department from the Bukit Goa Ipoh and Kuban g Ulu 
Reserves m Province Wellesley. Other produce extracted besides those 
mentioned include climbers of various sorts, bamboos, betel-nuts, dukus, 
damar, langkap, mcngkuang , and krang shell. 

{b) From Crown Lands. 

28. 1'here was a further slight decrease from $1,196.79 to $1,114.74 in the 
revenue on minor forest produce from Crown lauds, the Settlements contri- 
buting as follows: — Singapore $4.60, Penang $37.20, Province Wellesley 
$28.80, the Dindings $742.14, and Malacca $302. The only items of import- 
ance are nibong ($200.40), canes ($379.80), uncultivated rubber ($189), mcng- 
kuang ($115), bcrtarn ($88.75), an d tcngar bark ($60.96). 

(c) From Alienated Lands. 

29. The only revenue under this head was $18.81 collected on hertam and 
canes in the Dindings. 


PART III. 

FINANCIAL RESULTS. 


Revenue. 

*> 

30. The following statement shows the total revenue from 1916 to 1918: — 


Settlements. 

. 

■ 

Revenue 

1916. 

• 

Revenue 
191 7. 

Esti- 
mated 
revenue 
1 9 iS. 

Actual 

revenue 

igrS. 

Increase 
or decrease 
over 

Estimates. 

Increase 
or decrease 
over 1917. 
actuals. 


$ a 

• 

$ c. 

$ 

$ c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

Singapore 

4,846 1 1 

6,264 99 

3,500 

7,852 63 

4,352 63 

+ 1,587 64 

Penang and * P. 
Wellesley ... 

2,297 40 

2,643 H 

1,750 

5,308 79 

3,558 79 

• 

+ 2,665 65 

Dindings 

5,100 89 

* 7,755 £2 

7,520 

14,518 07 

6,998 07 

+ 6,762 25 

Malacca 

1 1,127 *5 

8,929 95 

6,500 

7*799 64 

1,299 64 

- 1,130 31 

Total 

• 

23 , 37 i 55 * 

25,593 90 

19,270 

35,479 13 

16,209 13 

i 

+ 9,885 23 


31. In Singapore the increase over 1917 is due to the larger demand for 
firewood and to the much better prices paid for the mangrove coupes, the 
results perhaps of the high price of coal. A greater number of permits than 
in 1 917 were issued for the removal of nyirch and other old timber from coupes 
leased in former years, and there was an*extension of vegetable cultivation in 
the South Seletar Reserve. 

In Penang, Province Wellesley, and the Dindings, the reserves have been 
opened more freely to exploitation, the chief contributors to* the increased 
revenue being the Pantai Acheh Reserve in Penang, the Tasek Glugor 
Reserve in Province Wellesley, and the Segari-Melintang and Tanjong 
Burong Reserves ?n the Dindings. 

The decrease in Malacca is more than accounted for by the sale of the Bukit 
Sebukor rubber plantation and the small price paid for the lease of the planta- 
tion at Ayer Kroh. If interest an the purchase price of the Bukit Sebukor 
plantation is allowed for the decrease is converted into an increase. 







6 


4 


Expenditure. 

32. The following table shows the expenditure from 1916 to 1918: 


Settlement. 

Expenditure, 

1916. 

Expenditure, 

1917. 

Estimated 

expenditure, 

1918, 

Expenditure, 

1918. 

Savings on 
Estimates. 

Increase or 
decrease 
over 1917 
actuals. 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley 

Dindings 

Malacca 

Total 

5 c. 

9,602 08 

5,020 40 
5,664 18 
10,684 57 

$ c. 

9,549 17 

4,863 98 
5,997 16 
11.953 26 

§ 

11,140 

5,950 

7,497 

12,120 

8 c, 

10,126 95 

5,511 19 
6,448 50 
11,489 37 

$ c. 

1,013 05 

438 81 
1,048 50 
630 63 

$ c. 

+ 577 78 

+ 647 21 

451 34 
- 463 89. 

30,971 23 

32,363 57 

36,707 

• 

33,576' 01 

3,130 99 

+ 1,212 44 


Of the total of $.33 ? 57^*01, $25,278.51 were spent on personal* emolu- 
ments and S8, 297.50 on other charges, compared with b 23, 845. 90 and $8,517.67 
in iq 17. The savings on the estimates are due chiefly to faulty estimating, 
which it is hoped to avoid in future. The increases over the actuals of 1917 
are accounted for in Singapore chiefly by the payment of arrears of t‘ie Lon- 
servator’s pension contribution. In the other Settlements nearly all heads 
show increased expenditure, but especially transport, uniforms, and salaries 
of boatmen. Increases in Malacca were however more than counterbalanced 
by the cessation of expenditure on rubber plantations, and the sharing -with 
the Federated Malay States of the salary of the clerk. 

04. The year’s work shows for the first time since 1904, and for only the 
third time in the history of the department; a small surplus, amounting for 
the year of report to Si ,903. 12. Much- more money should be spent on the 
development of the forests, especially in the Dindings, and this surplus may 
not be repeated, but there seems to be no reason why they should not oecpme 
regularly remunerative. in 10 or 15 .years. 


• • 


PART IV. 

Administration. 

The Singapore forests were as in past years administered by the Collec- 
tor of Land Revenue with the help of the Land Bailiffs and a small staff o 
forest subordinates; the appointment of Ranger ceased to appear in the 
estimates. The Forest Ranger in charge* of Malacca^ was transierred to 
T ampin and subordinated to the Deputy Conservator of Forests Negri Seinbi- 
lan the Malacca and Tampin district forest officers being combined, and the 
salary of the clerk shared by the Federated Mala^States and the Colon) . 
The Forest Ranger is in charge of the Tampin office and gives such time as 
he can spare to field work in the forests of that district. 1 his arrangement 
has not worked as smoothly as it should have done, but there can be, no dou o 
tint it is a great improvement on the old one. lo compensate him tor the 
increased expense of living at Tampin the Ranger in charge was given a 
personal allowance of $50 per mensem. No change was made in the admini- 
stration of the Penang and Dindings forests, but everything points to the 
desirability of placing the ranger in ^charge under the direct supervision ot 
a senior officer as soon as this can be arranged. 

?6 A pressing question in Singapore is the maintenance of the vegetable 
supL. .To easelhl situation parts of the Ang Mo Kio and Nor h . Se etar 
Reserves, which have no particular sylvicultural value, are being let out to 

market gardeners. 

E. CUBITT, 
Conservator of Forests , 

S. S. and F. M. S. 

Kuala Lumpur, 

4 th March, 1919. 





Annual Report on Forest Administration in the 
Straits Settlements, for the Year 1919. 


PART I. 

• _ • 

Extension and Constitution of Reserved Forests. 

There was no change during the year in the area of reserved forests, but an 
extension of about 1,260 acres of mangrove forest to the Tanjong Burong Reserve in 
the Dindings was preliminarily notified under the Forest Ordinance for reservation. 
1 he proposal to exchange some alienated mangrove forest in Province Wellesley for a 
portion of the Tasek Glugor Reserve in the same Settlement has for the time being 

been abandoned owing to the impossibility of coming to terms with the owners of 
the mangrove. 

2 ‘ . ^e revocation of a part of the Pandan Reserve in Singapore' is under con- 
sideration, and its occupation ior the construction of cement works was permitted in 
anticipation of the completion of the survey of the boundaries of the land to be 
excised from the reserve. 


3. The total area of reserved forest is 106,0 r 3 acres distributed as follows : — 


Locality. 

1 ~ — — * -*> 

Area. 

Area of 

Reserved Forests. 

Proportion 
to whole area. 

• ' - 

Square miles. 

Square miles, 

Per cent. 

Singapore... 

21 7 

2 I O 

9‘7 

Penang 

108 

19-0 

I 7-6 

Province Wellesley 

280 

6-3 

2*2 

Dindings 

183 

42-1 

23-0 

Malacca 

l 

720 

77*2 

IO7 

Total ... 

1,508 

165*6 

II ‘0 


Demarcation and Up-keep of Boundaries. 


4, The boundaries of the reserved forests, amounting in all to about 534 miles 
were for the most part maintained by the subordinate staff. Nothing was spent in 
Singapore, and the only expenditure in Malacca and the Dindings was $150 and $30 
respectively on the purchase of boundary plates and boards. In Penang repairs cost 
$38.20 for 83 miles 8 chains, and in Province Wellesley $22.50 for 35 miles 49 chains 
I he total expenditure on 431 miles 63 chains of boundary repaired was $240.70 
equivalent to 56 cents per mile, compared with $2.34 in 1918 and $1.81 in 1917. In 

all cases the salaries and night allowances of the staff are excluded. Details will be 
found in Form 3*. 


* Not rinted. 


2 


Surveys. 

5. The survey of the paths in the Sungei Udang Reserve was completed, and of 
those in the Bukit Sedanan Reserve begun. Both these reserves are in Malacca, 
$734-77 were spent on 28 miles 10 chains, which seems excessive. 



PART II. 

MANAGEMENT OF FORESTS. 

Working Plans and Plans of Operations. 

6. There are still no regular working plans, but plans of operations were drawn 
up for all the Settlements except Singapore and were closely adhered to. 

Communications. 

7. The only expenditure on communications was the small sum of $1.88 in 
Penang. With this exception all paths in charge of the department were maintained 
by the subordinate staff without expense. 

Buildings. 

8. These are for the most part built and maintained by the Public Works 
Department. New quarters for a Forester were completed at Jasin at a cost of 
$1,350, and subordinates’ quarters were under construction at the end of the year at 
Alor Gajah, Ramuan China, Balik Pulau, and Telok Bahang. In Malacca there was 
apparently some difficulty in getting work done, and urgent repairs are said not to 
have been executed. Details of work under this head are given in Form 6*. 

Protection of Forests. 

9. There were no changes in the forest law. Forty-two breaches of the forest 
rules were reported, of which 35 were concerned with the unauthorised removal or 
appropriation of torest produce. Fifteen cases were taken to court and convictions 
were obtained in twelve, all three acquittals being in the bindings. Fines amounting 
to $136 were inflicted by the Magistrates, and compensation of $43 awarded to the 
department tor damage to the forest. The remaining 24 cases were compounded for 
$369.60, of which $2i had not been paid at the close of the year. None of the 
offences require separate mention. Details are given in Form 7*. 


IMPROVEMENT OF FORESTS. 

Natural Reproduction. 

10. Little is reported under this head. Generally speaking it was a bad seed- 
year. The removal of second-class trees from the Malacca reserves is said to have 
been beneficial to the seedlings of the more valuable species from former seed-years. 

Plantations and Cultural Operations. 

11. Tapping -was stopped in the Bukit Timah rubber plantation in Singapore 
and the trees benefited considerable. At the end of the vear it was decided to lease 

w w* 

the tappable trees, but the agreement was not ready till after the close of the year. 
The revenue of the year amounted $28.70, which, owing to an oversight, was not 
collected in 1918, and maintenance charges were $138.22. The small plantations in 
the Seletar Reserve and on the Mandai Road were leased as usual, $500 being 
realised and credited to the Agricultural Improvements Deposit Account. 


* Not printed. 


3 


12. Mangrove was planted on a considerable scale in Province Wellesley and 
the Dindings, the Forest Ranger, Mr. Askey, devoting much time and attention to 
the work, which is reported to have been remarkably successful. Large quantities of 
seed were bought, but most of the planting was done either by the subordinate forest 
staff and boatmen, or by the lessees as part payment for the timber on the area 
planted. The following statement gives particulars of the work done. The area 
planted cannot be stated with any accuracy, but, if the estimate of the number of 
seeds planted is correct, it must be not less than 300 acres. 


Number of 
seeds. 

Place. 

Cost. 

Remarks. 


Penang. 

§ c. 


376,000 

Balik Pulau Reserve 

37 6 00 

Bakau. 


Province Wellesley. 



8,000 

Sungei Acheh Reserve ... 

8 40 

Bakau. 


Dindings. 



1 00,000 

Sungei Tong 

Si 43 

Includes §21.43 night 




allowances. 

525,000 

Sungei Bruas 

... 

By lessees. 



c 

More than half Tengar ; the 

724,000 4 


r - j 

rest Bakau. 

{ 

r 

Kuala Panchor 

< 


445,000 ) 


l 3 8 02 

Includes §28.77 night 




allowances. 

2,178,000 


$783 85 



Small sums were also spent on the clearing of piai raya and the planting of 
tengar in the Tanjong Burong Reserve, on clearing round the Gutta-percha trees at 
Batu Ferringgi, and on a nursery for Petai (Albizzia moluccana), which it is thought 
may prove useful as a firewood crop on waste land. One hundred dollars were 
realised on account of rent for the small rubber plantation at Lumut, which is very 
badly maintained by the lessee. 

13. In Malacca 1,164 tappable trees in the Ayer Kroh rubber plantation were 
leased to a Malay at the rate of 5 cents per tree per mensem, §698.40 being realised. 
The output is said to have been 2,215 lbs. of sheet and 258 lbs. of scrap rubber, of 
which 2,027 lbs. of sheet and 242 lbs. of scrap were sold for §1,214.32. 


EXPLOITATION. 

Timber and Fuel. 

(a) From Reserves. 

14. Nine mangrove coupes with an area of 441 acres were open for exploitation 
in Singapore for the whole or a part of the year, and another was leased towards its 
close, but work in it was not begun. For the five coupes of 236 acres leased during 
the year the purchase price was §6,328, equivalent to §26.81 per acre, compared with 
§10.83 per acre in 1918 and $6.06 in 1 9 1 7 . The approximate output from the 
leased coupes was 4,280 tons, compared with 4,740 tons in 1918. In addition to the 
leased coupes, five old coupes were open to exploitation under monthly permits, of 
which 1 14, realising §594, were issued, against 182 the previous year, the out-turn 


4 


being estimated at 3,065 tons. The out-turn from other sources not needing separate 
mention was about 1 16 tons, representing revenue of $3405° The following table 
summarises the results of the year’s work in the mangrove forests : — 


Reserve. 

Coupe 

No. 

Area in 

acres. 

Amount at 
which 
leased, 

Total 

revenue rea- 
lized during 
1919. 

Approximate 
out-turn 
during 1919. 


Remarks. 

Pandan 

10 

80 

# c. 

1,308 00 

$ c. 

Tons. 

860 


Old. 

Pandan 

11 

80 

1,820 00 

1,820 00 

980 


New. 

Changi 

10 

18 

117 00 

. . . 

no 


Old. 

Changi ... 

11 

23 

281 75 

281 75 

200 


New. 

Kranji 

10 

30 

150 00 

75 00 

330 


Old. 

*Kranji ... 

11 

30 

225 00 

112 50 

. . . 


New. 

Seletar 

9 

42 

298 20 

149 10 

S40 


Old. 

Seletar 

10 

38 

1,710 00 

855 00 

. . . 


New. 

Tuas 

9 

65 

672 75 

336 37 

840 


Old. 

Tuas 

10 

65 

2,291 25 

1,145 62 

120 


New. 

Total ... 

... 

471 

8,873 95 

"4,775 34 

4.280 


... 

Pandan 

6 

100 


9 00 

60 



Pandan ... 

8 

105 

... 

. < . 

. . . 


Open under 

Pandan ... 

9 

80 


40 00 

160 


y monthly 

Tuas 

7 

65 

«, . . 

40 00 

160 


permits. 

Changi 

10 

18 

... 

20 00 

80 

J 


Total ... 

... 

368 

•i 

109 00 

460 


... 


15. Owing chiefly to an increased demand for poles the out-turn of timber from 
the reserves of Penang, Province Wellesley, and the Dindings rose from 1,895 tons 

\ in 1918 to 2,219 tons > n 1919* There was also a large increase in the out-turn of fuel, 

especially from the Tanjong Burong Reserve in the Dindings, which accounted for 
10,277 out of a total of 10,845 tons. Revenue increased from $10,014.06 to 
$14,121.57. 

16. No change was made in the system in force in Malacca, under which Class 1 
trees in reserves are marked for felling. The yield of timber per tree of Class I fell 
from 3'6 to 3'2 tons, and the waste is reported not to have been excessive. The 
total output was 1,821 tons of timber and 56 tons of charcoal, which differs little 
from that of the previous year. There was a fall in revenue of §95. 

17. The out-turn from the reserved forests in all Settlements was 4,156 tons of 
timber, 18,190 tons of fuel, and 56 tons of charcoal, on which revenue to the amount 
of $22,081.41 was realised. The corresponding figures for 1918 are 3,742 tons of 
timber, 16,154 tons of firewood, 1 7 1 tons of charcoal, and $15,519.66 revenue. 

(£) From Crown Lands . 

18. The number of permits issued to collect firewood from the reserves in Singa- 
pore rose from 250 in 1918 to 323 in the year of report, which, at 20 tons per permit, 
represent an output of 6,460 tons. In addition 986 tons were removed in the form of 
poles. The revenue realised was $2,204.74, compared with $2,141.60 in 1918. 

19. The out-turn of timber from Penang, Province Wellesley, and the Dindings 
differed by only a few tons from that of the previous year, but the out-turn of fire- 
wood increased considerably. The total yield from the two Settlements was 2,555 
tons of timber, 7,565 tons of firewood, and 6 tons of charcoal, and the revenue was 
$9,101.49, compared with $7,804.04 in 1918. 

20. In Malacca the out-turn was 1,358 tons of timber and 31 1 tons of fuel, com- 
pared with 1,108 and 255 tons respectively in 1918, but there was a slight fall in 
revenue from $2,038 to $1,993, owing to the smaller out-turn of Class 1 timber. 

21. The total revenue on timber, fuel, and charcoal from Crown Land in all the 
Settlements was $13,299.23, details of the quantities extracted, amounting in all to 
4,898 tons of timber, 14,336 tons of firewood, and 6 tons of charcoal being given in 
Form 9b. The corresponding figures for 1918 are 4,442 tons of timber, 12,417 tons 
of firewood, no charcoal, and $11,987.64 revenue. 

* To run from the 1st January, 1920- t Not printed. 


D 

(c) From Alienated Land. 

22. Royalty of io per cent is paid in Malacca on the estimated value of the timber 
on land to be alienated, and during the year amounted to $23,819.98, an increase of 
$21,999.99 over receipts for 1918, when very little land was alienated. There is now 
very little Crown Land left, and therefore receipts from this source cannot much 
longer be expected. 

Minor Forest Produce. 

(a) From Reserves. 

23. Revenue on minor forest produce from reserves increased by $414.93 and 
amounted to $1,721.43 as follows : — 

In Singapore, $16 for nibong ; 

In Penang, $385.30, chiefly for akar, bertam , and canes; 

In Province Wellesley, $30.30 for bertam and mengkuang ; 

In the Dindings, $580.43, including $351.20 for granite ; 

In Malacca, $709.40, almost all for Para Rubber. 

In addition, 440 cubic yards of road metal were taken free by the Public Works 
Department from the quarries in the Bukit ioa Ipoh and Kubang Ulu Reserves in 
Province Wellesley. Other produce which was extracted besides the kinds already 
mentioned includes climbers of various sorts, krang shell, langkap , damar, nipah , 
cocoanuts, bamboos, and tengar bark. The durians in the dusuns in the Bukit 
Pancbor Reserve in Malacca did not fruit and therefore yielded no revenue. 

\b) From Crown Lands. 

24. There was an increase from $1,114.74 to $1,198.13 in the revenue on minor 
produce from Crown Lands, contributed as follows: — Singapore, $20,50; Penang, 
$38.08; Province Wellesley, $13.20 ; the Dindings, $874.35; and Alalacca, $252.00. 
The principal items were canes ($300-98), tengar bark ($276.73), uncultivated rubber 
,($165), nibong ($115.32), and kajang ($106. 1 1). 


PART III. 

FINANCIAL RESULTS. 

Revenue. 

I he following statement shows the total revenue from 1917 to 1919: — 


Settlement. 

Revenue 
l 9 l 7 • 

Revenue 

1918. 

Esti- 

mated 

revenue 

1919. 

Actual 

revenue 

1919. 

Increase 
or decrease 
over 

Estimates. 

Increase 
or decrease 
over 1918 
actuals. 


$ c. 

$ c . 

$ 

vj 

y=r 

$ c . 

$ c . 

Singapore 

6,264 99 

7,852 63 

3.500 

11,243 28 

+ 7.743 28 

+ 3*390 65 

Penang and P. 
Wellesley ... 

2,643 14 

5*308 79 

3 poo 

7,051 86 

T 4P5 1 86 

+ U 743 °7 

Dindings 

7*755 

14,518 07 

L 1 ,000 

18,314 16 

+ 7 > 3 r 4 *6 

+ 3,796 09 

Malacca 

8,929 95 

7.799 6 4 

6.500 

29.144 9 8 

+ 22,644 98 

+ 21,345 34 

Total ... 

25.593 90 

35-479 13 

24,000 

65.754 28 j 

r 41,754 28 

+ 30,275 15 



6 


26. The increase in Singapore is due to the high price paid for the mangrove 
coupes and to the extension of vegetable cultivation in the reserves. 

In Penang and Province Wellesley the reserves were more freely opened to the 
removal of second-class poles on the lines of an improvement felling, and in the 
Din dings there was a large increase in the output of mangrove fuel. 

In Malacca the increase is due almost entirely to the unexpectedly large sums 
paid in premia for the timber standing on alienated land. 

Expenditure. 


27. The following table shows the expenditure from 1917 to 1919: — 


Settlement. 

Expenditure, 

1917. 

Expenditure, 

1918. 

Estimated 

expenditure, 

‘ 1919. 

Expenditure, 

1919. 

Savings on 
Estimates. 

Increase or 
decrease 
over 1918 
actuals. 


$ c. 

* c . 

$ 

$ c . 

$ c. 

$ c. 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 

9,549 17 

10,126 95 

11,175 

9,598 83 

1,576 17 

- 528 12 

Wellesley 

4,863 98 

5,511 19 

6,550 

5,459 20 

1,090 80 

51 99 

Dindings 

5,997 16 

6,448 50 

7,850 

6,688 19 

1,161 83 

+ 239 69 

Malacca 

f 

11,953 26 

11,489 37 

32,806 

12,318 06 

487 94 

+ 828 69 

Total ... 

32,363 57 

33,576 01 

38,381 

34,064 28 

4,316 72 

+ 488 27 


28. Of the total of $34,064.28, $24,667.35 were spent on personal emoluments 
and $9,396.93 on other charges, compared with $25,278.51 and $8,297.50 respectively 
in 1918. War allowances are not included. The increased expenditure under other 
charges was incurred on planting and cultural operations, transport, and uniforms. 


Surplus. 

29. The surplus of revenue over expenditure was $31,690 as shown in the 
following statement : — 


Settlement. 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1917. 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1918. 

Estimated 
surplus or 
deficit 1919, 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1919. 

Increase 

over 

Estimates. 

Increase 
over 1918 
actuals. 


$ c. 

$ c. 

9 c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

S c. 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 

- 3,284 18 

- 2,274 32 

- 7,675 

+ 1,644 45 

9,339 45 

3,918 77 

Wellesley 

- 2,220 84 

202 40 

- 3.550 

4- 1,592 66 

5,142 66 

1,795 06 

Dindings 

+ 1,758 66 

4- 8,069 57 

4- 3,150 

4- 11,625 97 

8,475 97 

3-, 556 40 

Malacca 

1 

- 3,023 31 

- 3,689 73 

- 6,306 

4- 16,826 92 

23,132 92 

20,516 65 

Total ... 

- 6,769 67 

4- 1,903 12 

- 14,381 

4- 33,690 00 

46,073 00 

29,786 88 


30. The reasons for the unusual surplus are given in paragraph 26. but as 
explained in paragraph 22, such a surplus is unlikely to be often repeated. 


PART IV. 

Administration. 

31. No change was made in the administration of the forests. The arrangement 
hy which the Forest Ranger, Malacca, is subordinated to the Deputy Conservator, 
Negri Sembilan, is now working smoothly, but there was some difficulty (now over- 
come by the appointment ol an additional clerk) in dealing with office work, owing to 
the differences of system in the Colony and in the Federated Malay States. With 
expansion of work the need is more and more felt of closer control in 'Penang and the 
Dindings by a senior officer, 

E. CUBiTT, 
Conservator of Forests, 

S. S. and F. M, S. 


Kuala Lumpur, 

18M March , 1920. 


STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. 




Annual Report on Forest Administration in the 
Straits Settlements, for the Year 19:20. 


PART I. 

Extension and Constitution of Reserved Forests. 

r 

1. The only change in the area of reserved forests was the addition of 155 

acres to the Tanjong Burong Reserve in the Dindings. The settlement of a further 
754 acres was completed, but this addition had not been gazetted at the end of the 
year. • 

2, The total area of reserved forests is 106,168 acres, distributed as follows : — 


Locality. 

Area. 

Area of 

Reserved Forests. 

Proportion 
to whole area. 


Square miles. 

Square miles. 

Per cent. 

Singapore ... 

217 

210 

97 

Penang 

108 

190 

17-6 

Province Wellesley 

280 

63 

2'2 

Dindings 

183 

42-4 

23-2 

Malacca 

720 

0 

77-2 

0 

10*7 

Total 

| 

i,5°8 

165-9 

iro 


Demarcation and Upkeep of Boundaries. 

3 Three hundred and eighty miles of forest reserve boundary are reported to 
have been repaired during the year at a cost of $183.24. T his work is for the most 
part done by the subordinate staff. 

Surveys. 

4. Proposed extensions to the Segari-Melintang Forest Reserve in the Dindings 
were surveyed by the Survey Department, but the computations were not complete at 
the end of the year. 


PART II. 

management of forests. 

Working Plpns and Plans of Operations. 

The plan of operations as regards planting was not adhered to. 


5 . 


2 


Communications and Buildings. 

/ 

6, Thirteen miles and fifty-eight chains of inspection paths were constructed in 
Sungei Udang Reserve at a cost of $51.01 a mile and $412.55 was spenKon the de- 
marcation of paths in Sedanan Reserve. 

7 New quarters for the subordinate staff were built at Balik Pulau, Telok 
Pahang and Segari. 

8. The maintenance of buildings was undertaken by the Public Works Depart- 
ment. 

Protection of Forests. 

9. Forty-six forest offences were reported, of which 23 were compounded, and 
23 were taken into court. Of the latter one case was dismissed. Fines inflicted by 
the Magistrates amounted to $524.50, and $21 1.58 was awarded as compensation for 
damage to the forests. Compensation paid in compounded cases amounted to $625. 
For details see Form 7. 

IMPROVEMENT OF FORESTS. 

Natural Reproduction. 

10. The latter part of the year was remarkable for an exceptionally heavy fruit- 
ing of nearly all kinds of forest trees. The fine dipterocarp forest of the Telok 
Muroh Forest Reserve in the Dindings was particularly prolific. Exploitation on a 
limited scale has been going on in this reserve for several years, and on this area 
there is a tine crop of young Class I trees. An inspection of the Merlimau Reserve 
in Malacca also showed that the removal of selected Class I trees had a beneficial 
effect on the forest as regards regeneration. Meranti and Keruing establish them- 
selves quickly in any opening in the canopy marie by the felling operation. The fate 
of seedlings of the slower growing Class 1 trees is not so certain. In the absence of 
some artificial assistance they are liable to be suppressed by the quick growing Class 
II trees which have also benefited by the admission of light to the ground. 


Plantations and Cultural Operations. 

1 1. Five hundred and eighty-five dollars and five cents were expended on the 
Para Rubber Plantations at Bukit Timah and Seletar, Singapore, and revenue from 
these sources amounted to $1,062.50. Six hundred and twenty-eight dollars and 
fifty-six cents were paid by the lessee of the Bukit Bruang Para Rubber Plantation in 
Malacca. 

12. Mangrove seed was planted in the Sungei Acheh Reserve in Province 
Wellesley about a foot and a half apart at a cost of $1 10 over an area of eight acres. 
An inspection of the mangrove planting of former years in Tanjong Burong Reserve 
shows that this planting has been successful on the whole, but it has been somewhat 
expensive and it is probable that some of the planted areas would have been restock- 
ed naturally if left alone. Crabs have done much damage to seedlings, but the 
planting was close enough to allow for the loss. 

EXPLOITATION. 

Timber and Fuel. 

(a) From Reserves. 

13. On Singapore island firewood cutting was continued in five mangrove coupes 
worked in previous years, and four new coupes were opened. The total area under 
exploitation during the whole or part of the year was 427 acres. The new coupes 
comprising 19 1 acres, realised an average of $31.90 per acre, compared with $26.81 
and $10.83 P er acre * n * 9*9 and 1918 respectively. The estimated outturn from the 
leased coupes was 3,620 tons, as against 4,280 tons in 1919* Permits were again 
issued to take firewood from coupes of former years which had not been completely 
exploited and from certain other parts of reserves. The estimated outturn of 140 


3 


permits was 2,728 tons, and the revenue derived from this source was *$501. The 
outturn from other sources was 17 tons. The following table summarises the results 
of the year’s work in the mangrove forests : — 


Reserve. 


Coupe 

No. 


Area in 
acres. 


Amount at 
which 

leased. 


Total 

revenue real- 
ised during 
1920. 


Approximate 
outturn 
during 1920. 


Remarks. 


Pandan 

Pandan 

Changi 

Changi 

Kranji 

Kranji 

Seletar 

Tuas 

Tuas 


11 

12 

11 

12 

11 

12 

10 

10 

11 


80 

80 

23 

16 

30 

30 

38 

65 

65 


* c. 

1.820 00 
3.768 00 
281 75 
640 CO 
225 00 
540 00 
1,710 00 
2,291 25 
1.046 50 


c. 


3,768 00 

640 00 
112 50 
270 00 
855 00 
1,145 62 
523 ^5 


Tons. 


Total ... 

1 

... 

427 

12,322 50 

7,314 37 

3,620 

. • • 

Pandan ... 

Tuas 

Changi ... 

Changi ... 

9 

9 

10 

11 

• 

80 

65 

18 

23 

... 

nt 

45 00 

5 00 

15 00 

50 00 

180 

20 

60 

200 

) Open under 
monthly 
j permits. 

Total ... 


186 | 

m m • 

115 00 

460 

... 


760 

920 

150 

180 

400 

510 

700 


Old. 

New. 

Old. 

New. 

Old. 

New. 

Old. 

Old. 

New. 


14. The outturn of timber and poles from Penang, Province Wellesley and the 
Din dings was 2,137 tons, compared with 2,219 in the previous year. Firewood from 
.the same Settlements fell from 10,845 f° ns hi 1919 to 7,168 in 1920. 

15- In Malacca the following forest reserves were under exploitation for trees of 
Class I and Class II, Bukit Sedanan, Bukit Senggeh, Batang Malaka, Nyalas, Ayer 
Paiias, Merlimau, Sungei Udang and Ramuan China. Work in the last-named 
leserve was stopped during the year. Class II poles were exploited from Bukit 
Panchor and Bukit Biuang Reserves. The revenue from this source amounted to 
$5,296. Charcoal permits produced $280. Until more trained officers can be obtained 
accurate records cannot be expected. 


(b) From Crown Lands. 

16. In Singapore 405 permits were issued for firewood and pole cutting. The 
estimated outturn was 8,100 tons of firewood, and 61 1 tons of poles, the correspond- 
ing figures in 1919 being 6,460 and 986. The revenue was $2,955,41, compared with 
$2,20474 hi 1919. 

17. The outturn of timber from Penang, Province Wellesley and the Dindings 
was 2,991 tons, being 436 tons more than in the previous year. The Dindings is 
responsible for this increase. In the same Settlements the outturn of firewood de- 
clined from 2,991 tonsin 19 1 9 to '2,555 in J 920. No charcoal was manufactured. 
The revenue for the year was $9,003.59, compared with $9,101.49 in 1919. 

18. In Malacca the outturn of timber was 1,038 tons and of fuel 65 tons, com- 
pared with 1,35^ tons and 311 tons respectively in 1919, Revenue was $1,256 as 
against $1,993 in the former year. 

19. The total revenue derived from timber and fuel from Crown Lands was 
$13,215, and the total outturns were, timber 4,640 tons, and tirewood 13,826 tons. 
The corresponding figures for 1919 were, revenue $13,299, and 4,898 tons and 14,316 
tons for timber and firewood. 


(c) From Alienated Land, 

20. Fourteen thousand eight hundred and seventy-three dollars and ninety-five 
cents were derived from the ten per cent charged on the estimated value of timber on 
land when alienated. The revenue from this source was $23,819.98 in 1919, and 
$1,819 in 1918. 


4 


Minor Forest Products. 

21. The total revenue from both Forest Reserves and Crown Lands amounted to 
$3,734.56, or $815 more than in 1919. The chief increase was in tengar bark from 
Crown Land in the Bindings, which rose from $276.73 to $ 537 - 97 - The l t ern ^ l ^ c * u - 
ded under this head are nibong, bamboo, canes, nipah, beVtam, granite metal (from 
reserved forests only), Para rubber (Malacca only), and jungle fruits. 


PART III. 

FINANCIAL RESULTS. 

* 

* Revenue. 

22. The following statement shows the total revenue from 1918 to 1920: 


Settlement. 

i 

Revenue, 

1918. 

Revenue, 

1919. 

Esti- 

mated 

revenue, 

1920. 

Actual 

revenue, 

[920. 

Increase 
or decrease 
over 

Estimates. 

Increase 
or decrease 
over 1919 
actuals. 


■ 

$ 

c. 

$ 

c. 

$ 

$ 

c 


$ 

c. 

$ 

c, 

Singapore 

7,852 

63 

11,243 

28 

5.500 

] 2,978 

59 

4 

"O 

00 

59 

1 + *.735 

3 1 

Penang and P. 











1 

89 

Wellesley ... 

5,308 

79 

7.051 

86 

3,500 

5,722 

97 

4 

2,222 

97 

(-1,328 

Dindings 

14,518 

°7 

18,314 

16 

12,000 

r 5 , 3 2r 

05 

4 

3 > 3 21 

05 

-2,993 

1 1 

Malacca 

7.799 

64 

29,144 

98 

9,000 

23,245 

44 

+ 

14,245 

44 

- 5.899 

54 

Total ... 

35.479 

13 

65,754 

28 

/ 

30,000 

57,268 

05 

f 27,268 

05 

l — 8,486 23 


23. There was a fall of $1,557 in firewood revenue, the increase in Singapore 
being more than set off by the decreases in Penang and the Dindings, I he decrease 
of $7,300 under timber is due to the item of Malacca revenue referred to in para- 
graph 20. 

Expenditure. 


23. The following table shows the expenditure from 1918 to 1920 : — 


Settlement. 

• 

Expenditure, 

1918. 

Expenditure, 

1919. 

Estimated 

expenditure, 

1920. 

Expenditure, 
1920. « 

Savings or 
excess over 
Estimates. 

Increase or 
decrease 
over 1919 
actuals. 


8 c. 

$ c. 

$ 

$ c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 

10,126 95 

9,598 83 

11,172 

14,982 60 

-3,810 60 

+ 5,383 77 

Wellesley 

5,511 19 

5,459 20 

6,839 

6433 03 

+ 405 97 

+ 973 83 

Dindings 

6,448 50 

6,688 19 

8,329 

7,192 85 

4 1,136 15 

-r- 504 66 

Malacca 

11,489 37 

12,318 06 

13,804 

14,240 48 

- 436 48 

- 1 - 1,922 42 

Total ... 

33,576 01 

34,064 28 

40,144 

*42,848 96 

- 2,704 96 

+ 8,784 68 


24. Personal Emoluments amounted to $32,140.86, being an increase of 
$7,473 .5 1 over the previous year, due to improvements in rates of pay. Under 
Other Charges there was a total increase of $1,311.17, but there were no changes 
of importance. 

* Excludes temporary allowances, but includes arrears of pay due under revised salary schemes. 


5 


Surplus. 


25. The surplus of revenue over expenditure was $14,419.09 as shown in the 
following statement : — 


Settlement. 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1918. 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1919. 

Estimated 
surplus or 
deficit 1920. 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1920. 

Increase 

over 

Estimates. 

Decrease 
over 1919 
actuals. 


$ c. 

$ c. 

8 

• $ c. 

8 c. 

8 c. 

Singapore 

- 2,274 32 

+ 1,644 45 

- 5,672 

- 2,004 01 

3,667 99 

3,648 46 

Penang and Province 







Wellesley 

- 202 40 

+ 1,592 66 

- 3 339 

- 710 06 

2,628 94 

2,302 72 

Dindings 

+ 8,069 57 

+ 11,625 97 

+ 3,671 

+ 8,128 20 

4,457 20 

3,497 77 

Malacca «... 

- 3,689 73 

+ 16,826 92 

- 4,804 

+ 9,004 96 

13,808 96 

7,821 96 

Total ... 

+ 1,903 12 

+ 31,690 00 

- 10,144 

+ 14,419 09 ■ 

24,563 09 

17,270 91 


26. The surplus is $17,271 less than in 1919, but it is still much above the 
normal surplus. This is chiefly due to the item of revenue referred to in paragraph 20. 


PART IV. 


Administration. 

27. Towards the end of the year arrangements were made to place the control 
of forest work in Penang, Province Wellesley and the Dindings in the hands of 
senior officers of the Federated Malay States, the Deputy Conservator of Forests, 
Perak North, will supervise Penang and Province Wellesley and the Deputy Conser- 
vator of Forests, 1 erak South, will be in charge of the Dindings. "Ihere were 
no other changes. 

% 

B. H. F. BARNARD, 

Acting Conservator of Forests , 

S. S . and F. M. S. 

Kuala Lumpur, 

ijth March , 1921. [No. 2771/21.] 




Annual Report on Forest Administration in the 
Straits Settlements for the Year 1921. 


PART I. 

Extension and Constitution of Reserved Forests. 

I. A further addition of 754 acres, 2 roods, 14 poles was made to the 
Tanjong Burong Reserve in the Bindings, and a reserve was formed of the 
whole of the Crown Land at Cape Rachado belonging to the Settlement of 
Malacca. An extension of about 1,925 acres to the Segari-Melmtang Reserve 
in the Bindings was preliminarily notified, and the reservation of Bukit Ivopia 
in the same Settlement was under consideration at the close of the year. W hen 
these last two areas have been settled, reservation will be almost complete, but 
the needs -of the Colony can never be met from the forests within its own 
boundaries. A small area of 2 roods, 22 poles was excised from the Changi 
Reserve in Singapore as of small value to the Government compared with its 
value to the holder of the adjacent property, but no further progress was made 
with the revocation of part of the Pandan Reserve for the construction of 
cement works. 

2. The total area of reserved forest is now 167*3 square miles* distributed 
as shown in the following table. Betails are given in Form I.* 


Locality. 

1 

Area. 

Area of 

Reserved Forests. 

Proportion 
to whole area. 


Square miles. 

Square miles. 

Per cent. 

Singapore ... 

217 

210 

9*7 

Penang 

108 

19*0 

i7’6 

Province Wellesley 

280 

6-3 

2*2 

Bindings 

183 

43' 5 

23-8 

Malacca 

720 

77*5 

io*7 

Total 

1,508 

►"H 

-■J 

cd 

in 


3. There seems some doubt whether the military authorities will after 
all need the Mandai and Sembawang Reserves which were given up in 1914, 
and, if they do not take them over, the question of their re-reservation should 
be considered. 



* Not printed 


* 


2 



Demarcation and Upkeep of Boundaries. 


4. The boundaries of the reserved forests are now estimated to amount 
to 554 miles 29 chains as shown in detail in Form 3. 1 hey were for the most 

part maintained by the subordinate staff, the total expend it me being $232.19, 
of which $209.54 was incurred in Malacca. 


Surveys. 

5. The only survey work of any importance was done in the Bukit Sedanan 
Reserve in Malacca, which has now been completely divided up into com- 
partments to facilitate the organisation and supervision of exploitation. 
Similar work has been begun in the Ayer Panas Reserve. _ In these reserves 
50 miles 33 chains were surveyed at a cost of $700.62, which is a good deal 
cheaper than the work of the previous year, but still seems high. 1 he only 
other work under this head was the survey of the annual coupe and certain 
plantations in the Tanjong Burong Reserve in the Bindings, 3 miles 61 chains 
being completed (mostly by the subordinate staff) at a cost of $15. 


PART II. 

MANAGEMENT OF FORESTS. 

Plans of Operations. 

6. The plans of operations were on a small scale and were adhered to. 

Communications. 

7. About 13 miles of paths were constructed in the Bukit Sedanan 
Reserve, and 9 miles 21 chains in the Sungei Udang Reserve, the cost being 
$282 and $555.75 respectively. Repairs to 22 miles 79 chains in the latter 
reserve were done by the subordinate staff. Only in Malacca ha^s systematic 
work of this kind been begun, but it is becoming more and more necessary 
in the Dindings. 

Buildings. 

8. The construction and maintenance of buildings are for the most part 
in the hands of the Public Works Department. Quarters for a forester were 
completed at Tel ok Bahang for $3,600, and a checking station and 
subordinates' quarters at Segari for $4,825. Both are solid buildings fully 
adequate to requirements. 

9. Further details are given in Form V.* 


Protection of Forests. 

xo. There were no changes in the Forest Law. The number of offences 
reported rose from 46 in 1920 to 104 in the year of report, of which 95 were 
concerned with the unauthorised removal or appropriation of forest produce. 
Almost the whole of the increase is due to better supervision in Malacca, 
where 39 out of the 71 offences reported w T ere committed in reserved forests. 
Thirty-three cases were taken to court, and convictions were obtained in 
thirty, the fines inflicted amounting to $445 (of which $153 were paid to the 
Forest Department) in addition to $39.16, the proceeds of the sale of con- 
fiscated property. The sum realised in the 67 cases compounded amounted 
to $872.50. * At the close of the year 4 cases were pending. Further details 
are given in Korm 7 A 


* Not printed. 


IMPROVEMENT OF FORESTS. 


Natural Reproduction. 

11. Dipterocarps fruited fairly freely, and there was an average seed-year 
in the mangrove forests. Natural reproduction in Malacca is on the whole 
remarkably good, largely on account of the fellings of second-class trees 
which have taken place for many years in the reserves of that Settlement. The 
forests in the Dindings recpiire systematic opening up, if seed-years are to 
be taken full advantage of. Improvement fellings were cariied out over about 
30 acres in the Bnkit Sedanan Reserve in Malacca at a cost of $141, the natural 
regeneration in the area chosen for treatment being particularly plentiful. 

Plantations and Cultural Operations. 

12. A recently exploited area of 246 acres in the Tanjong Burong Reserve 
in the Dindings was planted with Bakau minyak at a cost of $763.77, but 
further expenditure will probably have to be incurred on the replacement of 
failures. In this plantation 1,020 seedlings were protected from the attacks of 
crabs by means of pieces of tin bent round the stem just above the ground. 
At the end of the year it was found that 84 per cent of the protected seedlings 
had survived and only 60 per cent of the unprotected. Seventeen acres in the 
same reserve were planted with tengar. The whole of this planting should 
have been done by the felling contractors, who paid $1,400 to Government 
as compensation for their failure to do so. 

13. There was no change in the area of plantations in the other Settle- 
ments, and the only work done in them was the eradication of lalang* at a cost 
of $151.50 from about 6 acres of Para rubber in the Bukit Bruang Reserve 
plantation in Malacca, and the cleaning of about 41 acres of Penaga in the 
same plantation by the subordinate staff. The taban, penaga, and merbau 
in this plantation are reported to be doing well, but the tembusu is sickly 
and hardly worth further expenditure. 

14. In Singapore the area of the Bukit Timah plantation is likely to be 
affected by the proposals for the improvement of the Singapore-Kranji Rail- 
way. Owing to the state of the rubber industry the rubber was not tapped, 
but a sum of $3,000 was transferred from deposits to revenue on account of 
previous working of the plantation. 


EXPLOITATION. 

Timber and Fuel. 

(a) From Reserves. 

15. Tn Singapore five reserves were worked as usual for mangrove fuel 
under the coupe system, the area under exploitation during the whole or part 
of the year being 319 acres. In addition, seven old coupes, which had not 
been fully worked out, were open to exploitation under monthly permits. 
The 128 acres newly leased realised $25.64 per acre compared with $31.38 per 
acre for the coupes of the previous year. The estimated outturn from the 
leased coupes was 2,350 tons, and from the coupes open itnder permit 1,220 
tons, compared with 3,620 and 460 tons respectively in 1920. The outturn 
from other sources was 54 tons of timber and 1,801 tons of firewood. The 
revenue fell from $8,031.38 to $5,003,05. 


4 


o 


t6. The following table summarises the results of the year s work in the 
Singapore mangrove forests: — 


Reserve. 

Coupe 

No. 

Area in 

acres. 

Amount at 
which 
leased. 

Total 

evenue real- 
ised during 
1921. 

Approximate 
outturn 
during 1921. 

j 

Remarks. 

Pandan ... 

Pandan ... 

Changi 

Changi 

Kranji 

Seletar 

Tuas 

I 

12 

13 

12 

13 

12 

11 

11 

1 

80 

80 

16 

30 

30 

IS 

65 

% c. I 

3,768 00 
2,608 00 
640 00 
546 00 
540 00 
127 80 
1,046 50 

I 

$ c. 

2,608 00 

546 00 
270 00 
127 80 
523 25 

Tons. 

620 

160 

180 

180 

360 

220 

630 

Old. 

New 

Old. 

New. 

Old. 

New. 

Old. 

Total ... 


319 

9,276 30 

4,075 05 

2,350 

... 

Pandan ... 

8 

105 


10 00 

40 


Pa n d an 

9 

80 


40 00 

160 


Pandan 

10 

80 


15 00 

60 

Open under 

Pandan 

11 

80 


120 00 

480 

V monthly 

Pandan ... 

12 

80 


95 00 

380 

1 permits. 


9 

65 


10 00 

40 

| 

Tuas 

10 

65 


15 00 

60 


Total ... 

... 

555 

... 

305 00 

1,220 

1 



17. The outturn of timber on payment from the reserves of Penang, 
Province Wellesley, and the Dindings fell from 2,13994 to 1,114 3 ^^ tons, 
more than half of it being in the form of poles. 1 he reduced output is due 
to the gradual closing down of work in the Dindings owing to the unsatisfac- 
tory methods followed by the permit holders. The outturn of firewood from 
the same Settlements fell from 7,168*34 to 4,077*52 tons, and the revenue from 
$9,145.07 to $6,680.59. 

18. In Malacca 43 permit holders were working in the following 
reserves: — Sungei Udang, 8; Bukit Sedanan, 11; Batang Malaka, 6; Bukit 
Senggeh, 9; Nyalas, 4; Ayer Panas, 1; Merlimau, 3; and Bukit Bruang, 1. 
In addition, one permit holder in the Bukit Sedanan Reserve was allowed to 
convert tops and branches into charcoal. The total outturn of timber, fuel 
and charcoal was 2,514*16 tons, compared with 4,004*39 tons in 1920, and the 
revenue fell from $5,576 to $5,021. Owing to the total absence of compart- 
ments in most of the reserves — a defect which is now being remedied the 
work is very difficult to supervise, but, owing to its spasmodic nature, the 
forests have not suffered as much as might be expected. Class I trees are all 
marked before felling, and, as only a few trees are felled at one time, the 
result has been a gradual opening of the canopy and fairly satisfactory 
regeneration. 

19. The outturn from the reserved forests in all the Settlements was 
3,590*20 tons of timber, 9,520*52 tons of fuel, and 20*26 tons of charcoal, on 
which revenue of $16,704^64 was realised. The corresponding figures for 
1920 are 6,197*13 tons of timber, I3>533'34 tons of firewood, 96*2 tons of char- 
coal, and $22,752.19 revenue. ’No account is taken of timber or fuel 
extracted free of royalty. 


(b) From Crown Land. 

20. Monthly permits were issued as usual in Singapore for firewood and 
pole cutting, the revenue being $5,491.16 and the estimated outturn 9,260 
tons of firewood and 3,293d tons of poles, compared with $2,955.41, and 8,100 
and 61 1 tons respectively in T920. 

21. The outturn of timber from Penang, Province Wellesley, and the 
Dindings was 2,312*65 tons, being 678*56 tons less than in 1920. The out- 
turn of firewood was 5,594*80 tons, compared with 5,660*65 tons in 1920. I he 
revenue for the year was $6,421.11, compared with $9,003.59 in 1920. 


5 


22. Tn Malacca 538*28 tons of timber were removed on payment of royalty, 
and 236,295 poles under free grant. The fall of 564*99 tons in outturn was 
accompanied by a decrease of revenue from $1,256 to $1,201. 

23. The total revenue on timber, fuel, and charcoal from Crown land in 
all the Settlements was $13,113.27, details of the quantities extracted, amount- 
ing - in all to 6,144*43 tons of timber and 14,854*80 tons of firewood, being given 
in Form 9 \ 1 he corresponding figures for 1920 are 4,64048 tons of timber, 
r 3 .' 8 2 5 '65 tons of firewood, and $13,215 revenue. 

(c) From Alienated Land. 

24. the only record of outturn from alienated land is 100*34 tons of 
timber in the bindings, which realised $68.68. The revenue derived in 
Malacca from the 10 per cent ad valorem tax on the timber on newly alienated 
land fell from $14,873,95 to $2,848.13, This source of revenue is almost 
exhausted as there is little Crown land left to alienate. The system is one 
which might be followed with advantage elsewhere. 


Minor Forest Products. 

(a) From Reserves. 

25. Revenue on minor forest produce from reserves rose from $2,017.55 
to $4,195.88, owing to the transfer of $3,000 from deposit account to revenue 
as mentioned in paragraph 14. Excluding this item there was a fall of 
$821.67, accounted for by the impossibility of leasing the Para rubber planta- 
tion at Ayer Kroh in Malacca and the decrease in revenue from canes in 
the Dindings. The revenue for each Settlement and the principal products 
from which it was derived are as follows : — 

Singapore: — $11, from nibong; 

Penang and Province Wellesley : —$354, chiefly from akar ($210), canes 
($66), and bertam and langkap ($50); 

Dindings : —$702, chiefly from krang shell (240), granite ($171), and 
kajang ($170.80) ; 

Malacca. — $137, chiefly from canes ($98), 

(b) From Crown Lands. 

26. There was a decrease from $1,717.01 to $1,330.30 in the revenue on 
minor produce from Crown lands, the principal items being $624.45 for tengar 
bark in the Dindings, $241.08 for nibong, and $197.63 for canes." 


PART HI. 

FINANCIAL RESULTS. 
Revenue. 


27. The following statement shows the total revenue from 1919 to 1921 : — 


Settlement. 

Revenue, 

1919. 

Revenue, 

1920. 

Esti- 

mated 

revenue, 

1921. 

Actual 

revenue, 

1921. 

Increase 
or decrease 
over 

Estimates. 

Increase 
or decrease 
over 1920 
actuals. 


; $ c. 

$ 0 

$ 

$ c. 

$ c . 

$ c . 

Singapore 

Penang and P. 

11,243 28 

12,978 59 

5,000 

16,677 97 

+ 11,677 97 

+ 3,699 38 

Wellesley ... 

7,051 86 

5,722 97 

3 » 3 io 

3,016 11 

- 293 89 

— 2,706 86 

Dindings 

18,314 1 6 

15,321 05 

n, 37 ° 

13,801 11 

42,431 11 

-b 5 i 9 94 

Malacca 

29444 98 

2 3> 2 45 44 

16,500 

10,341 38 

— 6,158 62 

— 12,904 06 

Tota l ... 

65.754 28 1 

57,268 05 

36,180 

43,836 57 

+ 7.656 57 

— 13,431 48 



* Not printed, 


6 


28. Singapore is the only Settlement to show an increase over the previous 
year, due mainly to the transfer of $3,000 from deposit account to revenue, 
but partly also to the issue of a large number of permits to cut firewood. The 
fall in Penang and Province Wellesley is attributed to the general 
trade depression; in the Dindings to the temporary closure of the forest 
reserves to the timber cutter; and in Malacca to the exhaustion of Crown 
land and the consequent reduction in premia paid on forest land when 
alienated. 


Expenditure. 


29. The following table shows the expenditure from T919 to 1921: — 


Settlement. 

Expenditure, 

1919. 

Expenditu re, 
1920. 

Estimated 

expenditure, 

1921. 

Expenditure, 

1921. 

• 

Savings or 
excess over 
Estimates. 

Increase or 
decrease 
over 1920 
actuals. 


S c. 

S c. 

S 

8 c. 

$ c. 

$ c. 

Singapore 

9,598 83 

14,982 60 

20,351 

18,659 43 

4 1,691 57 

+ 3,676 83 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley 

5,459 20 

6,433 03 

7,300 

. 6,058 23 

4 1,241 77 

- 374 80 

Dindings 

6,688 19 

7,192 85 

12,581 

10,383 00 

4 2,198 00 

+ 3,190 15 

Malacca 

12,318 06 

14,240 48 

18,445 

15,471 31 

4 2,973 69 

4 1,230 83 

Total ... 

34,064 28 

42,848 96 

58,677 

* 50,571 97 

4 8,105 03 

4 7,723 01 


30. Almost the whole of the increase in expenditure is due to the increased 
cost of salaries, which rose from $32,140.86 to $38,921.11. The increased 
expenditure under other charges was incurred chiefly on transport, planting 
and cultural operations, and miscellaneous expenses. 


Deficit. 


31 . There was a deficit of $6,735.40 as shown in the following statement : — 


Settlement, 

Surplus 1 
or deficit 
1919. 

j 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1920. 

. 1 

Estimated 1 
surplus or ' 
deficit 1921. 

1 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1921. 

' "1 

Increase 

or decrease 
over 

Estimates. 

Increase or 
decrease 
over 1920 
actuals. 


$ C . 

S c. 

$ c. 

$ c . 

$ c. 

1 c. 

Singapore 

4 1,644 45 

- 2,004 01 

- 15,351 00 

- 1,981 46 

4 13,369 54 

4 22 55 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley 

4 1,592 66 

710 06 

- 3,990 00 

- 3.042 12 

4 947 88 

- 2,332 06 

Dindings 

4 11,625 97 

4 8,128 20 

- 1,211 00 

4 3,418 11 

4 4,629 11 

- 4,710 09 

Malacca 

4 16,826 92 

4 9,004 96 

- 1,945 00 

- 5,129 93 

- 3,184 93 

- 14,134 89 

Total ... 

4 31,690 00 

4 14,419 09 

- 22,497 00 

l 

- 6,735 40 

4 15,761 60 

- 21,154 49 


32. If temporary allowances are taken into consideration the deficit is 
$16,766.39. During seven-and-a-half months of the year of report the writer 
was on leave and the salary of his locum-tenens, amounting to $3,651-62, had to 
be paid in addition to his own. This charge should not recur for some time. 
There is every reason also to believe that, with the return of more prosperous 
conditions, the revenue from the Dindings and Malacca forests should again 
rise. The present deficit should therefore certainly be reduced during 1922, 
though it may be some time before it is converted into a surplus. It is thought 
that in Penang and Province Wellesley some economies might he effected, 
and this matter is under consideration. 

* Excludes temporary allowances amounting to $10,030.99- 


1 

* 

• PART IV. 

Administration. 

33. A complete scheme for the amalgamation of the department with that 
of the Federated Malay States was drawn up, and was carried into effect in 
anticipation of formal sanction to certain financial arrangements on which 
orders have not yet been passed. The two senior Rangers were transferred 
to the Federated Malay States and the forests of the Colony are now 
under the direct control of senior officers of those States. Penang, Province 
Wellesley, and the Tanjong Burong Reserve in the Dindings are now in 
charge of the Deputy Conservator of Forests, Taiping; the rest of the Din- 
dings is in charge of the Deputy Conservator of Forests, Batu Gajah; Malacca, 
as before, is attached for administrative purposes to Negri Semtilan; and it 
is expected that Singapore island will shortly be placed in charge of the Con- 
servator of Forests, Johore. The beneficial result of these changes is most 
marked in Malacca, which now lias the services of a trained Assistant 
Conservator. 


Kuala Lumpur, 

1 yth March, 1922. [No. 2450/22.] 


E. CUBITT, 

Conservator of Forests , 

S. S. & F. M, S. 


Annual Report on Forest Administration in the 
Straits Settlements, for the Year 1922. 


PART I, 

Extension and Constitution of Reserved Forests. 

1. The forest reserves were increased by an addition of 2,527^ acres 
in the Bindings, partly by an extension of the Segari-Melintang Reserve 
(1,925 acres), and partly by the reservation of Bukit Kopia (60 2\ acres). 
On the other hand about 156 acres were excised from the Pandan Reserve 
in Singapore for the Pasir Panjang Cement Works. 

2. No formal proposals were made during the year for the constitu- 
tion of new reserves, but the reservation of about 800 acres of mangrove 
swamp on the Sungei Linggi in Malacca seems desirable and was under 
consideration. 

3. The Mandai and Sembawang Reserves, which were given up in 1914 
at the urgent request of the military authorities, have never been used, and 
are now said not to be w r anted for military purposes. It is not yet decided 
whether they shall again be constituted reserved forests. 

4. The total area of reserved forest is now iyi‘i square miles distri- 
buted as shown in the following table. 


Locality. 

Area. 

) 

Area of 

Reserved Forests. 

Proportion 
to whole area. 


Square miles. 

Square miles. 

Per cent. 

Singapore... 

2 1 7 

20 8 

9*6 

Penang 

108 

190 

1 7*6 

Province Wellesley 

280 

63 

2'2 

Dindings 

183 

47*5 

26’0 

Malacca 

f 7 2 ° 

! 77*5 

10-8 

Total 

1,508 

171*1 

11*3 


Demarcation and Upkeep of Boundaries. 

5. The length of reserve boundaries is now estimated to be about 555 
miles, the greater part of which was maintained in good order by the sub- 
ordinate staff, the total expenditure being $277, of which $208 were spent 


2 


in Malacca. In addition $17 were spent on demarcating 2} miles of boundary 
of the suggested reserve on the Sungei Linggi. In Malacca the boundaries 
were more clearly defined than before by the erection of 138 new and clearly 
marked boundary plates. 


Surveys. 

6. About 8 miles of the southern boundary of the Sungei Pinang Re- 
serve and the northern boundary of the South Pangkor Reserve, both in 
the Dindings, were surveyed by the Survey Department with a view chiefly 
to locating the situation of certain blocks of alienated land. The only other 
survey work of importance was carried out departmentally in the Bukit 
Senggeh, Ayer Panas, Batang Malaka, and Bukit Sedanan Reserves in 
Malacca, where timber extraction tracks or specially selected cut and graded 
lines were surveyed and adopted as compartment boundaries. About 
59 miles were surveyed for this purpose at a cost of $380, which compares 
favourably with $701 for 50 miles of similar work in 1921. 


PART II. 

MANAGEMENT OF FORESTS. 

Working Plans and Plans of Operations. 

7. There are at present no regular working plans, but the breaking up 
of the Malacca reserves into compartments is a necessary preliminary to 
their compilation. The plans of operations were on a small scale and were 
generally adhered to, the only important exception being the proposed 
enumeration surveys in the Lumut Reserve, which could not be carried out for 
want of an experienced officer. 

Communications. 

8. A mile of path costing $23 was constructed to give access to the 
tab an plantation in the Telok Bahang Reserve in Penang, and about 2d miles 
of rough paths were made at a cost of $22 round the reservoir in the Panchor 
Reserve in Province Wellesley to facilitate the protection of the water 
catchment area. The latter path also gives access to a felling area. 

9. In Malacca 36 miles of path were constructed, mostly along old 
extraction tracks, at an average cost of $476 a mile, the distances being 17, 
10, 1, and 8 miles in the Ayer Panas, Bukit Senggeh, Merlimau, and Batang 
Malaka Reserves respectively. Repairs were carried out to 25 miles in the 
Sungei Udang Reserve and 2 miles in the Bukit Bruang Reserve at a cost 
of $1.58 a mile. 

Buildings. 

10. The construction and maintenance of Forest Department buildings 
are for the most part in the hands of the Public Works Department. New 
quarters were erected for forest guards in Malacca at Merlimau ($950), 
Selandar ($1,330), and Sungei Udang ($1,093), and quarters for a forester 
at Alor Gajab were begun. In addition a sum of $1,180 was spent on 
latrines at Balik Pulau, Bukit Mertajam, and Jasin, on wells at Telok Bahang 
and Sungei Udang, and on a fence at Telok Bahang. 

Protection of Forests. 

tij. There were no changes in the Forest Law. The numbet of 
offences reported, none of which were serious, fell from 104 in 1921 to 64 
in the year of report, of which 60 were concerned with the unauthorised 
removal or appropriation of forest produce. The fall is accounted for en- 
tirely by the reduction in the number of offences in Malacca, where the stricter 
supervision enforced in 1921 has evidently had a salutary effect. Four cases 
were pending at the beginning of the year. 


3 


12. Convictions were obtained in 40 out of 42 cases taken to court, the 
fines inflicted amounting to $887 in addition to $240 compensation for damage 
to the forest, and $25 realised from the sale of confiscated property. Cases 
were compounded only in Malacca, where 22 cases were dealt with, and 
compensation of $478 accepted. In the Dindings $33 were paid for breaches 
of permits to exploit forest produce, and $2 were realised by the sale of 
seized property in two undetected cases. At the close of the year two cases 
were pending. 

13. Squirrels did very considerable damage to the seed crop of gutta- 
percha in the Ayer Kroh plantation, and shooting them had little effect. 
Rhodaneura larvae did a small amount of damage in the gutta-percha 
nursery, and a few trees in the plantation were attacked by borers. The 
most serious damage so far reported is due to the presence of resam, which is 
spreading to the drier portions of the Ayer Kroh plantation and the Sungei 
Udang Reserve, and against which remedial measures have not yet been 
devised. 

14. In the Tanjong Burong Reserve in the Dindings several patches of 
pure lenggadai forest died, but no signs of disease were discovered by the 
Mycologist to whom specimens were submitted. 

IMPROVEMENT OF FOREST. 

Natural Reproduction. 

15. Dipterocarps are reported to have flowered and fruited freely in the 
Dindings; Keruing and Meranti Rambai Daun fruited plentifully, and 
Merawan to a limited extent in Malacca; and Meranti flowered well in the 
Bukit Panchor Reserve in Province Wellesley, but it is not yet known 
whether seed resulted. About 30 taban trees bore a moderate crop of fruit 
in the Ayer Ivroh plantation ; elsewhere it failed to flower. Mangrove re- 
production in the Tanjong Burong Reserve wms rather below the average. 

Plantations and Cultural Operations. 

16. 1 he gutta-percha and rubber plantations in Singapore were main- 
tained at a small cost of S32, but no tapping was done owing to the depressed 
state of the rubber industry. 

17. Considerable attention was paid to gutta-percha in Malacca, and 
m ore would have been done if seed had been available. Naturally grown 
seedlings were collected from the Ayer Kroh plantation, and about r6 acres 
of Para rubber were underplanted with them in baskets at intervals of 6' x 6 f . 
Efforts to improve the soil by growing green manures were only partially 
successful, but on the whole the seedlings did well. A small nursery was 
established at the Sungei Anak Ayer Bengkuang, and 1,2^3 seedlings from 
2,010 seeds sown survived at the end of the year. The total cost of these 
operations, including the removal of 32 superfluous Para rubber trees, was. 
$194, which is very heavy. 

18. In the Telok Bahang Reserve in Penang 514 gutta-percha seedlings 
were moved from overstocked to blank areas. In the same reserve a small 
experiment at a cost of only 84 was made in the planting of bamboo, for 
which there is a considerable demand, met at present chiefly by imports from 
Kedah and to a small extent by the little that is grown in kampongs. If 
bamboos can be grown cheaply they should be profitable to the Government 
and of benefit to the local population. 

19. The mangrove plantations in the Tanjong Burong Reserve in the 
Dindings were increased by 71 acres at a cost of $4,07, but owing to damage 
by crabs replacements on a large scale will be necessary and further expen- 
diture be incurred. Attempts to protect the seedlings by planting them in 
sections of bamboo failed; the crabs climbed the bamboos and did damage 
above them, and, if there was room, took up their permanent habitation 
inside. ^ Fifteen acres of the plantations of 1921 which had been ravaged by 
crabs were re-stocked. The total cost of the work was $300. 


Vjx 


4 


Improvement Fellings. 

20. In the Government Hill Reserve (Batu Feringgi) in I enang 
improvement fellings were carried out free of cost by the subordinate staff 
over about 68 acres of gutta-percha forest. Ten acres of gutta-percha were 
similarly treated in the Telok Bahang Reserve at a cost of $i 4 B including 
the cost of moving seedlings referred to in paragraph 18. 

21. In Malacca a sum of $205 was spent on the improvement of about 
93 acres of gutta-percha in the Ayer Krob plantation. Poles which hindered 
the development of the gutta-percha trees were felled, and larger trees were 
ringed and killed by the application of Atlas preservative. This small 
plantation promises to be an important source of supply for gutta-percha seed. 

22. In the Ayer Panas, Merlimau, Ramuan China, and Sungei Udang 
Reserves improvement fellings in favour of the regeneration of first class 
trees were carried out over about 76 acres by timber licensees. 


EXPLOITATION. 


Timber and Fuel. 


(1 a ) From Reserves . 

23. In Singapore five reserves were worked as usual for mangrove fuel 
under the coupe system, the area under exploitation during the whole or 
part of the year being 333 acres. In addition, five old coupes which had not 
been fully worked out, were open to exploitation under monthly permits. 
The 205 acres newly leased realised $25.17 per acre, compared with $25.64 
per acre ior the coupes of the previous year. 1 he estimated outturn from 
the leased coupes was 4,700 tons, and from the coupes open under permit 
880 tons, compared with 2,350 and 1,220 tons respectively in 1921. The out- 
turn from other sources was 45 tons of timber and 600 tons of fuel. The 
revenue rose from $5,003 to $5>74°- 

24. The following table summarises the results of the year’s work in 
the mangrove forests: — 


Reserve. 


Coupe 

No. 

Area in 
acres. 

Amount at 
which 
leased. 

Total 

revenue real- 
ised during ; 
1922. 

Approximate 
outturn 
during 1922. 

. 

Remarks. 

1 


§ c , 

S c. 

' 

Tons. 



Pandan 

13 

80 ! 

*2,808 

00 

200 

00 

1,560 

Old. 

Pandan 

14 

so 

2,488 

00 

+ 2,513 

00 

640 

New 

Changi 

Kran ji 

13 

30 

546 

00 



280 

Old. 

13 

30 

600 

00 

600 

00 

720 

. . . 

Seletar 

11 

18 

127 

80 

. . . 


20 

Old. 

Seletar 

12 

30 

427 

50 

427 

50 

600 

New. 

Tuas 

12 

65 

1,644 

50 

... 


880 

... 

Total ... 

... 

333 

8,641 

so 

l 

yj 

-A 
i O 

50 

4,700 

... 

Pandan ... 

Pandan 

9 

11 

80 

80 



5 

40 

00 

00 

20 1 
160 1 

Open under 

Pandan 

12 

80 

. . . 


145 

00 

580 y 

monthly 

Tnas 

9 

65 

* . • 


20 

00 

80 [ 

permits. 

Changi 

12 

16 

... 


10 

00 

40 J 


Total . . . 

... 

321 

... 

220 

00 

880 

... 


25. The outturn of timber on payment from the reserves of h enang, 
Province Wellesley, and the Dindings fell from 1,114 to 649 tons, the bulk 
of the output being in the form of poles. 1 he market foi tnmei from the 
Dindings is in Penang, and, as the demand almost ceased, work m the re- 
served forests was as far as possible closed down. The outturn of firewood 
from the same Settlements rose from 4,078 to 5>59^ tons, owing entirely to 

* Includes $200 paid for extension of contract. t Includes $25 forfeiture of deposit for tender. 


5 


more extensive work in the Tanjong Burong Reserve in the Dindings, to 
which however is credited this year 326 tons extracted, but not paid for, in 
1921. Revenue rose from $6,681 to $6,994. 

26. In Malacca 33 licensees were working timber in the following 
reserves: — Ayer Panas, 1; Bukit Sedanan, 12; Batang Malaka, 5; Bukit 
Senggeh, 5; Merlimau, 3; Sungei Udang, 6; and Ramuan China, 1. 
Licensees in the Bukit Sedanan and Bukit Senggeh Reserves were also al- 
lowed to convert waste timber into charcoal. The total outturn of timber, 
fuel, and charcoal from reserves was 1,531 tons, compared with 2,514 tons 
in 1921, and the revenue fell from $5,021 to $5,019. Of the total output of 
1,486 tons of timber, 482 tons came from the Bukit Sedanan Reserve. This 
reserve is now divided into 19 compartments, of which 8 were closed during 
the year to further exploitation, and one has not yet been opened. Now 
that compartments have been demarcated, exploitation is much more easily 
supervised and there are fewer breaches of the felling rules. It is of some 
interest to note that more than a third of the 240 class I trees felled were 
Durian Daun. 

27. The outturn from the reserved forests in all the Settlements was 2,180 
tons of timber, 11,401 tons of fuel, and 24 tons of charcoal on which revenue 
of $17,753 was realised. The corresponding figures for 1921 are 3,590 tons 
of timber, 9,521 tons of fuel, 20 tons of charcoal, and $16,705 revenue. No 
account is taken of timber or fuel taken free of royalty. 

(b) From Crown Land. 

28. Monthly permits were issued as usual in Singapore to remove 
firewood and poles from Crown land, and the figures for 1922 and 1921 are 
respectively as follows : — number of permits, 401 and 463; firewood removed, 
8,020 and 9,260 tons; poles removed, 2,92 6\ and 3,293^ tons; revenue 
realised, $4,881 and $5,491. 

29. In Penang, Province Wellesley, and the Dindings the revenue was 
$9,299 on 2,988 tons of timber and 6,899 tons of fuel, compared with $6,421, 
and 2,313 and 5,595 tons respectively in 1921. The increases are accounted 
for by improved demands for timber and firewood towards the closing 
months of the year and closer supervision by senior officers. 

30. In Malacca 1,057 tons of timber were removed on payment of royalty, 
and 9,257 poles under free grant. The output of timber having almost 
doubled, the revenue rose from St. 201 to $2,075. 

31. The total revenue on timber, fuel, and charcoal from Crown land 
in all the Settlements was $16,255 details of the quantities extracted, 
amounting in all to 6,971 tons of timber and 14,9 19 tons of firewood, being- 
given in form 9. The corresponding figures for 1921 are 6,144 tons of timber, 
14,855 tons of firewood, and $13,113 revenue. 

(c) From Alienated Land . 

32. The only recorded outturn from alienated land is 394 tons of timber 
(mostly poles) and in tons of firewood in the Dindings, which realised $381. 
In Malacca the 10% ad valorem tax on the timber on newly alienated land 
fell from $2,848 to $ 1,540, and little more can be expected from this source. 


Minor Forest Products. 

(a) From Reserves. 

33. Revenue on minor forest produce from reserves fell from $4,196 to 
$2,369; the former figure however includes $3,000 on rubber from the Bukit 
Timah plantation in Singapore, which was not tapped during the year under 
review. Actually there was more activity than usual in the exploitation of 
minor forest produce. There was a marked increase in the output of damar 


6 


# 


in Malacca, and gutta-percha trees were tapped for the first time in the 
Ayer Kroh plantation and in Batu Feringgi and Telok Bahang as follows: — 


Number of trees tapped 
Yield ... 

Cost of collection ... 
Receipts Irom sale ... 


j Batu Feringgi and 

Ayer Kroh . Telok Bahang. 


852 

3 43 pikuls. 
$612 
$996 


268 

1*45 pikuls. 
$220 
$428* 


34. The revenue for each Settlement and the principal products f 10111 
which it was derived are as follows : — 

Singapore $55, almost entirely from nibong. 

Penang and Province Wellesley: — $328, chiefly from akciv (§124), canes 
($84), and bertani ($82). 

Dindings:— $541, chiefly from krang shell ($225), granite ($141), and 
kajang ($104). 

Malacca: — $1,445, chiefly from gutta-percha ($996), damar ($315), and 
fruits ($96). 

(b) From Crown Lands. 

35. There was an increase in the revenue on minor produce from Crown 
lands from $1,330 to $2,083, to which the Dindings contributed $P 9 I 4 > 
including $1,239 on tengar bark, $320 on canes, $217 on nibong, and $115 
on me ngknang . The revenue of $509 on 182 taban trees with an average 
girth of 40 inches which were tapped on Pulau Jerejak was not recovered 
during the year. 


PART III. 

FINANCIAL RESULTS. 
Revenue. 


36. The following statement shows the total revenue from 1920 to 
1922: — 


Settlement. 

i 

Revenue, 

1920. 

Revenue, 

1921. 

Esti- 

mated 

revenue, 

1922. 

Actual 

revenue, 

1922. 

Increase 

over 

Estimates. 

T 

Increase 
or decrease 
over 192 1 
actuals. 


$ 

$ 

$ 

$ 

$ 

$ 

Singapore 

12,979 

16,678 

7,500 

14,389 

+ 6,889 

— 2,289 

Penan of and A 
Welleslev 

5 , 7 2 3 

3,016 

3,oco 

3.003 

+ 3 

- 13 

Dindings 

i 5 , 32 i 

13,801 

10,000 

16,916 

4 6,916 

+ 3 , 1 ! 5 

+ 364 

Malacca 

23,245 

10,341 

5,000 

10,705 

+ 5,705 

Tot^l ... 

57,268 

43,836 

25,500 

45,° 1 3 

F 19,5 *3 

+ M 77 


37. These figures are on the whole satisfactory and are undoubtedly the 
results of more efficient administration, which not only prevents the loss of 
revenue but taps new sources of revenue. 


Not realised during the year. 


7 


Expenditure. 


38. The following table shows the expenditure from 1920 to 1922 : — 


Settlement. 

Expenditure, 

1920. 

Expenditure, 

1921. 

Estimated 

expenditure, 

1922. 

Expenditure, 

1922, 

Savings on 
Estimates. 

Decrease 
over 1921 
actuals. 


V 

§ 

$ 

$ 

$ 

$ 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 

14,983 

18,659 

16,148 

14,776 

1,372 

3,883 

Wellesley 

6,433 

6,058 

7,346 

5,782 

1,564 

276 

Dindings 

7,193 

10,383 

12,357 

9,157 

3,200 

1,226 

Malacca 

14,240 

15,471 

19,248 

14,704 

4,544 

767 

Total ... 

42,849 

50,571 

55,099 

*44,419 

10,680 

6,152 


39. These figures also are satisfactory, and are evidence that economy 
was practised. 


Surplus. 

40. The surplus of revenue over expenditure was $594 as shown in the 
following statement: — 


Settlement. 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1920. 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1921. 

Estimated 
deficit 1922. 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1922. 

Increase 

over 

Estimates. 

Increase 
over 1921 
actuals. 


$ 

$ 

8 


$ 

$ 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 

- 2,004 

- 1,981 

8,648 

387 

8,261 

1,594 

Wellesley 

710 

- 3.042 

4,346 

- 2,779 

1,567 

263 

Dindings 

+ 8,128 

+ 3,418 

2,357 

+ 7,759 

10,116 

4,341 

Malacca 

+ 9,005 

- 5,130 

14,248 

- 3,999 

10,249 

1,131 

Total ... 

+ 14,419 

- 6,735 

29,599 

+ 594 

30,193 

7,329 


41. If temporary allowances are taken into consideration there is a 
deficit of $5,146, which is less than was expected wlien last year’s report 
w r as written. If, as is hoped, there is a renewed demand for timber in the 
current year, the deficit should be wiped off. 


PART IV. 

Administration. 


42. The writer was in charge of the department throughout the year, 
and no change was made in the administrative arrangements in the different 
Settlements. The scheme for the amalgamation of the Forest Departments 
of the Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States was the subject of 
further correspondence, but final orders were not passed. 


Kuala Lumpur, 4 th April , 1923 . 


E. CUBITT, 

Conservator of Forests, 

’S. S. and F. M. S. 


• Excludes temporary allowances amounting to $5,740. 


Annual Report on Forest Administration in the 
Straits Settlements, for the Year 1^23. 



FART I. 

EXTENSION AND CONSTITUTION OF RESERVED FORESTS. 

1 * During- the year the old Sembawang and Mandi Reserves in 
Singapore covering 1,119 acres, which had been given up at the request of 
the military authorities, together with an area of about no acres of Crown 
land between the latter reserve and the municipal catchment area, were 
gazetted a reserved forest under the name Mandi Reserve. About 800 acres 
of mangrove forest on the Linggi River in Malacca were also reserved to 
maintain a supply of fishing stakes and firewood for the inhabitants of Kuala 
Linggi. On the other hand the Kubang Ulu Reserve of 3J acres in Province 
Wellesley was abandoned and handed over to the Agricultural Department. 
No further reservation is at present under consideration, and certain 
revocations of reservation will probably be necessitated by the development 
of Penang Hill as a residential area. 

2. The total area of reserved forest is now 174-2 square miles 
distributed as shown in the following table: — 


Locality. 

Area. 

Area of 

Reserved Forests. 

Proportion 
to whole area. 


Square miles. 

f 

Square miles. 

Per cent. 

Singapore... 

2 r 7 

22'7 

I0 ’5 

Penang 

108 

I9'0 

17*6 

Province Wellesley 

280 

6-3 

2'2 

Dindings 

183 

47' 5 

26*0 

Malacca 

720 

787 | 

1 

10*9 

Total 

1,508 

1 

,74 ' 2 1 

n*6 


DEMARCATION AND UPKEEP OF BOUNDARIES. 

3. The length of reserve boundaries is now estimated to be about 
572 miles. It is considered that 145 miles do not need to be demarcated; 
the greater part of the rest is reported to have been maintained by the 


2 


subordinate staff, whose work is, however, not always satisfactory. • The 
total expenditure was $338, of which $259 were spent in Malacca, v heie the 
boundaries have received special attention. 


SURVEYS. 

4. A complete re-survey of the settlement of Malacca is, it is understood, 
being carried out by the Survey Department, there is considerable doubt 
as to the exact alignment of some of the forest reserve boundaries, and 
no detailed topographical maps exist. Detailed topographical maps on a 
scale of 4 inches to the mile are urgently needed for many of the reserves, 
especially in Malacca and the Dindings, in order that proper plans may be 
drawn up for their exploitation. 

e The department carried out a number of rough compass travel ses in 
Penang and Malacca, chiefly of paths, extraction tracks, compartment 
boundaries, and tab an areas. " Details are given in Form III, which shows 
an expenditure of $195 on 19 miles, compared with $380 on 59 miles in 1922. 
The increased cost is accounted for by the fact that in the case of compartment 
boundaries the cost of demarcation is included. 

PART II. 

MANAGEMENT OF FORESTS. 

Working Plans and Plans of Operations. 

6. There are at present no regular working-plans, but a great step 
forward was made in Malacca, where enumeration suiveys weie can le mil 
in all the better reserves, namely Merlimau, Bukit Senggeh, Bukit Sedanan, 
Batang Malaka, Sungei Udang, and Brisu. The work was entrusted to 
Mr. Whitty, who has had several years’ experience in the Federated Malay 
States, assisted by Mr. Strouts, Assistant Conservatoi oi Forests, 
also from the Federated Malav States, and for part nf the tune by the 
District Forest Officer. The work was still proceeding at the end ol the 
year, and reports were submitted shortly after its close. . Its value cannot be 
exaggerated; we have for many years been working in the dark, and the 
enumerations now made will provide fairly accurate information as to tlk. 
topography of the reserves and the stock of timber on the ground, and enable 
felling schemes to be drawn up. During the year a sum of St, 291 was 

spent. 

7 Plans of operations were in general adhered to except for certain 
modifications in Malacca to provide funds for the enumeration surveys 

mentioned in paragraph 6. 


COMMUNICATIONS. 

8. Two miles of track were converted by the staff into a rough path 
to o-ive access to the areas now under exploitation in the Pantai Acheh 
Reserve in Penang, and $234 were spent on 28 miles of compartinen 
boundary paths in the Bukit Sedanan, Batang Malaka, Bukit Senggeh, 
Merlimau, and Rainuan China Reserves in Malacca. Repairs to 93 "l 1 
of paths, including 89 miles in Malacca, cost $186, including the cost oi 50 
compartment boundary posts. Much of the work of path repair is done 

bv subordinates and licensees. 


BUILDINGS. 

o Buildings are erected and maintained almost entirely by the Public 
Works Department. The only new buildings of the year were forest guards 
quarters at Ramuan China and Forester’s quarters at Alor Gajah, costing 
$1,845 and $2,875 respectively. General repairs cost $683. 


3 

PROTECTION OF FORESTS, 

10. I lie forest laws remained unaltered, but changes are necessary in 
oulei to prevent unavoidable waste of timber and other forest produce by 
licensees. An assimilation of the laws of the Colony to those of the 
Federated Malay States with a. careful avoidance of complexity is indicated. 

11. I he number of offences reported, none of which were serious, rose 
irom 64 in 1922 to 98 in the year of report, of which 95 were concerned with 
the unauthorised removal or appropriation of forest produce. The rise is 
accounted for chiefly by the increase to 22 in the number of undetected cases, 
principally in Province Wellesley. It is certain that there were far more 
undetected cases even than this: the temptation to commit small thefts is 
considerable and the chances of detection are small ; and places on the 
coast are difficult to patrol with a limited staff. Two cases were pending at 
the beginning of the year. 

12. Convictions were obtained in 39 out of 43 cases disposed of in court, 
the fines inflicted amounting to $541 in addition to $447 compensation for 
damage to the forest. Compensation amounting to a total of $474 was 
accepted departmentally in 24 cases, and 1 case dealt with departmentally was 
acquitted. Sales of confiscated property realised $14. At the close of the 
year 10 cases were pending. 

13. The death of the trees over an area of about 800 acres in the Tanjong 
Burong Reserve in the Dindings was further investigated, and the cause is 
thought to be the deposit by the sea of a layer of mud at the foot of the 
trees. Seedlings grow freely on the top of the mud. 

14. Taban layers and seedlings suffered from the attacks of mouse-deer 
at Ayer Kroh. Seedlings were also destroyed or badly damaged by mole- 
crickets, and were partially defoliated by Rhodoneura. Taban seed was 
taken by squirrels, which were shot with salutary results. 

15. Climbers, resam, bertam, palas and other weeds were dealt with as 
far as possible in operations for the improvement of the growing stock. 

16. Some damage was done to taban at Ayer Kroh by a whirlwind, which 
blew down a number of trees. 

IMPROVEMENT OF THE FORESTS. 

Natural Reproduction. 

17. The year was not a good one for seed. A small supply of taban 
seed was obtained from Pulau Jerejak. At Ayer Kroh the results were 
better; 117 taban trees seeded and 80,540 seeds were collected, of which 
3,640 were used locally and the remainder sold for $384, the cost of 
collection being $41. 

PLANTATIONS AND CULTURAL OPERATIONS. 

18. In Singapore the Para rubber trees in the Bukit Timah plantation 
tv ere let from May to November, and the plantation at East Seletar from 
May to the end of the year. The receipts are credited to the Agricultural 
Improvements Deposit Account. 

19. In the Telok Rahang Reserve in Penang 371 taban seedlings were 
moved from overstocked to blank areas. Of the seedlings so transplanted 
in 1922 84 per cent have survived. An experimental planting of bamboo 
stumps in the same reserve was partially successful. About half the 
stumps were alive and healthy at the end of the year, and the experiment is 
being continued. 



4 


20. In the Tanjong Burong Reserve in the Dindings 70 acres of recently 
exploited forest were planted x 3 ' w ith bcikau minyak at a total cost to the 
department of $100, half the work being done by the subordinate staff. 

21 In Malacca the under planting of tab an in the Para rubber block 
at Ayer Kroh was continued, and blanks in the previous year's, planting were 
supplied. Patch-sowing of taban was also tried and seems likely to prove 
successful in spite of damage by mouse-deer and mole-crickets. I he total 

cost incurred was $192. 

In the Sungei Udang Reserve four acres were patch sown with meranti 
tcmbaga in cleared lines 20 feet apart with the patches 20 feet apart in the 
lines. The cost was only $4*5°. and the experiment promises to prove 

successful. 

IMPROVEMENT FELLINGS. 

22. The taban at Baht Feringgi and in the Telok Bahang Reserve m 
Penang were looked after by the subordinate stall. 1 he result ol Hit 
improvement fellings of 1922 is satisfactory. 

2 s. In Malacca more extensive operations were undertaken. 1 he 
work of clearing the taban merah and getah sundtit blocks m the r vci 
Kroh plantation was finished, 49 acres being treated at a cost of *44. 
Heavy pole-fellings of inferior species were made and the largu t ■ • 

interfering with the growth of the taban were ringed In the Ayer 1 anas 
Reserve 40 acres in compartment 8 were improved at a cost of f • 
undergrowth was cleared and the ground is now covered with miranti 
regeneration. The cutting or ringing, of inferior species •snownecessary, 
and this has been begun under permit, government thus ■ 

out of the operation. In the Bukit Senggeh Reserve a beginning was made 
to free profuse seedling growth of resak, scraya and mcranH from 

suppression, 11 acres being completed at a cos o $57> ringed 

expensive although all weeds were removed and large class If trees 1 aged. 
Permit 'holders deflt with further small areas in the Buk.t Sedanan, Merlin an, 
mid Ramuan China Reserves. In the Bukit Bruang Reserve permit ho ders 
were admitted to cut firewood in the temfims area, the hrewood ci g 

being followed by the cleaning of the area and the ringing of the class 
species which remained. A sum of $3-50 was spent, and work on 9 acres 
was completed, but firewood was removed from many acres more. The 
operation was a profitable one, the firewood permits realisingjfi68. liU 
recently permit holders and licensees m reserves have been allowed too free 
a hand they felled only the most valuable species and wasted much of t he 
material from these, with the result that the forest was being depleted of its 
valuaMe growing stock. Since October all licensees have been compelled 
to extract” class II trees as well as class I in order to encourage the 11a in a 

regeneration of tbe latter. 

EXPLOITATION, 

Timber and Fuel, 

(a) From Reserved Forests. 

r n Singapore four reserves were worked as usual for mango ne fuel 

under S V», «. 

ThLoTacies newly leased realised $21.40 per acre, compared with $25.1, 

sccLcscs axs "Jf s a 

Revenue fell from $5,740 to $5,345- 


2 5 - I he following table summarises the results of the year's work in 
the Singapore mangrove forests: — 


Reserve. 

Coupe 

No. 

Area in 

acres. 

1 

Amount at 
which 
leased. 

Total 

revenue real- 
ised during 
1923. 

Approximate 
outturn 
during 1923. 




# c. 

$ c. 

Tons, 


Pandan ... 

14 

SO 

2,488 00 


940 


Pandan ... 

15 

SO 

3,292 00 

3,292 00 

960 


Kranji 

14 

30 

180 00 

180 00 

640 


Seletar 

12 

30 

427 50 


SO 


Seletar 

13 

30 

454 50 

454 50 

300 


Tuas 

13 

65 

461 50 

461 50 

740 


Total ... 

... 

315 

7,303 50 

4,388 00 

3,660 

Pandan ... 

11 

SO 


190 00 

760 


Pandan 

12 

80 


85 00 

340 


Pandan ... 

13 

80 


80 00 

320 


Pandan ... 

14 

80 


95 00 

380 


Tuas 

11 

65 


70 00 

280 


Tuas 

12 

65 


15 00 

60 

r 

Tuas 

13 

65 


5 00 

20 


Seletar 

12 

30 


60 00 

240 


Changi 

12 

16 


60 00 

240 


Cbangi 

13 

30 


95 00 

380 J 


Total ... 

... 

591 

... 

755 00 

3,020 


Remarks. 


Old. 

New 

New. 

Old. 

New. 

New. 


monthly 

permits. 


Recent more careful control resulting from the appointment of the 
Conservator of b orests, johore, to exercise supervision over the Singapore 
forests shows that the mangrove forests are not being worked to the best 
advantage; there is a great deal of waste and a good deal of theft, and 
sufficient attention is not being paid to the reproduction of the forest. Steps 
■are being taken to remedy this state of affairs, and some reduction in the 
area exploited will probably be necessary. 

26. 1 he outturn of timber on payment from the reserves of Penang, 
Province Wellesley, and the Dindings rose from 649 to 705 tons, practically 
all in the form of poles of class li timber. An examination of a part of 
the Pantai Acheh Reserve shows that the exploitation of these poles is 
doing no harm to the forest, and that in many places there is a good stock 
of class I poles on the ground, with a fair supply of class I trees 30" to 40" 
in girth. There was a fall from 5,200 to 978 tons in the output of fuel 
from the same settlements owing to the almost entire cessation of work 
in the Dindings, where it is thought better to await a closer examination 
of the forests than is possible with the present staff. On the other hand 
there was an increase of 661 tons in Penang and Province Wellesley, chiefly 
from the Balik Pulau mangrove reserve. Revenue fell from $6,994 to $2,068. 

27. In Malacca the number of permit holders working in forest reserves 
was gradually reduced from 33 to 21 chieliy owing to the unsatisfactory 
nature of their work. The outturn of timber consequently fell from 1,486 
to 1,259 tons, but there was much less waste. Most of the output came from 
the Bukit Sedanan, Bukit Senggeh, and Merlimau Reserves. Class I trees 
were as usual marked for felling by a forest officer. Eight tons of charcoal 
were extracted, but no fuel. The revenue rose from $5,021 to $8,335. 

28. The outturn from the reserved forests in all the Settlements was 
1,976 tons of timber, 8,938 tons of fuel, and 8 tons of charcoal, on which 
revenue of $15,748 was realised. The corresponding figures for 1922 are 
2,180 tons of timber, 11,401 tons of fuel, 24 tons of charcoal, and $17,753 
revenue. No account is taken of timber or fuel taken free of royalty. 


6 


(i b ) From Crown and Alienated Land. 

29. Monthly permits were issued as usual in Singapore to remove 
firewood and poles from Crown land, and the figures for 1923 and 1922 
respectively are as follows: — Number of permits 323 and 4°C firewood re- 
moved, 6,460 and 8,020 tons; poles removed, 1,463 and 2,926^ tons; revenue 

$5,345 and $4,88 i. 

30. In Penang, Province Wellesley, and the Dindings the revenue was 
$12,410 on 5,332 tons of timber and 7,466 tons of fuel, compared with $9,299, 
and 2,988 and 6,899 l° ns respectively in 1922. The increased output was 
entirely from the Bindings, and was due to a better market and closer 
supervision. 

31. In Malacca 1,484 tons of timber and 644 tons of firewood and 
charcoal were removed, compared with 1,057 tons of timber and no fire- 
wood or charcoal in 1922. The revenue rose from $3,615 to $6,979. 

32. The total revenue on timber, fuel, and charcoal from Crown and 
alienated land in all the settlements was $22,435, details of the quantities 
extracted, amounting in all to 8,279 tons of timber and 14,57° tons 
firewood, being given in Form 9. I he corresponding figures for 1922 are 
7,366 tons of timber and 15,030 tons of firewood, and $18,176 revenue. No 
account is taken in the figures of revenue of $2,029 and $1,54° paid in 1923 
and 1922 respectively for standing timber on land about to be alienated. 

MINOR FOREST PRODUCTS. 

(a) From Reserved Forests. 

33. Revenue 011 minor forest produce from reserved forests fell from 
$2,369 to $1,885. There was an increase of revenue in Penang owing to 
the sale of gutta-percha tapped in 1922; in the other settlements there were 
decreases owing chiefly to no royalty having been collected, on giamte m 
the Dindings, and to the decreased output of damar and the completion of 
tab an tapping in Malacca. A satisfactory item of revenue was $584 for 
taban seeds and seedlings from the Ayer Kroh plantation in Malacca. 

34. The revenue for each settlement and the piincipal products liom 
which it was derived are as follows : — 

Singapore $24 almost entirely from nibong. 

Penang and Province Wellesley $779, chiefly from bertam ($101), 
gutta-percha ($428), and canes ($126). 

Dindings:— $341, chiefly from krang shell ($ 3 °°)- 

Malacca: — $740, chiefly from taban seeds and seedlings ($584). 

(1 b ) From Crown Lands. 

35 There was a small decrease from $2,083 to $2,013 in the levenuc 
on minor produce from Crown land. To this the Dindings contributed 
$1 360, including $742 on tengar bark, $203 on nibong, $179 on canes, and 
$n S on kajang] Penang collected $595, of which $509 was lor gutta-percha 
tapped in 1922 on Pulau Jerejak; Singapore and Malacca contributed the 

balance of $58. 


7 

PART III. 

FINANCIAL RESULTS. 

Revenue. 


36. The following statement shows the total revenue from 1921 to 
i9 2 3 : — 


Settlement. 

1 

Revenue 

1921. 

Revenue 

1922. 

l 

Estimated 

revenue 

1923. 

Actual 

revenue 

1923. 

Increase or 
decrease 
over 

Estimates. 

Increase or 
decrease 
over 1922 
actuals. 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 
Wellesly 

Bindings 

Malacca 

Total 

$ 

16,678 

3,016 

13,801 

10,341 

$ 

14,389 

3,003 

16,916 

10,705 

$ 

8,000 

# 

3,250 

15,450 

7,740 

$ 

13,618 

4,154 

13,589 

16,947 

? 

+ 5,618 

+ 904 

1,861 
+ 9,207 

S 

771 

+ 1,151 

- 3,327 

; + 6,242 

43,836 

45,013 

34,440 

48,308 

; + 13,868 

+ 3,295 

j ' 


'll These figures are on the whole satisfactory, but a fall in revenue 
for a few years is likely until better systems of working can be introduced. 
In the meantime a cautious policy is necessary. 


EXPENDITURE. 


38. The following table shows the expenditure from 192T to 1923 : 


V 7 


" 

" 



Increase or 

Settlement. 

Expenditure, 

1921. 

Expenditure, 
192 2 . 

Estimated 

expenditure, 

1923. 

Expenditure, 

1923. 

Savings on 
Estimates. 

decrease 
over 1922 
actuals. 


$ 

I 

$ 

S 

$ 

$ 

Singapore 

18,659 

14,776 

8,802 

6,825 

1,977 

- 7,951 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley 

Dindings 

Malacca 

6,058 

10,383 

15,471 

5,782 

9,157 

14,704 

9,685 

10,667 

24,047 

8,951 

9,244 

19,273 

?34 

1,423 

4,774 

+ 3,169 

+ 87 

+ 4,569 

Total 

50,571 

44,419 

53,201 

. 

*44,293 

i * 

8,908 

126 


* Excludes temporary allowances amounting to $4,931. 


<10 The lump sum payable to the Federated Malay States under the 
amalgamation scheme is distributed amongst the different settlements in 
proportion to their area, and this accounts largely for the increases and 
decreases in the last column of the table. In former years admmistiative 
charges have been paid from the Singapore vote. 


SURPLUS AND DEFICIT. 


40 The surplus of revenue over expenditure was $4,015 as shown in the 
following statement:— 


Settlement. 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1921. 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1922. 

Estimated 
surplus or 
deficit 1923. 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1923. 

Increase 
or decrease 
over 

Estimates. 

Increase 
or decrease 
over 1922 
actuals. 

Singapore ••• 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley 

Dindings 

Malacca 

Total ... 

$ 

- 1,981 

- 3 042 
+ 3.418 

- 5,130 

- 6,735 

8 

- 387 

- 2,779 
+ 7,759 

- 3,999 

$ 

802 

- 6,435 

+ 4,783 

- 16,307 

$ 

+ 6,793 

- 4,797 
+ 4,345 

- 2,326 

$ 

+ 7,595 

+ 1,638 

438 

4- 13,981 

$ 

+ 7,180 

- 2,018 
- 3,414 
+ 1,673 

+ 594 

- 18,761 

+ 4,015 

+ 22,776 

+ 3,421 


8 


41. If temporary allowances are taken into consideration there is a 
deficit of $916, compared with $5,146 in 1922, which is in accordance with 
last year's anticipations, 

PAET IV. 

ADMINISTRATION. 

42. The writer was in charge of the department throughout the year 
except during his absence at the British Empire Forestry Conference in 
Canada from the 21st June to the 7th October, when Mr. A. E. Sanger- 
Davies acted for him. 

43. The amalgamation of the forest departments of the Straits 
Settlements and the Federated Malay States, which took etlect tiom the 
ist May, marks a most important step in advance, and its good effects are 
already being felt. Complete efficiency will, however, not be possible until 
all the subordinate- staff can be placed under the full direct control of 
technical officers. 

* * *, 

G. E. S. CUBITT, 

Conservator of Forests, 

S. S. and F. M . S. 

Kuala Lumpur, 

19 th March, 1924. [No. 2390/24.] 



( 

Annual Report on Forest Administration in the Straits 

Settlements, for the Year 1924. 


PART I. 

EXTENSION AND CONSTITUTION OF RESERVED FORESTS. 

• • 

1. No new reserves were made. Nine and a half acres were excised 
from Tanjong Burong Reserve for native settlement, and 2 acres were 
excised from Lumut Reserve for a Hindu Temple site. Both these reserves 
are in the Bindings. A small area wrongly included at the time of settlement 
was excised from Ramuan China Reserve in Malacca. The total reduction 
in the area of forest reserves was 13! acres. 

2. The following statement shows the present area and distribution 
of forest reserves: — 


Locality. 

Area. 

Area of 

Reserved Forests. 

Proportion 
to whole area, 

«r - 

Square miles. . 

f 

Square miles. 

| 

Per cent. 

Singapore ... ... 1 

* 

21J 

227 

10*5 

Penang 

l— « 

O 

oo 

190 

17-6 

Province Wellesley ... 1 

280 

67 

2*2 

■ 

Din dings 

.83 

47' 5 

26-0 

Malacca 

720 

787 

10-9 

Total ... 

1,508 

174-2 

11 *6 


DEMARCATION AND UPKEEP OF BOUNDARIES. 

3. The total length of reserve boundaries is approximately 572 miles. 
These are for the most part maintained by the subordinate staff. Apart 
from salaries the cost of upkeep was $433, which includes the purchase of 
boundary posts and notice boards. 

SURVEYS. 

4. Various small compass surveys were carried out departmentally in 
connection with exploitation, works of forest improvement and path making. 
The total length of traverses was 30 miles and the cost, exclusive of salaries 

$185- 


2 


PART II. 

MANAGEMENT OF FORESTS. 

* 

Working Plans and Plans of Operations. 

5. The preparations for drawing up a working plan for one or more 
of the Malacca reserves were continued and are now awaiting survey, without 
which no progress can be made. Provision has been made in the 1925 
Estimates for a topographical survey of about 15 square miles on the scale 
of 4 inches to the mile. 

O 6. Data were collected for the preparation of a working plan for 

Tanjong Burong mangrove reserve in the Dindings, but the work was not 
complete at the end of the year. 

7. The plan of operations for the year was adhered to in all essentials. 

COMMUNICATIONS. 

8. Twelve miles and sixty-one chains of compartment boundaries in 
Bukit Senggeh and Bukit Sedanan Reserves in Malacca were converted into 
inspection paths at a cost of $81, much of the work being done by the sub- 
ordinate staff. Thirty-five chains of inspection path were made in lanjong 
Burong Reserve in the Dindings. In Malacca reserves the upkeep of 64 
miles of paths cost $180. Elsewhere such upkeep as was necessary was done 
by subordinate staff. 


BUILDINGS. 


9. A halting bungalow and water tank were built at SeJandar in Malacca 
at a cost of $2,072, and have already proved a great convenience to the 
District Forest Officer, effecting economy in both time and travelling 

expenses. 

10. The other new items were a boatshed at Sungei Pinang in Penang, 
and a water tank for the Forester’s quarters at Bukit Mertajam. These 
cost $100 and $18 respectively. 

11. Repairs to buildings cost $502. 

PROTECTION OF FORESTS. 


12. No alterations were made in the forest laws. 1 he Forest Rules and 
The Muda River Timber Rules were republished incorporating past amend- 
ments : Government Gazette Notifications Nos. 507, 508 and 509 of 21st 
March, 1924. 


13. The number of forest offences reported was 143, compared with 
98 in the previous year and 64 in 1922. 1 he increase is almost entirely in 

Singapore and is probably due to increased activity on the part of the sub- 
ordinate staff rather than an actual increase in the number of offences. It is 
noticeable that of the 24 offences in which the offenders were not found none 
were in Singapore. No serious cases were reported. Convictions w cm 
obtained in 74 of the 86 cases disposed of by the courts. Fines were imposed 
to the amount of $1,821, and $868 was paid as compensation for damage 

to the forests. 


Resam has done much harm in certain forest reserves, noticeably m 

Pantai Acheh in Penang and Bukit Bruang in Malacca. 1 his fr ^°^ Mnbno- 
establishes itself in open spaces in the forest or encroaches fro ^ J ^ g 
waste lands. It causes damage by suppressing all young tree glow 1, an 
though its action is slow it is very sure. It is also a source of clanger owing 
to its inflammability. Means of 'eradication and control of this pest aie 

under investigation. 


\ * 


3 

IMPROVEMENT OF FORESTS. 

Natural Reproduction. 

14. Although tab an * fruited heavily in parts of the Federated Malay 
States it was reported that no fruit set on the taban trees on Pulau Jerejak 
or at Telok Bahang or Batu Feringgi. Trees fruited at Ayer Kroh in 
Malacca, but owing to the depredations of birds and animals no seed was 
obtained. Protection can only be successfully undertaken at prohibitive ex 
pense. There is nothing to record as to other species. 

PLANTATIONS AND CULTURAL OPERATIONS. 

15. Five acres were planted approximately io' x io 7 with taban me rah 
seedlings in the Telok Bahang Reserve. This is an extension of the work 
of filling the blanks in natural taban forest. Cost $21. 

16. Five hundred cuttings of bamboo (buluh belat) were also planted 
in Telok Bahang, in continuation of the experiment begun in 1923.^ 

17. There were no other additions to plantations. 

18. For many years scrub jungle has been allowed to grow up with the 
timber trees planted in Bukit Bruang Reserve in Malacca, Quick growing- 
species which had overtaken the merbau were cut out. 

19. Plantation upkeep was carried out by the staff with the exception of 
Si 18 spent in Malacca, and $55 in Penang. 

20. Receipts from the Singapore Para rubber plantations amounted to 
$1,041. The Malacca mixed plantations’ revenue was $308. 


IMPROVEMENT FELLINGS. 

21. Clearings were done over 122 acres in Bukit Senggeh, Ayer Panas 
and Ramuan China Reserves in Malacca at a cost of $255. This operation 
consists in freeing class I saplings and seedlings in areas which have been 
lately exploited by wood-cutters. The light admitted by the opening of the 
forest benefits the less valuable, and usually quicker growing trees, as much 
as it does the class I trees. In consequence the latter require assistance until 
they are well established and able to hold their own in the struggle for 
supremacy. 

EXPLOITATION. 

Timber and Fuel. 

(a) From Reserved Forests. 

22. In Singapore exploitation continued in the 1923 mangrove coupes 
in Randan and Seletar Reserves. As was foreshadowed in previous year's 
report, no new coupes were leased. Arrangements have now been made 
whereby the supervision of exploitation in these reserves should be more 
efficient and when it is certain that these arrangements will be effective the 
question of opening new coupes will be again considered. In the meantime 
the only prudent course is to close the forest to further commercial cutting. 
The outturn of poles was estimated at 92 tons and that of firewood at 5,590 
tons, of which 1,110 tons was taken from the 1923 mangrove coupes, and the 
balance from other parts of mangrove and inland reserves under monthly 
permits. Revenue $1,053 as against 85,345 in 1923. 



* The botanical names of the trees, etc., mentioned in this Report are given in Appendix A. 


4 


% 


\ 


23. The following table summarises the results of the year’s work in the 
Singapore mangrove forests : — 


Reserve. 

Coupe 

No. 

Area in 
acres. 

Amount at 
which 
leased. 

Total 

revenue real- 
ised during 
1924. 

Approximate 
outturn 
during 1924. 

Remarks. 

" _ j 

t 


I 

1 c, | 

$ c. 

Tons. 


Pandan ... 

15 

SO 

3,292 00 i 

C. 

1,020 ) 

Leased and 






paid for 

Seletar 

13 

30 

454 50 

... 

90 ) 

in 1923. 

Total ... 

. . . 

110 

3,746 50 

... 

1,110 ' 

... 

Cbangi 

12 

16 


90 00 

360 ] 


Pandan 

14 

80 

... 

20 00 

80 1 
| 


Pandan 

15 

80 

... 

30 00 

120 

Open under 

Seletar 

12 

30 

... 

30 00 

120 - 

monthly 

permits 

Seletar 

13 

30 

... 

25 00 

100 


Tuas 

12 

65 

... 

30 00 

120 


Other areas 

... 

... 

... 

400 00 

2,560, 


Total ... 

... 

301 

... 

625 00 

1 

3,460 



24. Six hundred and twelve tons of timber were taken from forest reserves 
in Penang and Province Wellesley. This was mostly in the form of class 
poles, and the principal sources were Pantai Acheh and Government Hnl 
Reserves. In the same Settlements the outturn of firewood from reserves 
rose from 912 tons in 1923 to 2,233 tons in the year under report. More than 
half of this came from Pulau Burong mangrove reserve. Revenue totalled 
$2,374, being an increase of $707 ovei ^ ie previous yeai . 


2 c The outturn from the Dindings reserves was 87 tons of timber and 
143 tons of firewood. These reserves will not be opened to regular exploita- 
tion so long' as there is Crown land ioiest available. 


26. Malacca reserves yielded 445 tons of timber and 224 tons of firewood, 
evenue $3,090, being $5,245 less than in 1923. As regards timber this is 
big decrease on former years, the figures tor 1922 and 1923 being 1,486 to . 
nd 1,239 tons respectively. The reason for the reduced outturn is tie 
ecision to limit exploitation to local needs until the working plan is complete, 


see paragraph 5. 

27* The outturn from all reserves in all Settlements was 1,236 tons of 
timber and 8,191 tons of firewood on which revenue of $6,689 was realised. 
No charcoal was made. The corresponding figures for 1923 were 1,976 tons 
of timber, 8,938 tons of firewood and $15748 revenue. 


(b) From Crown and Alienated Land. 

28 Crown land in Singapore was estimated to have produced 5,714 tons 
of poles and 14,740 tons of firewood as against 1,463 tons of poles and 6,460 
tons of firewood in 1923. Revenue $9,106. 1 he outturn includes an 1 a c 

ance of 20 tons an acre for timber on all Crown land alienated during the yet . 
A charge of $5 an acre is made. 

2q. In Penang, Province Wellesley and the Dindings the outturn from 

Crown and alienated land was 5,248 tons of timber 8,704 of J^Fed 
and 42 tons of charcoal. Revenue $ 8 , 354 - These figures show no marked 

changes from the previous year. 

30. In Malacca 806 tons of timber and 34« tons of firewood were taken 
from Crown land. The corresponding figures for 1923 were 1,404 and > 44 - 


5 


In spite of these reductions in outturn revenue rose from $6,979 to $16,646. 
The increase is entirely due to compensation paid for timber on alienated 
land. There was also an increase of $1,436 on timber and firewood actually 
removed from Crown land although the quantity removed was less than in 
the previous year. This is due to the fact that on Crown land timber is now 
more difficult of access owing to the forests near the road having been 
worked out. 

31. The total revenue from timber, fuel and charcoal from Crown and 
alienated land in all Settlements was $34,106, compared with $22,435 i n : 9 2 3 * 

MINOR FOREST PRODUCE. 

(a) From Reserved Forests. 

32. Revenue under this head was $2,021, which shows no marked differ- 
ence from previous years. The leasing of the Para rubber plantations at 
Bukit Timah and South Seletar in Singapore accounted for half the total 
revenue. The balance is made up of a number of small items. 

33. Experiments were begun in tapping kemenyan (gum benjamin) of 
which there is a considerable number of trees in Malacca reserves. So far 
the results have been disappointing, but as the local tree is identical with 
that from which commercial gum is obtained elsewhere there seems to be 
no reason why success should not ultimately be obtained. 

( b ) From Crown Lands. 

34. The revenue for the year was $1,496, being $517 less than in the 
previous year. This is entirely due to no tab, an having been tapped in Penang 
Tab an is not tapped annually. The resting interval is not less than two years. 
The biggest item is $619 paid on ten gar bark in the Bindings. Other products 
taken in small quantities were nibong, langkap, akar, rcsam , bertam , meng- 
kuang, } vl pah , remhia, bam bo, samak, joint ong , kabong and rotan. 

PART III. 

FINANCIAL RESULTS. 

REVENUE. 


35. The following statement shows the total revenue from 1922 to 1924 : — 


Settlement. 

Revenue 

1922. 

Revenue 

1923. 

Estimated 

revenue 

1924. 

Actual 

revenue 

1924. 

Increase or 
decrease 
over 

Estimates. 

Increase or 
decrease 
over 1923 
actuals. 


1 

£ 

V 

§ 

$ 


$ 


Singapore 

Penang and Province 

14,389 

13,618 

8,000 

15,050 

+ 

7,050 

+ 1,432 

Wellesley 

3,003 

4,154 

3,990 

4,512 

+ 

522 

+ 358 

Dindings 

16,916 

13,589 

14,240 

8,417 

— 

5,823 

- 5,172 

Malacca 

10,705 

16,947 

10,230 

21,254 

+ 

11,024 

+ 4,307 

Total ... 

45,013 

48,308 

36,460 

49,233 

+ 

12,773 

+ 925 


36. The fall in revenue in the Bindings is chiefly due to a change in the 
system of collection of royalties. Formerly all royalty was paid in advance 
and at once credited to revenue. Now a cash deposit is made as security for 
payment of revenue, and this deposit is not credited to revenue. Royalty 
accounts are settled monthly. 

37. The increase in Malacca revenue is due to the extent of $10,260 to 
the amount paid as compensation for trees standing on land alienated for 
agricultural purposes. 



r 


6 


EXPENDITURE 


38. The following table shows the Expenditure from 1922 to 1924: — 


— — 



Estimated 

expenditure, 

1924. 



Increase or 

Settlement. 

Expenditure, 

1922. 

1 

Expenditure, 

1923. 

Expenditure, 

1924. 

Savings on 
Estimates. 

decrease 
over 1923 
actuals. 


% 

% 

1 

1 

% 

1 | 

$ 

$ 

Singapore 

14,776 

6,825 

9,219 

7,835 

1,384 j 

+ 1,095 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley 

Dindings 

Malacca 

5,782 

9,157 

14,704 

8,951 

9,244 

19,273 

12,526 

10,280 

23,588 

10,750 

8,760 

20,809 

1,776 
1,520 | 

2,779 

+ 1,799 

484 

+ 1,536 

Total 

44,419 

44,293 

55,613 

*48,154 

7,459 

* . 

+ 3,861 


* Excludes temporary allowances ($2,369) and various refunds amounting to $1,628. 


SURPLUS AND DEFICIT. 

39. The surplus of revenue over expenditure was $1,079 as shown in the 
following statement: — 


Settlement. 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1922. 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1923. 

Estimated 
surplus or 
deficit 1924. 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1924. 

Increase 
or decrease 
over 

Estimates. 

Increase 
or decrease 
over 1923 
actuals. 

Singapore .... 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley 

Dindings 

Malacca 

Total ... 

9 

- 387 

- 2,779 
+ 7,759 

- 3,999 

$ 

+ 6,793 

- 4.797 
+ 4,345 

- 2,326 

S 

- 1,219 

- 8,536 

+ 3,960 

- 13,358 

9 

+ 7,215 

- 6,238 

- 343 

4- 445 

9 

+ 8,434 

+ 2,298 

- 4,303 

+ 13,803 

$ 

+ 422 

- 1,441 

- 4,688 
+ 2,771 

+ 594 

+ 4,015 

- 19,153 

+ 1,079 

+ 20,232 

- 2,936 


40. If temporary allowances are included the year shows a deficit of $1,290. 


PART IV. 


ADMINISTRATION. 

41. Mr. G. E. S. Cubitt was in charge until going on leave on the 4th 
Tilly 1924, when he handed over to the writer. The only change m adminis- 
trative arrangements was that whereby the care of the Dindings was trans- 
ferred from Perak South to Perak North and thus came now under the same 
supervision as Penang and Province Wellesley, the latter Settlement being 
in immediate charge of an Assistant Conservator of Forests. The change 
is undoubtedly one for the better. 

B. H. F. BARNARD, 

Acting Conservator of Forests, 

S. S. and F. M. S. 


Kuala Lumpur 4 th March, 1925. 


7 


APPENDIX A. 


List of Trees, etc. 
Vernacular Name. 

Akar 

Bertam ... 

Buluh 

Jelutong 

Kabong 

Langkap 

Mengkuang 

Merbau 

Nibong 

Nipab 

Rembia 

Resam 

Rotan 

Samak ... ... 

Taban 

Taban merah 
Tengar 


MENTIONED IN THE REPORT. 

Botanical Name. 

Climbers, all kinds. 
Eugeissonia tristis. 

Bamboo, all species. 

Dyera costulata. 

Arenga saccharifera. 

Arenga Westerhoutii. 
Pandanus atrocarpus. 

Afzelia Palembanica. 
Oncosperma tigillaria. 

Nipa frnticans. 

Metroxylon sagus. 
Gleichmiia linearis. 

Rattans, all kinds. 

Bark extract. 

Palaquium and Payena spp. 
Palaquinm oblongifolittm. 
Ceriops Candolleana. 


Annual Report on Forest Administration in the Straits 

Settlements for the Year 1925, 


PART I. 

EXTENSION AND CONSTITUTION OF RESERVED FORESTS. 

1. The only alteration in area was an excision of 337 acres from the 
Tasek Glugor, Reserve in Province Wellesley. The land affected adjoins 
the road and, as it carried no forest of any value, it was considered it would 
be better under cultivation. 

2. The area of 2 acres excised from the Lumut Reserve in the 
Dindings for a Hindu temple was not taken up, as it was said to be too small, 
and an extension to the area was still under consideration at the end of the 
year. 

3. The following statement shows the present area and distribution of 
reserved forests : — 


Locality. 

■ ( 

Area. 

Area of 

Reserved Forests. 

Proportion 
to whole area. 

* 

Square miles. 

Square miles. 

Per cent. 

Singapore ... ... 

217 

22-7 

10-5 

Penang ... ... 

108 

19-0 

1 7'6 

Province Wellesley 

280 

* 

2' 1 

Dindings 

183 

47*5 

26 0 

Malacca ... ... 

72c 

00 

— j 

iO'9 

Total 

1,508 

1 73*7 

1 1*5 


DEMARCATION AND MAINTENANCE OF BOUNDARIES. 

4. The total length of forest reserve boundaries is now estimated to 
be about 570 miles, of which about 415 miles are demarcated. The boundaries 
of the Gunong Tunggal and Kopia Reserves in the Dindings were re- 
measured and found to differ considerably in length from previous estimates. 
The excision from the Tasek Glugor Reserve necessitated a re-adjustment 
of the boundary of that forest, the length of which was slightly reduced. 

5. Much of the work of boundary maintenance is done by the staff. 
The expenditure incurred was $98 in Penang and Province Wellesley, $146 
in Malacca, and $38 in the Dindings. As a result of accretion from the sea 


the landward portion of the Sungei Acheh Reserve in Province Wellesley Has 
become more suitable for agriculture than for the production of mangrove, 
and a provisional boundary, excluding the best of the potential agricultural 
land, was cut at a cost of $20 with the idea of excising this land from the 
reserve. The rentis of about iOj miles round catchment area boundaries at 
"Penara Bukit and Government Hill on Penang Island were, at the request of 
the Municipal Water Engineer, not maintained owing to the risk of contami- 
nation of the water supply. 


SURVEYS. 

6. The Survey Department completed a topographical survey 011 the 
scale of 4 inches to a mile of the Bukit Sedanan Forest Reserve at a cost of 
$7,683, and maps were supplied at the end of the year. 

7. The staff surveyed about 5 miles of inspection paths in the UluBruas 
and Gunong Tunggal Reserves and did minor surveys in connection with the 
Tanjong Burong working plan. No expenditure was incurred. 

PART II. 

MANAGEMENT OF FORESTS. 

Working Plans and Plans of Operations. 

8. No regular working plans are in force. A rough plan for the 
Tanjong Burong Reserve in the Dindings was compiled by Mr. H. C. Dol- 
man, Assistant Conservator of Forests, and will be brought into force next 
year. Mr. Dolman took considerable interest in the Dindings reserves^ and 
was considering more extensive operations; but. without more supervision 
than is possible at present, it is doubtful whether it is desirable to risk ovei 
exploitation mainly for the benefit of persons outside the Colony. 

9. The preparation of a working plan for the Malacca reserves awaits 
the preparation of stock maps. In the meantime data regarding the 
requirements of the Settlement are being collected. 

10. In Penang and Province Wellesley very little timber is left on Crown 
land, and the problem of placing the reserves under more systematic 
management was receiving attention at the end of the year. 

11. Annual plans of operations were in general adhered to. 

COMMUNICATIONS. 

12. About 5 miles of inspection paths were constructed in the Ulu Bruas 
and Gunong Tunggal Reserves in the Dindings at a cost of $58. Existing 
inspection paths were as a rule maintained by the subordinate staff. The 
onlv important item of expenditure on repairs was $73 bhe maintenance 
of about 32 miles of compartment boundaries in Malacca. 

BUILDINGS. 

n. Buildings are erected and maintained by and at the cost of the Public 
Works Department. The only departmental expenditure was $5 for repairs 
to the boat-shed at Lumut. 

it. In Singaoore new double quarters were built for forest guards 
on the Mandai Road at a cost of $1,805, replacing old and delapidated 
quarters at Seletar which were beyond repair. 

iy The forest guard’s quarters at Telok Bahang in Penang were 
replaced by a permanent structure, and extensive alterations ^ ere ( af ri e d 
out to the guard’s quarters at Bukit Panchor in Province Wellesley. The 
expenditure incurred was $5,446- 

16. Minor items do not need mention. 


3 

PROTECTION OF FORESTS. 


17. No changes were made in the forest laws. 

18. The number of offences reported was 85, compared with 143 in 1924. 
In no less than 40 ot these cases me onenders were not iouna, ana ot uiese 
40 cases 31 were in Singapore. In 1924 there were 24 undetected cases, 
ot which none were in Singapore. In 1924 there were 56 detected cases 111 
Singapore: in 1925 there were only 5. inese variations are quite inexpli- 
cable. Ali that is reported about the undetected cases is that they were 
nearly all cases of thefts of poles or firewood. 

During the year 19 cases were taken to court, of which 3 ended in 
acquittal; 24 cases were dealt with departmentally, of which 22 were com- 
pounded. bines of $706 and compensation of $235 were paid by order of 
the courts, and a sum of $550 was realised (mostly m Malacca) in compounded 
cases. Seized and confiscated property realised $145. Four cases were 
pending at the close of the year. 

Compensation and hues paid for breach of conditions of permits 
amounted to $93. 

19. In March a fire killed 15 taban me rah* and 20 tab an percha (a variety 
of taban patch) in the Bukit Timah Reserve. 

IMPROVEMENT OF FORESTS. 

Natural Reproduction. 

20. It was a poor seed-year for most of the important commercial 
species. Gutta-percha fruited sparingly at Telok Pahang in Penang, and 
opportunity was taken to replenish the nursery and to dispose of the remaining 
seed by sale. Five trees yielded 8,400 seeds, and 7,400 of them were sold 
for $74. In tlie Ayer Kroii plantations near Malacca gutta-percha seeded 
fairly freely, and 157,700 seeds were sold to the Sel borne Plantations at $1 
per 1,000. 

PLANTING AND CULTURAL OPERATIONS. 

21. The Para rubber trees in the Chua Chu Kang Reserve were leased 
for .the year for $480, and those in the Bukit Timah Reserve for $1,065. 
The receipts in both cases were credited to the Agricultural Improvement 
Deposit Irust. 

22. Existing plantations in Penang were maintained, but the teak and 
tc mints it plantations in the Tasek Glugor Reserve in Province Wellesley 
were not considered worth retention and were included in the 337 acres ex- 
cised from the reserve. Few of the bamboo cuttings planted in belukar at 
Telok Bahang established themselves. Rooted plants gave better results, 
but their cost is prohibitive. An attempt to strike cuttings in better soil in 
shade, with a view to transplanting later, was not conspicuously successful. 

23. About 6 acres of blanks in the Tanjong Piurong mangrove reserve 
were planted up with bakau minyak at a cost of $50, and about 5 acres of, 
dafnar laui regeneration in a formerly worked area of the Telok Muroh 
Reserve were assisted at a cost of $11. Some neglected merbau in the Lumut 
Reserve were freed from surrounding vegetation at a cost of $4. 

24 Para trees in the Bukit Bruang Reserve in Malacca which were 
under-planted with gutta-percha were topped to admit light to the young 
plants, which are doing well. Receipts from the Bukit Bruang plantations 
amounted to $348. and the cost of maintenance to $31. 



* The botanical names of trees etc. mentioned in this Report are given in Appendix A ■ 


4 


IMPROVEMENT FEELINGS. 

25T Two permits were issued to remove firewood from an area of about 
10 acres of the Bukit Timah Reserve in which young gutta-percha was 
plentiful. This arrangement proved satisfactory, but permit holders require 
careful watching or they remove too much. Similar work was done on a 
small scale in Malacca. The eradication of api-api at Sungei Acheh in 
Province Wellesley was not continued to any appreciable extent, this operation 
being of doubtful sylvicultural value. 

EXPLOITATION. 

TIMBER AND FUEL. 

(a ) — From Reserved Forests. 

26. In Singapore no new coupes were opened. Permits to remove bakau 
stumps from old coupes were issued, but these were gradually reduced, permit 
holders being allowed to take nyireh instead. In the inland reserves a number 
of permits were issued for the removal of firewood. The outturn of poles 
and firewood from reserved forests is estimated to have been 178 and 6,913 
tons respectively, the revenue derived being $1,899, compared with $1,053 
in 1924. 

27. One thousand five hundred and forty-five tons of timber were taken 
from the forest reserves in Penang and Province Wellesley, which is more 
than double the outturn of 1924. Half the total came from the Pantai Acheh 
Reserve in Penang, where there is a considerable quantity of damar laut of 
excellent quality. The outturn from the Tasek Glugor Reserve in Province 
Wellesley would have been larger but for the financial troubles of the permit 
holder. The outturn of firewood from the two Settlements was 3,693 tons, 
compared with 2,233 tons in 1924, the Bukit Goa Ipoh Reserve in Province 
Wellesley heading the list with 1,780 tons. There was a decrease of 40 per 
cent in the outturn of mangrove firewood from the Pulau Burong Reserve 
in Province Wellesley. Revenue amounted to $4,592, an increase of $2,218. 

28. In the Bindings, exploitation was almost entirely confined to poles 
and firewood from the mangrove reserves at Tanjong Burong and Batu 
Undan. In the latter reserve an unsuccessful attempt was made to introduce 
pole-cutting by the “stick” method, which has proved so successful in the 
Federated Mala} 7 States, and by which a stick of a prescribed length 
determines the distance between felled and unfelled trees. The felling' permit 
was, therefore, cancelled. The householders of Pantai Remis continued 
to avail themselves of the privilege granted them in 1924 of taking man- 
grove poles for their domestic requirements from a specified area in the 
Tanjong Burong Reserve on payment of $1 per house, and $61 urns collected 
in fees. The total outturn from the Bindings reserves was 308 tons of 
timber and 240 tons of firewood, and the total revenue realised thereon 
$512, compared with $172 in 1924. 

29. Extraction of Class I timber from the Malacca reserves was limited 
to dead and fallen trees, and to trees removed for sylvicultural reasons. 
Owing to the scarcity of Class f timber free use was made of planks of 
Class II timber for light construction. The total outturn was 748 tons of 
timber and 483 tons of firewood, which is more than in 1924, but less than 
in 1922 and 1923. An increased output will, it is hoped, be possible when a 
working plan has been drawn up. The revenue for the year was $ 3 > 575 > 
compared with $3,090 in T924. 

30. The outturn from all reserves in all the Settlements was 2,779 tons 
of timber and 11,329 tons of fuel, and the revenue realised was $10,578. The 
corresponding figures for T924 were 1,236 tons of timber, 8,191 tons of 
firewood, and $6,689 revenue. 


5 

( h ) — From Crown and Alienated Land. 

31. Crown land in Singapore is estimated to have produced 16,164 tons 
of poles and 10,817 tons firewood against 5,714 tons of poles and 14,740 
tons of firewood in 1924. The revenue was $6,997, compared with $9,106 
the previous year. 

32. In Penang, Province Wellesley, and the Bindings the output of 
timber (5,015 tons) differed little from that of 1924, but firewood fell by nearly 
3,000 tons to 5,777 tons. Charcoal to the amount of 49 tons was extracted 
in the Dindings. Revenue rose from $8,354 to $10,097. 

33. In Malacca the total outturn of timber of all classes was 1,058 tons, 
the increase of 252 tons being due to an increased output of timber of 
Class II. Firewood increased by 120 tons to 468 tons. The revenue 
realised fell from $6,386 to $6,075, the decrease being due to the smaller 
number of permits issued for Class I timber. The ten per cent royalty 
on timber on newly alienated land amounted only to $5,301, or a little more 
than half of what was realised in 1924. This is naturally a decreasing source 
of revenue. 

34. The total revenue from timber, fuel, and charcoal from Crown and 
alienated land in all Settlements was $28,470, compared with $34,106 in 1924. 

MINOR FOREST PRODUCE. 

(a) From Reserved Forests. 

35. The total revenue under this head was $2,969, compared with 
$2,021 in 1924. The principal items are $468 on gutta-percha in Singapore; 
$1,150 on kerang shell, $241 on canes, $117 on bertam, and $96 on nibong 
in Penang, Province Wellesley, and the Dindings; and $180 on rubber, $158 
on gutta-percha seeds, and $104 on getah jelutong in Malacca. 

(b) From Crown Land. 

36. The only items of importance in a revenue of $1,090 are $"415 on 
tcngar bark and $196 on nibong from the Dindings. In 1924 the total 
revenue was $1,496. 


PAET III. 

FINANCIAL RESULTS. 
Revenue. 


37. The following statement shows the total revenue from 1923 to 192s : — 


Settlement. 

Revenue 

1923. 

Revenue 

1924. 

Estimated 

revenue 

1925. 

Actual 

revenue 

1925. 

Increase or 
decrease 
over 

Estimates. 

I ncrease or 
decrease 
over 1923 
actuals. 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley 

Dindings 

Malacca 

Total ... 

s 

13,618 

4,154 

13,589 

16,947 

8 

15,050 

4,512 

8,417 

21,254 

$ 

8,000 

5,130 

11,980 

6,150 

$ 

12,998 

7,317 

11,062 

16,605 

$ 

+ 4,998 

+ 2,187 

918 

+ 10,455 

$ 

- 2,052 

+ 2,805 

+ 2,645 

- 4,649 

48,308 

49,233 

31,260 

47,982 

+ 16,732 

1,251 


38- I he actual revenue differs little from that of the previous two years. 
Mie surplus over estimates is due chiefly to faulty estimating in the case of 
Singapore, to the higher royalty rates paid on produce from forest reserves 
in Penang, and to the unexpectedly large sum realised as compensation for 
trees on newly alienated land in Malacca. 


6 


EXPENDITURE. 


39. I he following table shows the expenditure from 1923 to 1925: 


Settlement. 

f 

Expenditure, Expenditure, 
1923. j 1924. 

Estimated 

expenditure, 

1 1925. 

(Expenditure, 

1925. 

Savings on 
Estimates. 

Increase or 
decrease 
over 1924 
actuals. 


[ 

$ 

8 

$ 

$ 

$ 

s 

Singapore 

6,825 

7,835 

11,017 

8,048 

2,969 

-fi 213 

Penang and Province 







Wellesley 

8,951 

10,750 

13,046 

10,563 

2,483 

- 187 

Dindings 

9,244 

8,760 

11,309 

8,465 

2,844 

295 

Malacca 

19,273 

20,809 

34,455 

29,242 

5,213 

+ 8,433 

Total 

44,293 

48,154 

* 69,827 

* t 56,318 

13,509 

1 

+ 8,164 


* Includes share of head office expenses, of cost of training forest officers, and of contribution to 
Imperial Forestry Institute. 

t Excludes temporary allowances amounting to $2,440. 


40. the savings on estimates are chiefly on account of salaries of sub- 
ordinate staff, transport, topographical surveys, and improvement of forests. 
I he cost of the surveys accounts for the increase of expenditure over the 
actuals of 1924. 


SURPLUS AND DEFICIT. 

41. 'J he net loss on the year's working was $8,336 as shown in the 
following statement;- — 


Settle m ent. 

Surplus 

Or deficit 
1923, 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1924. 

Estimated 
surplus or 
deficit 3925. 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1925. 

Increase 

over 

Estimates. 

Increase 
or decrease 
[ over 1924 
actuals. 

! 


t s 

$ 

8 

# 


$ 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 

+ 6,793 

+ 7,215 

- 3,017 

+ 4,950 

7,967 I 

- 2,265 

Welleslev ... I 

- 4.797 

- 6,238 

- 7,916 

- 3,246 

4,670 

+ 2,992 

Dindings 

4- 4,345 

- 343 

+ 671 

+ 2,597 

3,926 

+ 2,940 

Malacca ... | 

- 2,326 I 

+ 445 

- 28,305 

- 12,637 

15,668 | 

- 13,082 

Total ... 

+ 4,015 

+ 1,079 

- 33,567 

- 8,336 

30,231 

- 9.415 


42 . If temporary allowances are included the loss is $10,776, chiefly 
owing to the expenditure on topographical surveys in Malacca. 


PART IV. 

A D M 1 NI ST RATI O N . 

43. Mr. B. H. F. Barnard was in charge till the 13th August, 1925, when 
the writer returned from leave. In order to secure closer control, and 
also, ii possible, to effect economies, the Singapore forests were at the 
beginning of the year placed in charge of the Conservator of Forests, Tohore, 
who was given the powers of a Deputy Conservator in the Colony. At the 
same time a reduction was made in the staff of forest guards and the payment 
of allowances to the bailiffs ceased, savings being utilized to give the Deputy 
Conservator extra clerical assistance. The arrangement was not an un- 
qualified success. Really effective management of the Singapore forests 
is possible only at a cost which the forests themselves do not seem to justify. 
Maps of the reserves on the scale of 4 inches to a mile are now available, 
and it is proposed in the course of the next few months to have a careful 
examination made of each of the reserves with a view to deciding on a definite 
policy for the future. None of the reserves are of any great value, and 
considerable areas in them are already leased out on temporary occupation 


7 

licences to vegetable gardeners. It has been suggested that the cuUivation 
nf ve^etablesls of greater importance to Singapore than the production of 
and if this so, it may be desirable to give up at any rate part 
of the , reserves for this form of cultivation, after removing all the existing 
timber . The reserves can never supply more than a small part of Singapore s 
demand for timber and firewood, and large regular supplies of the lattei 
canTe made* available only if the Government is prepared to incur heavy 

initial expenditure. 


G. E. S. CUBITT, 

Conservator of Forests, 
S. S. and F. M. S. 


Kuala Lumpur, 9 th March , 1926. 



4 / b 0 


APPENDIX A. 

List of Trees etc. mentioned in ti-ie Report. 


Vernacular Name. 

Botanical Name. 

Api-api 

Avicennia spp. 

Bakau 

Rhizophora spp. 

Bakau minyak 

R hizophora conjngata. 

Bertam 

Eugeissonia tristis. 

Damar laut 

Shorea utilis. 

Getah jelutong 

Dyera costnlata. 

Merbau 

Afzeh'a palembaniea. 

Nibong 

Oncosperma filamentosa. 

Nyireh 

Xyl ocarpns (Carapa) spp. 

Taban merali 

Palaquium oblongifolium 

Taban percba 

Palaquium obovatnm. 

Taban puteh ■ 

1 

Tembusu ... 

Fagriea spp. 

Tengar 

Ceriops Candolleana. 

% 


Annual Report on Forest Administration in the Straits 

Settlements for the Year 1927. 


PART t 

EXTENSION AND CONSTITUTION OF RESERVED FORESTS. 

1. No new reserves were constituted. A small excision was made from 
Government Hill Reserve, Penang, for house sites. 

2. An extension to the existing Gunong Tunggal reserve in the Dind- 
ings of approximately 2,768 acres was preliminarily notified, but settlement 
awaits survey. A proposal to reserve about 375 acres of damar laut forest 
at Pasir Panjang in the Dindings is under discussion: the forest has been 
explored and a 7 per cent, enumeration survey made. 

3. Excisions of about 52 acres from Lumut Forest Reserve and of 31 
acres from Teluk Muroli Forest Reserve await survey. Further excisions 
of about 300 acres of worthless forest from Batu Undan Forest Reserve and 
of 16 acres from Tanjong Burong Forest Reserve are under consideration. 
All are in the Dindings, and the land will be used, if disforested, for kampong 
and bendang. 


4. The total area and the distribution of reserved forests are shown in 
the following statement: — 


Settlement 

Total Area 

Area of 

Reserved Forests 

Proportion 
to whole Area 


Square miles 

Square miles 

Per cent. 

Singapore ... 

\ 

217 

22'7 

10*5 

Penang 

108 

19O 

1 7*6 

Province Wellesley 

280 

5*3 

2 ‘J 

Dindings 

183 

47*5 

26 O 

Malacca 

720 

79-2 

I 1 O 

Total ... 

1,508 

I 74 '2 

1 1*6 


DEMARCATION AND MAINTENANCE OF BOUNDARIES OF 

FOREST RESERVES. 

5- The total length of boundaries remains approximately 570 miles, as 
the small excision on Penang Hill hardly affected the total. Three hundred 
and five miles of these were cleared, 123 were not cleared, and 142 miles, 
being natural, need no attention. The work cost $521, but a very great 


deal was done by the subordinate staff. It is reported that the latter will 
not be able to do much of the work in future, as the increase of exploitation 
in reserves occupies a greater proportion of their time than in the past. 

SURVEYS. 

6. The Topographical Survey Department surveyed all forest reserves 
in Penang Island, with the exception of Pantai Acheh, Penara Bukit and 
parts of Bukit Gemuroh, Government Hill, and Highlands. 

7. The Air Survey Company took the photographs for plans of Tanjong 
Burong Forest Reserve (Dindings) and of Kuala Linggi Forest Reserve 
(Malacca). The plans are not available yet. 

8. The subordinate staff carried out the demarcation and survey of new 
compartments and felling areas in many reserves. 

PART II. 

MANAGEMENT OF FORESTS. 

9. Mr. J. P. Edwards, Assistant Conservator of Forests, was engaged 
for a considerable period towards the end of the year in making a close 
examination of the Malacca forests. He prepared a scheme for future work- 
ing which is still under consideration. 

10. A considerable part of the inland forest reserves in Singapore, much 
of which is blukar, are being used for the cultivation of vegetables by squat- 
ters on temporary permits. The mangrove forests, having been heavily 
overcut in the past, are now being rested and will have to remain closed to 
felling for some years. No working plans or schemes are necessary for 
the present. 

11. There are no working plans or schemes in Province Wellesley or 
Penang. No new ones were prepared for forests in the Dindings: that for 
Tanjong Burong Reserve could not be adhered to, owing to the absence of 
a market for firewood and poles. 

1 2. There were no important deviations from the plan of operations. 


COMMUNICATIONS. 

13. Eight and a half miles of new inspection paths were made, in most 
cases by the subordinate staff: but the 4 miles in Bukit Sedanan reserve cost 
$300 as outside labour was needed. Repairs to 129 miles of paths in the 
Malacca forests cost $274. while the paths in the other Settlements were 
cleared by the subordinate staff. 

14. Eighty-five reserve notice plates were purchased from this vote for 
the Singapore forests, and this is accordingly shown in Form IV. 


BUILDINGS. 

15. The P. W. D. built quarters for the Ranger at Lumut (Dindings), 
and for guards at Tanjong Karang (Singapore), and at Chabau, Bukit 
Bruang, and Malaka Pindah (Malacca). The Forest Department erected 
two sets of temporary coolie lines in Malacca. All existing buildings were 
kept in repair. The new work cost the P. W. D. votes $14,975 and Forest 
votes $805, and repairs cost the P. W. D. $765. 

PROTECTION OF FORESTS. 

16. New Rules under the Forest Ordinance were approved, published 
and brought into operation. The whole of the Straits Settlements is now 
under one forest law, and procedure is better understood as a result. The 
new rules are more like those of the Fedesated Malay States than were the 

old. 


3 


1 7. There were seven cases pending from 1926, and 112 new ones in 
1927, compared with 125 and 85 in 1926 and 1925. Forty-four cases were 
taken to the Magistrates Courts, where 40 convictions were obtained. Three 
cases were acquitted and one is still pending. Fines amounted to $1,090 or 
$27 per case, and $125 was paid as compensation. 

18. Sixty-two cases were dealt with departmentally ; fifty-five resulted 
in convictions, one is still unsettled and six were written off by the Resi- 
dent Councillor, Malacca, as the offenders had absconded. Compensations 
amounted to $1,185 or $ 2I -5° P er conviction. 

19. There were 13 undetected cases, seven of them in Singapore, com- 
pared with 44 and 33 last year. As the total number of cases had remained 
almost unaltered, this looks as if the measures for the protection of the 
forests had improved. 

20. Two hundred and eighty-three dollars were obtained from the sale 
of confiscated property and seized forest produce. 

21. No serious fires were reported in 1927. Two hundred dollars were 
paid as compensation for the fire in Pantai Acheh reported last year. 

22. Wild pig did some damage to the plantations at Bukit Goa Ipoh, 
but no special measures had to be taken. Specimens of fungoid fructifica- 
tions from chcngal trees in Segari-Melintang reserve, which were tapped 
for damar, were identified as Stereum. 

IMPROVEMENT OF FORESTS. 

Natural Reproduction. 

• 

23. There was no wealth of seeds in 1927. Chcngal fruited fairly well in 
Segari-Melintang reserve (Dindings), and angsana in Penang. Taban 
flowered in Telok Bahang (Penang) in December. The taban at Ayer Kroh 
fruited earlier in the year, and 39,000 seeds were collected and sold for $92. 

PLANTING AND CULTURAL OPERATIONS. 

24. The experimental planting and sowing of forest trees together with 
the cultivation of vegetables was continued at Bukit Goa Ipoh (Province 
Wellesley). Nearly the whole area allotted to this was sown up in 1926 with 
seed, mostly chcngal from Pondok Tanjong. Germination was excellent and 
the seedlings did well for a time, but later suffered from drought and insola- 
tion. A good deal of supplying will be needed in 1928. Nurseries of 
angsana were sown for this purpose. Meranti continued to do well. 

Further experiments are in progress in this reserve, and in Bukit Langkap 
in the same Settlement. 

25. Direct sowings of chcngal and angsana were made in the 10 acres 
of Pantai Acheh burnt in 1925. Only about 25 per cent, of the chcngal ger- 
minated. Some angsana was sown in blukar areas in Bukit Juru reserve 
where firewood is being exploited. 

26. Taban seedlings were planted out in blukar areas in Te]ok Bahang 
reserve. 

* — 

27. The above artificial reproduction in Penang and Province Wellesley 
was mostly done by the staff or by vegetable planters. Only $75 was expended 
from the votes. 

28. The area in Telok Sera reserve (Dindings) burnt over in 1926 was 
sown up, but drought killed the seedlings and weeds are very strong. 

29. In Malacca 15 acres of the Ayer Kroh taban plantation was cleared 
of blukar at a cost of $187. The Aver Kroh plantations of other species were 
not treated in any wav, as the condition of both crops and soil do not warrant 
expenditure. Teprosia Candida was sown as a cover crop under young taban , 
but progressed very slowly. 


4 


WORKS OF IMPROVEMENT. 

30. Cleanings were made in Penang: — 

(a) In favour of rcsak and da mar laut in Bukit Juru reserve. 

( b ) Do. meranti and jangkang in Pantai Acheh reserve. 

(c) Do. taban in Telok Bahang reserve. 

(1 d ) Bertam cutting was done by local Malays in compartments 4 and 
5 of Bukit Panchor reserve on free passes over rather more than 
10 acres. 

31. Charcoal burners carried out regeneration fellings in Pantai Acheh , 
and a timber and firewood licensee is doing similar fellings in Tasek Glugor 
reserve. Class II poles were extracted from Pantai Acheh, Telok Bahang, 
and Government Hill reserves. 

32. The regeneration fellings at Telok Bahang and Pangkor reserves 
(D hidings) were never carried out, owing to the poor market. Lhe clean- 
ings which should have followed them were therefore not made. 

33. In Malacca a labour force of 60 to 70 was kept together all the latter 
part of the year, and improvement fellings were carried out in : 

Compartments ja, 7b and 13 a Bukit Sedanan reserve. 

Compartments in Bukit Senggeh reseive. 

Compartments 3a Ayer l ’anas reserve. 

Compartment 4 a Merlimau reserve. 

Four hundred and fifteen acres were treated at a cost of $3,079 or S7.42 
per acre. 

EXPLOITATION. 

Timber and Fuel. 

(a ) — From Reserved Forests. 

34. The outturn of timber from the Singapore forests decreased from 166 
tons in 1926 to 7 tons in 19 27, and this was confiscated as a result of a 
forest offence. The fact is that there is little timber left. The outturn of 
firewood fell from 2,520 tons to 42 tons as no new coupes were opened. 1 he 
mangrove reserves have been badly cut about and little can be hoped fiom 
thern for some time, but they are not ruined and will recover with rest. 
Revenue rose from $1,796 to $5,9^6, owing to payments by squatters for 
timber on their allotments. 

35. In Penang and Province Wellesley the outturn of timber was 572 
tons and of firewood 2,604 tons compared with 1,356 tons and 5’ 22 9 t° n ^ 
respectively in 1926. This was due to the fact that the fellings of Class I 
timber in Bukit Juru and Tasek Glugor .were closed, and those in Pantai 
Acheh oreatly reduced ; also there was little or no market foi Class II poles. 
The fall in firewood is due to the fact that the 1926 totals were greatly 
swollen by the clearing of the land to be excised from fasek Glugor reseive. 

Revenue fell from $ 4-373 to $ 2 > 477 * 

? 6. In the Dindings the outturn of timber and fuel from reserves was 
265 tons and 421 tons compared with 96 and 146 tons respectively in 1926, 
the revenue increased from $358 to $481. Two fellings were leased in the 
Tanjong Burong reserve and the villagers of Pantai Reims had a pole coupe 
under permit; a free pole coupe for fishermen was also opened: these two 
latter are thinnings on the “stick” method. Further pole coupes were opened 
in Batu Undan reserve. Regeneration fellings in Telok Muroh and Pangkor 
reserves w r ere very unsatisfactory. 

37. In Malacca the outturn of timber and fuel was 764 and 71 tons com- 
pared with 858 and 866 tons respectively in 1926. Revenue fell from $4,512 
to $877. No Class I timber, except from fallen trees, was allowed to be 
removed and there was no market for firewood. 


5 


38. The figures for the whole Straits Settlements were:— i, 608 tons of 
timber and 3,139 tons of firewood compared with 2,476 and 8,762 tons les 
pectively in 1926, The outturn of Class I timber fell from 766 tons to 22b 
tons. Revenue on these heads decreased from $11,039 to $ 9 > 75 2 - 

(b) — From Crown and Alienated Land. 

39. In Singapore the outturn of timber and firewood was estimated as 
nil and 17,300 tons compared with 946 and 21,997 tons respectively in 1926. 
Revenue oh these heads fell from $6,104 to $4,464. 

40. In Penang and Province Wellesley fellings on Crown and alienated 
land produced 207 tons of timber and 3,482 tons of firewood compared with 
147 and 2,184 tons respectively in 1927. Revenue on these heacte rose from 
$1,047 to $1,699. 

41. In the Bindings the outturn of timber was 6,195 and of firewood 
2,583 tons compared with 5,040 and 1,943 tons respectively in 1926. Revenue 
increased from $8,070 to $10,871. The amount of Class I timber removed 
rose from 1,217 tons to 2,539 tons. 

42. In Malacca, the outturn was 1,668 tons of timber and 736 tons of 
firewood compared with 2.21 1 and 985 tons respectively in 1926. Revenue 
from these sources amounted to $9,336 compared with $8,834 in 1926 
Royalty on the timber on land alienated for planting amounted to $ 3 > 9 ^ 
compared with $13,377 in I9 2 ^- 

43. The total revenue derived from the exploitation of timber and fire- 
wood on Crown and Alienated land fell troiu $37,432 to $30,338; i| “ ie 
amounts referred to in the last sentence of paragraph 4 2 aie excluded, tie 
fall in revenue is replaced by a rise in royalty from $24,055 to $26,370. 

MINOR FOREST PRODUCE. 

(a) — From Reserved Forests. 

44. Revenue from this source increased from $2,989 to $ 3 > 2 47 - There 
was a small increase in the Dindings revenue and a subtantial inciense m 
Malacca. The Malacca increase was due to fees on permits to prospect for 
tin and to the sale of taban seeds collected in 1926 and 1927, which more than 
made up for a falling off in rubber sales. 

45. Damar tapping has been started in Segari-Melintang resei\e in the 
Dindings, where 181 chcngal and 30 tcmak trees have been opened, ihe 
latter, which is a species of Shorca, has not yet been botamcally identified, but 
it produces an unusually valuable pale damar. 

(b) — Form Crown and Alienated Land. 

46. Revenue increased from $815 to $1,116. The increase was chiefly in • 
the Dindings, but the details are of no importance. 

PART III. 

FINANCIAL RESULTS. 

Revenue. 


47. The following statement shows the total revenue from 1925 to 1927. 


Settlement 

Revenue 

1925 

Revenue 

1926 

Estimated 

revenue 

1927 

Actual 

revenue 

1927 

Increase or 
decrease 
over 

Estimates 

Increase or 
decrease 
over 1926 
Actuals 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley 

Dindings 

Malacca 

S 

12,998 

7.317 

11,062 

16,605 

S 

12,443 

6,844 

9,879 

29,093 

$ 

7,000 

6,650 

9,960 

16.450 

s 

17,073 

5,628 

13,305 

16,757 

$ 

+ 10,073 

- 1,022 
+ 3,345 

+ 307 

S 

+ 4,630 

- 1,216 
+ 3,426 

- 12,336 

Total ... 

47,982 

58,259 

40,060 

52.763 

+ 12,703 

- 5,496 


6 


48. 'I he excess over the estimates is mostly due to compensation paid 
by squatters for timber destroyed in the Singapore reserves : the rise in the 
Dindings is due to better supervision. 


EXPENDITURE. 


49. The following table shows the expenditure from 1925 to 1927: — 


Settlement 

Expenditure 

1925 

Expenditu re 
1926 

Estimated 

Expenditure 

1927 

- 

Expenditure 

1927 

Savings on 
Estimates 

Increase or 
decrease 
over 1926 
Actuals 


9 

$ 

9 

$ 



% 

Singapore 

8.048 

7,833 

7,942 

9,411 

- 1,469 

+ 

1,578 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley 

10,563 

16,697 

8,069 

11,346 

- 3,277 

— 

5,351 

Dindings 

8,465 

8,051 

7,820 

8,577 

757 

+ 

526 

Malacca 

29,242 

20,819 

24,493 

25,664 

- 1,171 

+ 

4,845 

Total 

56,318 

53,400 

48,324 

* t 54.99S 

- 6,674 

+ 

1,598 


* Excludes temporary allowances amounting to $2,418. 

t Includes share of head office expenses, of co^t of training forest officers and of contribution to 
Imperial Forestry Institute. 


50. The increase of expenditure over estimates is due to the greatly in- 
creased work put in by the senior staff in the Forests of the Straits Settlements 
and will bear good fruit in the future. 


SURPLUS AND DEFICIT. 

51. The results of the year’s working are shown in the following state- 
ment : — 


1 

Settlement 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1925 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1926 

Estimated 
surplus or 
deficit 1927 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1927 

Increase 
or decrease 
over 

Estimates 

Increase 
or decrease 
over 1926 
Actuals 





$ 

•£> 

1 

$ 


$ 

$ 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 

+ 

4,950 

+ 

4,610 

942 

+ 7,662 

4* 

8,604 

+ 3,052 

Wellesley 

— 

3,246 

— 

9,853 

- 1,419 

- 5,718 


4,299 

4- 4,135 

Dindings 

+ 

2,597 

+ 

1,828 

+ 2,140 

+ 4,728 

+ 

2,588 

+ 2,900 

Malacca 

— 

12,637 

+ 

8,274 

- 8,043 

- 8,907 

1 

” 

864 

- 17,181 

Total ... 


8,336 

+ 

4,859 

- 8,264 

- 2,235 

+ 

6,029 

- 7,094 


PART IV. 

ADMINISTRATION. 

52. The writer was in charge throughout the year. The Singapore forests 
were placed in charge of a Sub-Assistant Conservator of Forests working 
under the Personal Assistant to the Conservator of Forests, who has the 
powers of a Deputy Conservator of Forests. Other arrangements remained 
as before. 


G. E. S. CURITT, 

Conservator of Forests , 
S.S. and F.M.S, 


0 


Kuala Lumpur, 2nd March, 1928. 


/ 


7 


APPENDIX A. 

List of Trees, Etc., Mentioned in the Report. 


Vernacular or English Name. 

Botanical Name. 

Angsana 

Pterocarpus indicus 

ChengaJ 

Balanocarpus Heimii 

Damar-laut 

Parashorea stellata 

Jangkang 

Hopea spp. 

Meranti 

Shorea spp. 

Taban 

Palaquium and Payena 

Temak 

Shorea spp. 




# 

Annual Report on Forest Administration in the Straits 

Settlements for the Year 1928 


PART I 

EXTENSION AND CONSTITUTION OE 


RESERVED FORESTS. 


1. The extensions of forest reserves in the Dindings referred to in last 
year’s report were both constituted. They are 375 acres of daniar laut forest 
at Tanjong Hantu and 2,950 acres of fair timber forest at Gunong Tunggal. 

2. A proposed extension to the JBalik Pulau reserve in Penang was 
preliminarily notified, but was not finally gazetted at the end of the year. 
This is a mangrove forest on newly formed mud banks. 

3. A proposal to reserve the mangrove forests around the Berih river 
in Singapore has been discussed but not yet approved. This forest has been 
heavily overcut, but has regenerated well and is very suited to carry a 
permanent forest crop. 

4. A number of small excisions totalling 220 acres, were gazetted. The 
excision from Tanjong Burong Reserve in the Dindings was for agricultural 
purposes as was that from Pantai Acheh in Penang; those from Ramuan 
China and Bukit Sedanan, both in Malacca, were for agriculture, and that 
from Bukit Bruang, also in Malacca, for a burial ground; and the excision 
from the Bukit Tim ah Reserve in Singapore was for a quarry. 

5. Further excisions for agriculture are under consideration in the Din- 
dings and in Malacca. 


6. The total area and the distribution of reserved forests are shown in 
the following statement: — 


Settlement 

Total Area 

Area of 

Reserved Forests 

Proportion 
to whole Area 


Square miles 

Square miles 

Per cent. 

Singapore ... 

2 r 7 

22' 5 

10-4 

Penang 

108 

f 9'0 

1 7 -6 

Province Wellesley 

280 

5-8 

21 

Dindings 

1*3 

527 

28-8 

1 

Malacca 

72c 

790 

1 ro 

Total 

GO 

O 

to 

179-0 

1 1*9 


DEMARCATION AND MAINTENANCE OF BOUNDARIES OF 

FOREST RESERVES. 

7. The total length of boundaries increased from 570 miles to 585. Ol 
the new boundaries 7J miles were artihcal and about 4 natural, ihe large 
number of small excisions made practically no difference to the totals. About 
335 3/5 miles of artihcal boundaries were cleaned at a cost of $431, but a good 
deal of such work was done by guards when patrolling. 1 he new work cost 
$85/50 or $11/72 per mile. 

8. Parts of the boundaries of the mangrove forest in Singapore are sited 
in the mangrove swamp itself, which makes inspection of boundaries difficult 
Small readjustments of these swamp boundaries would put this matter right. 

SURVEYS. 

9. The Survey Department published the 4 ” topographical maps of the 
Tanjong Burong Reserve in the Dindings drawn from the mosaic photo- 
graphs made by the Air Survey Company. 

10. The general survey of Malacca is well in hand and will clear up a 
number of doubtful reserve boundaries. 

ix. In Singapore a forester lent from the F. M. S. demarcated 15 miles of 
interior details in reserves for the purpose of siting areas for market gard- 
eners. A number of new compartments in the Penang and Malacca reserves 
and two excisions in the Dindings were demarcated and surveyed by the 
local staff. 


PART II 

MANAGEMENT OF FORESTS. 

Working Plans or Schemes. 

12. The plan for the Malacca forests, prepared by Mr. J. P % Edwards, 
Assistant Conservator of Forests, last year, was approved by the Government 
as a whole and is gradually being brought into operation. The plan for 
Tanjong Burong in the Dindings was not carried out, owing to the lack of 
markets for forest produce. No other plans or schemes have been prepared. 

COMMUNICATIONS. 

13. All existing paths in Singapore, Penang and the Dindings were kept 
up by the staff without any special expenditure. In Malacca 124 miles of exis- 
ting paths were repaired at a cost of $35° an< I 11 miles of new paths 
constructed at a cost of $670. From the same vote 66 reserve notice boards 
for the Singapore forests were purchased. 

BUILDINGS. 

14. A house was built for the Sub-Assistant Conservator of Forests, at 
Singapore. Temporary coolie lines were put up in Malacca to provide 
accommodation for the coolies employed on improvement fellings. 

15. The Public Works Department spent $3,451 on the repair of a number 
of forest department buildings as shown in Form IV. 


PROTECTION OF FORESTS. 

16, The Ordinance remained unaltered during the year, although several 
amendments were under consideration. Particularly important is the pioposal 
to allow forest officers to compound minor offences as is allowed in the 
Federated Malav States. To take an ignorant peasant before the Magistrate 
for some minor offence of which he is clearly guilty is hard on him and very 
costly 011. account of taking up the time of highly paid senior officers. 


3 


1 7. The Rules were amended by certain alterations in the charges for 
mangrove permits and royalties on other forest produce. Further amend- 
ments are contemplated. 

18. There was one case pending from 1927 and there were 75 new cases 
in 1928 making 76 cases for that year as compared with 112 in 1927 and 125 
in 1926. All were dealt with during the year. There was a decrease in the 
number of cases in Malacca, possibly due to the start in exploiting the forests 
in that settlement. Unworked forests are always robbed, while, when the 
forests are worked, the public can buy what it wants cheaply. In addition, a 
worked forest is full of guards, coolies and permit-holders, who all assist in 
its protection. 

19. The Magistrate dealt with 29 cases and convicted in 25. One case 
was withdrawn. In three cases the accused were discharged. Fines inflicted 
amounted to $462 or $18/48 per conviction as compared with $1,090 and $27 
in 1927. Nineteen cases were dealt with departmental ly, and $606 or v$3i/89 
per case was paid as compensation for damage. The corresponding figures 
for the previous year were 55, $1,185 anf l $21/54. 

20. There was an increase in the number of undetected cases, which were 
28 as compared with 13 in the previous year. Confiscated property was sold 
for $263 compared with $283 last year. 

21. There were no serious forest fires. Pigs and kera monkeys raided 
the market garden at Bukit Goa but left the trees alone. Monkeys destroyed 
a number of seedlings of bakaa minyak at Changi and crabs did similar 
damage at Tuas. 

IMPROVEMENT OF FORESTS. 

Natural reproduction. 

22. Damar laut flowered in July, and fruited profusely in October in 
Bukit Juru in Penang. Damar laut fruited in August in Bukit Senggeh in 
Malacca, but the seed w^as not fertile. Taban fruited in July— August in 
Ayer Ivroh in Malacca: 115,700 seeds were sold to an estate in Pahang for 
$253/-. A fair number of other Class I trees fruited lightly in the Malacca 
forests in January. 

PLANTING AND CULTURAL OPERATIONS. 

23. At Bukit Goa Ipoh a Chinaman who is trying to combine market 
gardening with the planting of forest trees (Taungya) cleared and planted 
his area and the forest department interplanted sena and mahogany. The 
blanks mentioned last year were supplied with sena and mahogany. 

24. Ten Malays in Bukit Langkap reserve and one in Bukit Juru reserve 
in the Province, have taken up leases for similar work. Nurseries have been 
started, but no planting of trees has yet. been done. An attempt to sow 
angsana direct in belukar at Bukit Juru failed and the area has been handed 
to a Malay to grow vegetables in the same manner. 

25. A small plantation of angsana was made in Telok Bahang in Penang 
on poor soil where taban failed before. The bamboo plantation in the same 
reserve, made in 1922 and 1924, was supplied with an undentified species, 
called the “golden bamboo” 

26. The ten acre plantation of chengal and angsana in the area burnt 
in Pantai Acheh in 1925 has been abandoned. What was done in the past 
has failed completely and it is considered that the difficulty of access and 
the rankness of the existing belukar (jungle grass) would make the cost ol 
a plantation here prohibitive. 

27. The plantation of taban at Ayer Kroh in Malacca was cleaned 
and some thinnings were made where the taban was too ciowded. The 
Tephrosia Candida which was sown in I 9 2 7 as a cover cro P f a ^ e( l to establish 
itself being unable to compete with lalang and other weeds. This is perhaps 
not to be marvelled at, as the area was under a crop of para rubber for years 
and the surface soil has vanished as the result of clean weeding. 


4 


WORKS OF IMPROVEMENT. 


2 8. An attempt was made to begin regeneration fellings on the F.M.S. 
lines in Bukit Juru Reserve in Province Wellesley. Similar fellings in lasek 
Glugor were continued. Bertam may now be taken free from forest re- 
serves and this should assist natural regeneration. 


20. Improvement fellings were carried out over the following compart- 


ments of Malacca forest reserves: — 

Bukit Sedanan F. R. 

Ayer Panas F. R. 

Merlimau F. R. 

Ramuan China F. R. 

The cost was $6/85 per acre which 


... yb, 7c, jd, 13a, 13b, 13c. 
... 3°. 3 b > 3 C > 3d, 6a, 6b. 

... 4 a, 4 b, 4 c. 

... 6 . 

is not unduly high. 


EXPLOITATION. 

Timber and Fuel. 

(a ) — From Reserved Forests. 

30. Only 3} tons of timber (poles) and no firewood werei removed from 
ordinary fellings in Singapore forest reserves, compared with 7 and 42 tons 
in 1927. The forests will have to be rested for some time to come. Squatters 
paid $9,812 as commuted royalty on the timber on their allotments compared 
with $5,916 in 1927. 

31. In Penang and Province Wellesley the outturn of timber was 3^6 
tons and of firewood i, 445 tons compared with 57 2 3.nd 2,604 tons in 1927* 
The fall in timber is in poles only. The forests are not in a condition to be 
heavily exploited and unless some expenditure is undertaken to replace what 
is taken out, exploitation will lead to their destruction. Revenue decreased 

from $2,477 in l 9 2 7 to $L 379 - 

32. In the Bindings, the outturn of timber and firewood was 1,232 tons and 
321 tons compared with 265 and 4 21 tons in 1927- Revenue increased from 
$481 to $2,961. The increase was chiefly in respect of poles. 

33. In Malacca the outturn of timber and firewood was 2,332 tons and 
t 873 tons compared with 764 and 71 tons m 1927- Revenue increased from 
$877 to $3,878. The Assistant Conservator of Forests remarks that the 
trade in forest produce suffered from the trade depression and the increase 
would have been larger in normal ciicumstances. 

34. The figures for the whole S. S. were 3,953 tons of timber and. 3*641 
tons of firewood compared with 1,608 and 3 A 39 tons in 1927. Class I timber 
rose from 228 tons to 330. Revenue under these heads increased from 89,752 

to $18,030. 

( I) ) — From Crown and Alienated Lands. 

33 In Singapore the outturn of timber was again recorded as nil and 
that of firewood estimated to be 22,700 tons compared with 17,300 tons m 1927. 
Revenue increased from $4,464 t° $ 5 * 675 - 

36. In Penang and Province Wellesley the outturn of timber was 317 tons 
and that of firewood 1,464 tons compared with 207 and 3*4^2 tons in 1927- 
Revenue fell from $1,699 to $ 9 & 4 - 

37. In the Dindings the outturn of timber was 4,444 tons and that of 
firewood 2,010 tons compared with 6,195 and 2,583 tons in 1927. e\enue 
increased from $10,871 to $12,835- The outturn of Class I timber fell from 

2,539 tons to 2,422, 

38. In Malacca the outturn of timber was 774 tons and of firewood 873 
tons compared with 1,668 tons and 736 in 1927- Revenue fell from $9,336 to 
$5,437. Revenue on land alienated for planting increased fiom $3,968 to 

$4*969. 


39- The total revenue derived from the exploitation of timber and fire- 
wood on Crown and Alienated land fell from $30,338 to $29,900. But if the 
figures mentioned in the last sentence of 38 are excluded, royalty has fallen 
from $26,370 to $24,931. 

MINOR FOREST PRODUCE. 

(a) — F rom Reserved Forests. 

40. Revenue from this source fell from $3,247 to $2,580. The fall was 
due almost entirely to the cessation of rubber tapping in Malacca and the 
general fall of revenue in Penang and Province Wellesley. The other two 
Settlements showed an increase. 

41. Damar tapping in the forests in the Dindings is in progress, and 
results to date are encouraging. In Segari-Melintang reserve 75 temak and 
148 chengal trees have been opened and there is another lease-holder who has 
just started work in Gunong Tunggal reserve. 

(b ) — From Crown and Alienated Land. 

42. Revenue increased from $1,1 16 to $1,235, the increase being in the 
Dindings. 

PART III 

FINANCIAL RESULTS. 

Revenue. 


43. The following statement shows the total revenue from T926 to 1928. 


Settlement 

Revenue 

1926 

Revenue 

1927 

Estimated 

revenue 

1928 

Actual 

revenue 

1928 

Increase or 
decrease 
compared 
with 

Estimate 

Increase 

or 

decrease 
compared 
with 1927 


$ 

I 

S 

$ 


$ 

§ 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 

12,443 

17,073 

10,000 

26,074 

+ 

16,074 

+ 9,001 

Wellesley 

6,844 

5,628 

5,875 

3,401 

— 

2,474 

- 2,227 

Dindings 

9,879 

13,305 

12,000 

18,300 

+ 

6,300 

+ 4,995 

Malacca 

29.093 

16,757 

6,150 

15,533 

+ 

9,383 

- 1,224 

Total ... 

58,259 

52,763 

34,025 

63,308 

+ 

29,283 

+ 10,545 


44. The increase in the Singapore figures over those of 1927 and over the 
estimates is due to the squatters fees. These cannot be foreseen. The 
increases in the Dindings and Malacca are probably due partly to closer 
supervision, consequent on the stationing of senior officers in those 
Settlements. 


Expenditure. 


45. The following statement shows the expenditure from 1926 to 1928 : — 


Settlement 

Expenditure 

1926 

Expenditure 

1927 

Estimated 

Expenditure 

1928 

Actual 

Expenditure 

1928 

Increase or 
decrease 
compared 
with 
Estimate 

Increase 

or 

decrease 
compared 
with 1927 


$ 

$ 

$ 

V 


$ 

$ 

Singapore 

7,833 

9,411 

8,430 

10,083 

+ 

1,653 

+ 672 

Penang and Province 








Wellesley 

16,697 

11,346 

8,343 

11,488 

+ 

3,145 

+ 142 

Dindings 

8,051 

8,577 

10,553 

8,773 

— 

1,780 

+ 196 

Malacca 

20,819 

25,664 

23,507 

35,897 

l 

+ 

12,390 

+ 10,233 

Total 

53,400 

54,998 

50,833 

* f 66,241 

+ 

15,408 

+ 11,243 


* Excludes temporary allowance amounting to $3,147. 

t Includes share of head office expenses, of cost of training forest officers and contribution to 
Imperial Forestry Institute. 


6 


46. The increases over both the estimate for 1928 and the 19 27 figures 
are due almost entirely to the fact that it has been decided to work the 
Malacca forests under close management. These forests are very, valuable, 
both from the character of the growing stock and from their position in a 
heavily populated Settlement. Money spent on such a propeity will lepay 
the Government handsomely. 


SURPLUS AND DEFICIT. 

47. The results of the year’s working are shown in the following state- 
ment. — 


Settlement 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1926 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1927 

Estimated 
surplus or 
deficit 1928 

Actual 
surplus 
or deficit 
1928 

Increase 
or decrease 
compared 
with 

Estimate 

Increase 

or 

decrease 
compared 
with 1927 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley 

Dindings 

Malacca 

Total ... 

* 

+ 4,610 

- 9,853 

+ 1,828 
+ 8,274 

$ 

+ 7,662 

- 5,718 

+ 4,728 

- 8,907 

8 

+ 1,570 

- 2,468 

+ 1,447 

- 17,357 

$ 

+ 15,991 

- 8,087 

+ 9,527 

- 20,364 

3 

+ 14,421 

- 5,619 
+ 8,080 

- 3,007 

% 

+ 8,329 

- 2,363 

+ 4,799 

- 11,457 

+ 4,859 

- 2,235 

- 16,808 

- 2,933 

+ 13,875 

698 


PART IV 

ADMINISTRATION. 

48. Mr. Cubitt was in charge until he left, in August, to attend the 
Empire Forestry Conference in Australia, thence proceeding on long leave. 
The writer was in charge thereafter. 

40. Singapore remained in charge of a Sub-Assistant Conservator of 
Forests with the Personal Assistant to the Conservator as Deputy Consei 
vator of Forests. Malacca was made a forest district under an Assistant 
Conservator of Forests stationed at Jasin, working under the Deputy Con- 
servator of Forests, Negri Sembilan. A new forest district including e 
Dindings and parts of Perak was made with its headquarters at lm . 
Penang and Province Wellesley were under the District roiest Ofticer, 
Matanf. The Deputy Consen-ator of Forests, Perak North remained in 

charge of these Settlements. 

B. H. F. BARNARD, 

Ag. Conservator of Forests , 

N. S', and F. M. S. 


0 


# 


Kuala Lumpur, 10th March , 1929. 


7 


APPENDIX A. 

List of Trees, Etc., Mentioned in the Report. 


Vernacular or English Names. 

Botanical Names 

Angsana 

Pterocarpus intlicus 

Bakau M inyak ••• 

Rhizophora conjugata 

Bertam 

Eugeissona triste 

Chengal 

Balanocarpus Heimii 

Damar 

Shorea Sp. 

Daraar Laut 

Sliorea glanca 

Mahogany 

Swietenia Sp. 

Lalang 

imperata Sp. 

Para 

Hevea braziliensis 

Sena 

P t e r o c a r p u s i n di cu s 

Taban 

Palaquium and Payena 

Temak 

Shorea Sp. 

Kachang bubu 

Tephrosia Candida. 



Annual Report on Forest Administration in the Straits 

Settlements for the year 1929 


PART I 

EXTENSION AND CONSTITUTION OE RESERVED FORESTS. 

1. In Singapore the Sungei Berih mangrove forest with an area of 1,315 
acres was constituted a reserve and two areas ot 292 and 65 acies 1 c.spccti\ cl_\ 
were added to the Tuas and Pandan mangrove reserves. All three areas carry 
a crop of good but immature bakau * 

2. In Penang 29 acres of mangrove were added to the Balik Pulan 
reserve. 

3. In Singapore 53 acres were excised from the Bukit T imah reserve for a 
rifle range, and 25 acres from the Pandan reserve for a residential purpose. 

4. In the Dindings excisions for agriculture of 3 acres and 180 acres 
were made from the Lumut and Batu Undan resei\es. 

5. In Malacca the area of the Merlimau reserve was reduced by 8 acres, 
as it was found on resurvey that an adjoining estate had encroached to this 

extent. 

6. An enquiry into the value of the Penang and Province Wellesley 
reserves was made and as a result it was decided to abandon ihe Bukit Goa 
Ipoh and Bukit Langkap reserves in Province Wellesley. It was further 
decided to maintain as forest reserves all water catchment areas, with the 
exception of such land as has already been acquired by the Municipal Com- 
missioners. In accordance with this policy it will be necessary to extend 
the reserves adjoining the Balik Pulau and Bukit Mertajam water catchment 
areas. 


7. The total area and distribution of reserved forests are shown in the 
following statement : — 


Settlement 

Total area 

Area of 

reserved forests 

Proportion 
to whole area 

, , 

Square miles 

Square miles 

Per cent. 

Singapore... 

217 

25-0 

1 1*5 

Penang 

108 

19-1 

1 7*7 

* „ 

Province Wellesley 

280 

5-8 

2T 

Dindings 

183 

52A 

to 

00 

O'! 

Malacca 

720 

79 '° 

11*0 

Total 

00 

0 

vO 

f8i*3 

12*0 


* For liottin ica.1 names of trees, etc., mentioned in tins icpoit and foims set Appendix, 


2 


DEMARCATION AND MAINTENANCE OF BOUNDARIES OF 

FOREST RESERVES. 

8. The total length of boundaries increased from 585 miles to 606 miles. 
Of the new boundaries about 18 miles are artificial, and the remainder are 
formed by natural features. A length of 359 miles of boundaries was repaired 
at a cost of $708, i.c., $1.97 per mile, but a good deal of cleaning was done 
by patrol guards. This cost is for labour and material only and does not 
include overhead charges for supervising staff. The new work was carried 
out by the staff. 


SURVEYS. 

9. A sum of $264.87 was spent in Malacca by the Survey Department 
on work preparatory to the topographical survey programme for 1930. 

10. In the Dindings the Survey Department surveyed the external 
boundary of the Gunong Tunggal reserve and excisions from the Telok 
Muroh and Lumut reserves at a cost of $1,657. 

11. Departmental surveys of compartment boundaries, coupes and paths 
were made in the Penang, Province Wellesley, and Malacca reserves by the 
subordinate staff. 


PART II 

MANAGEMENT OF FORESTS. 

12. Satisfactory progress was made with the scheme of improvement for 
the Malacca forests, and the prescriptions were, with minor exceptions, 
adhered to. 

13. The working scheme for the Tanjong Burong reserve in the Dindings 
could not be followed owing to the lack of demand for firewood. 

14. A preliminary investigation of the mangrove area of the Kuala Linggi 
reserve in Malacca was made with a view to bringing this reserve under 
working scheme control. 


COMMUNICATIONS. 

15. Existing inspection paths in the Singapore, Penang and the Dindings 
reserves were upkept by the staff. In Malacca 114 miles of existing' paths 
were repaired at a cost of $631.50 and 20^ miles of new paths were constructed 
at a cost of $2,056. 

BUILDINGS. 

16. In Singapore the Public Works Department removed the forest 
guards’ quarters from Mandai road and re-erected them at Kranji, and built 
a garage for the District Forest Officer, at Barker road. 

17. In the Dindings $18,890 was spent by the Public Works Department- 
on quarters for the District Forest Officer at Lumut, but the building was 
still unfinished at the end of the year. 

18. In Malacca the Public Works Department built a district forest'office 
and quarters for the forest clerk at Jasin and quarters for forest guards at 
Kesang, Nyalas and Tebong. 

Temporary quarters for staff and coolies employed on improvement 
fellings cost $1,086.78. 

19. The Public Works Department spent $1,120.83 on the general repair 
of a number of Forest Department buildings. 




t 


3 


PROTECTION OF FORESTS. 

20. Minor alterations were made to the Ordinance and Rules, the most 
important being an amendment to rule 18 empowering the Conservator of 
Forests to fix royalties and fees for leases of forest produce in reserves, 
ihe proposal to allow senior forest officers to compound minor offences 
referred to in paragraph 16 of last year’s report failed to meet with approval. 

21. No cases were pending from 1928. There were 103 new cases 
compared with 76 cases in 1928 and 112 in 1927. All were disposed of during 
the year . t here was a marked increase in forest offences in Singapore, but 
these were principally petty thefts of poles and firewood by squatters 
occupying land adjoining the mangrove forest. In all the other Settlements 
there was a decrease. 

22. Twenty-nine cases were taken to court, convictions being obtained 
in 26 cases, tire accused being discharged in the remainder. Fines inflicted 
totalled $1,518.20, i.c, h $58.39 per conviction compared with $462 and $18.48 
m 1928. Thirteen cases were dealt with departmentally and $137 was paid 
as compensation for damage. J he corresponding fig'ures for 1928 were 19 
and $606. 

There was a large increase of 61 in the number of undetected cases as 
compared with 28 in 1928. This increase was almost entirely in Singapore 
where petty thefts from the mangrove cannot be prevented without a dis- 
proportionate increase in staff. 

In Malacca there were 31 breaches of felling leases and fines amounting 
to $223 were imposed. 

Theie were several small fires in Penang and the Dinding'S, but the 
damage was not extensive. 

Crabs did very heavy damage to the newly planted bakau seedlings in 
the Pulau Burong reserve. 

SILVICULTURE. 

N atu r al Rep rod uct ion. 

^ 2 3 - Except in Malacca little seed was produced. M clantai fruited in the 
Pantai Acheh reserve in Penang during July. Some of it was collected and 
sown m the Bukit Goa Ipoh reserve, but failed to establish Itself. In 
Malacca there was an excellent seed crop, especially from the dipterocarps. 
Meranti, kerning and mersawa fruited, most noticeable being the profuse 
fruiting from June to September of meranti tembaga in all the reserves in 
the Settlement. In the Singapore mangrove forests bakau minyak and bakau 
kurap fruited, and in December scraya fruited in the Bukit fimali reserve. 

7 aban fruited in the Bukit Bruang reserve in Malacca and the Telok Bahaim 
reserve in Penang, and a sum of $174 was realised by the sale of 87,000 
seeds to estates in Pahang. 

PLANTING AND CULTURAL PLANTATIONS. 

24. The reafforestation experiments referred to in paragraphs 2^ and 24 
of last year’s report in the Bukit Goa Ipoh, Bukit Langkap and Bukit Juru 
reserves were continued. Operations in the last mentioned reserve ceased 
in September as the cultivator, a Malay, was unable to carry on. The species 
planted is sena and has done moderately well. It is reported that the results 
seem to show that tapioca should not be planted until an interval of at least 
six months after planting the trees. In the interval any low-growing annual 
crop may be planted, and for this purpose ubi kembili is very suitable. Seven 
out of the ten Malays who took up leases in the Bukit Langkap reserve gave 
up during the year. The taban and sena areas in the Telok Bahang reserve 
were cleaned. Foui acres of mangrove forest in the Pulau Burong reserve 
were planted w ith bakau obtained from Port Weld. In the Malacca planta- 
tions^ acres of taban and 33 acres of merbau were cleaned and 108 taban 
seedlings w r ere planted by the coolies engaged in the cleaning operations. 
An estate in Pahang bought 1,050 taban stumps from an old abandoned 
nursery. The Para rubber in the Yeo Chu Kang plantation in Singapore 
and the Avei Kroh plantation in Malacca w r ere tapped during the year. 


0 


4 


WORKS OF IMPROVEMENT. 

25. Departmental improvement fellings were made over 40 acres in the 
Tasek Gelugor reserve at a cost of $238.80, i.e., $5.97 per acre. The trees 
ringed and felled in this operation were later extracted by a contractor, 
royalty amounting to $152.87 being paid. The net cost per acre tints 
amounted to $2.15. The improvement fellings started in the I >11 kit J urn 
reserve in 1928 were completed over 35 acres, the cost for the^year amounting 
to $157.80, bringing up the total cost for the whole area to $6.49 per acre. 

In Malacca improvement fellings were continued and completed over 
the following areas: — 

Bukit Sedanan 1,184 acres, Bukit Senggeh 167 acres, Ayer Panas 859 
acres, Merlimau 348 acres, Ramuan China 980 acres and Sungei Udang 494 
acres, in all 4,032 acres at a cost of $35>7^°-8o, $K£>7 per act e. I he cost 

is high but the forest, in the absence of a market for the inferior species, 
cannot be improved in any other way. 

Bcrtam cutting on free permit continued in the Bukit Panchor and 
Ramuan China reserves. 


EXPLOITATION. 


Timber and fuel. 


* ( a ) — From reserved forests. 

26. No timber and 56 tons of firewood were removed under ordinary 

fellings from the Singapore reserves, compared with 3! tons of timber and 
no firewood in 1928. A considerable amount was cut by squatters on the 
areas given up to them for vegetable cultivation, but no record of quantities 
was kept as commuted royalty was paid. 4 he total revenue for the year 
was $891 compared with $9,812 in 1928. 4 he large decrease is accounted for 

by the much smaller area given up to squatters, vis. 180 acres as compared 
with 1,408 acres in 1928. 

27. In Penang and Province Wellesley the outturn oi timbei and firewood 
was 315 tons and 1,410 tons as compared with 386 and 1,445 tons 111 J 9 2 ^- 
Most of the firewood came from the mangrove reserve at Balik Pulau, from 
the improvement fellings in 1 asek Gelugor, and from the leased workings 
in Bukit Goa Ipoh. The revenue decreased from $1,379 in x 9 28 to $LL5 2 * 

28. In the Bindings the outturn of class 1 timber increased from 123 

tons to 190 tons. None of the reserves are open to regular cutting of this 
class of timber, and it was produced entirely by areas destined for excision 
from the reserves. The outturn of class 2 timber and poles decreased to 
140 tons as compared with 1,109 tons * n l 9 2 $- 4 his decrease is accounted 

for by the closing down of the mangrove pole cutting in the Batu Undan 
reserve. The outturn of firewood rose from 321 tons in 1928 to 719 tons. 
44ie revenue decreased from $2,961 in 1928 to $2,284. 


29. In Malacca there was a general all round increase in the outturn o 
timber and firewood accounted for by the increased demand and the opening 
up of the reserves. The outturn of class 1 and 2 timbei was 2,083 an( i 3P4 2 
tons compared with 408 and 1,923 tons in 1928. I he stimulus gnen to t ie 
inland firewood trade by the part remission of royalty in 1928 resulted in a 
markedly improved outturn, and the demand has increased to such an extent 
that full royalty will lie reimposed for all accessible areas as from 1st 
January, 1930. The total outturn was 12,737 tons compared with 1,875 tons 
in 1928 and 71 tons in 1927. The revenue increased from 83,878 m 19 2t to 
$16,025. 


30. The total outturn of the Straits Settlements was 5,870 tons of timber 
and 14,922 tons of firewood as compared with 3*953 ail( ^ 3’^4J_ tons in T 9 2c - 
The outturn of class 1 timber rose from 55° to 2 * 2 ^ 0 tons. Revenue tinder 
these heads increased from S 18,030 to $20,352. 


5 


( b ) — From Crown and alienated Lands. 

31. In Singapore the outturn of timber and firewood was 1 and 14,400 
tons compared with no timber and 22,700 tons of firewood in 1928. The 
decrease in firewood was partly due to the reservation of the mangrove at 
Sungei Berih, but is chiefly accounted for by the exploitation of inland fire- 
wood that was paid for in 1928. Revenue decreased from $5,675 to $3,601. 

32. In Penang and Province Wellesley the outturn of timber and firewood 
was 168 tons and 1,516 as compared with 317 and 1,464 tons in 1928. Revenue 
fell from $984 to $830. 

In the Dindings the outturn of timber and firewood was 2,044 tons and 
2,017 tons compared with 4,444 and 2,010 tons in 1928. Charcoal increased 
from 160 tons to 398 tons. Revenue fell from $12,835 to $6,934. 

33. In Malacca timber increased from 774 tons to 3,485 tons and firewood 
from 873 tons to 3,302 tons. Revenue from Crown land fell from $5,437 to 
$5,119 but revenue from alienated land increased from $4,969 to $5,619. The 
total revenue fell from $29,900 to $22,103. 

OTHER FOREST PRODUCE. 

(a)— From reserved forests. 

34 - Revenue rose from $2,580 to $4,001. There were increases in the 
Dindings and Malacca, in the former from damar „ granite, and shell-sand, 
and in Malacca from j chiton g and Para rubber. 

The other Settlements showed slight decreases. 

35. In the Dindings the tapping of temak trees for damar , which was 
started in 1928, is progressing satisfactorily. The revenue from this source 
rose from $67 to $362. It is expected that, when the new cuts, which have 
been opened, give full yields, the outturn will again show a considerable 
increase. 

For the first time jelutong tapping was commenced in Malacca. 

( b) — From Crown and alienated Lands. 

36. 'There was an increase of $182, accounted for by the tapping of 
Para rubber in Malacca. 


PART III 

FINANCIAL RESULTS. 
Revenue. 


37. The following statement shows the revenue from 1927 to 1929: — 


Settlement 

Revenue 

1927 

Revenue 

1928 

Estimated 

revenue 

1929 

Actual 

revenue 

1929 

Increase or 
decrease 
compared 
over 

Estimates 

Increase 

or 

decrease 
over 1928 
actuals 


1 

§ 

3 

$ 



$ 

Singapore 

3 7,073 

26,074 

15,000 

16,107 

4* 

1,107 

- 9,967 

Penang and Province 








Wellesley 

5,628 

3,401 

3,625 

2,870 

— 

755 

531 

Dindings 

13,305 

18,300 

15,020 

11,895 

- 

3,125 

- 6,405 

Malacca 

16,757 

15,533 

28,700 

29,554 

+ 

854 

+ 14,021 

Total ... 

52,763 

63,308 

62,345 

60,426 

+ 

1,919 

- 2,882 


The principal reasons for increase in Malacca have been stated in para- 
graph 29. 


6 


Expenditure. 


38. The following statement shows the expenditure from 1927 to 19 2pr — 


Settlement 

Expenditure 

1927 

Expenditure 

1928 

Estimated 

expenditure 

1929 

Actual 

expenditure 

1929 

Savings on 
estimates 

Increase 

or 

decrease 
over 1928 
actuals 


£ 

V 

s 

$ 

% 

8 


$ 

Singapore 

9,411 . 

10,083 

9,955 

11,216 

- 1,261 

+ 

1,133 

Penang and Province 








Wellesley 

11,346 

11,488 

7,945 

12,308 

- 4,363 

+ 

820 

Dindings 

8,577 

8,773 

10,255 

9,099 

+ 1,126 

+ 

326 

Malacca 

25,664 

35,897 

63,096 

72,458 

- 9,362 

+ 

36,561 

Total 

54,998 

66,241 ' 

91,221 

*t 105,081 

- 13,860 

4* 

38,840 


* Excludes temporary allowances amounting to $4,317. 

t Includes share of headquarters expenses, of training of local forest officers and contribution to 
the Imperial P'orestry Institute, Oxford. 


COMPARATIVE STATEMENT. 


39. The results of the year’s working are shown in the following state- 
ment : — 


Settlement 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1927 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1928 

Estimated 
surplus or 
deficit 1929 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1929 

Increase 
or decrease 
over 

estimates 

Increase 

or 

decrease 
over 1928 
actuals 


$ 

* 


# 

# 

$ 

S 

Singapore 

Penang and Province 

+ 7,662 

+ 15,991 

+ 

5,045 

+ ■ 4,891 

154 

- 11,100 

Wellesley 

- 5,718 

- 8,087 

— 

4,320 

- 9,438 

- 5,118 

- 1,351 

Dindings 

+ 4,728 

+ 9,527 

+ 

4,795 

+ 2,796 

- 1,999 

- 6,731 

Malacca 

- 8,907 

- 20,364 

— 

34,396 

- 42,904 

- 8,508 

- 22,540 

Total ... [ 

- 2,235 

[ 

- 2,933 

- 

28,876 

- 44,655 

- 15,779 | 

- 41,722 


PART IV 

ADMINISTRATION. 

40. Mr. G. E. S. Cubitt, c.b.e., continued in charge of the department 
until his retirement on 13th December, when the writer succeeded him. 

Singapore remained under the charge of a Sub-Assistant Conservator 
of Forests under the general supervision of the Personal Assistant to the 
Conservator (now Deputy Director). Malacca remained under the sole 
charge of an Assistant Conservator of Forests, with headquarters at Jasin, 
working under the State Forest Officer, Negri Sembilan and Malacca. The 
State Forest Officer, Perak North, continued to supervise the forests of 
Penang and the Dindings. An Assistant Conservator of Forests with head- 
quarters in Taiping was in charge of Penang throughout the year, but the 
work in the recently-constituted Dindings district suffered from changes. 


Kuala Lumpur, 13^ March, 1930. 


j. P. MEAD, 
Director of Forestry , 

F. M. S. and S . S’. 


j* 


7 


APPENDIX 

List of trees etc., mentioned in the report and forms. 


Vernacular or 
English name 

Botanical name 

Uses 

Bakau 

Rhizophora spp. 

Firewood, poles & cutch 

Bakau kurap 

Rhizophora mucronata Lam. 

Do. do. 

Bakau minyak 

Rhizophora conjugata Linn. 

Do. do. 

Bertam 

Eugeissonia tristis Griff ... 

Thatch 

Chengal 

Balanocarpus Heimii King 

Timber and damar 

Jangkang 

Dillenia reticulata King ... 

Timber 

Jelutong 

Dyera spp. 

Timber; veneers for 
matches; clogs; chew- 
ing gum 

Keledang 

Artocarpus lanceaefolia Roxb. 

Timber 

Keruing 

Dipterocarpus spp. 

Timber and wood oil 

Melantai 

Shorea macroptera Dyer. ... 

Timber 

Mengkuang 

Pandanus spp- 

Mats 

Meranti 

Shorea spp. 

Timber 

Meranti tembaga 

Shorea leprosula Miq. 

Do. 

Merbau 

Intsia (Afzelia) spp. 

Do. 

Mersawa 

Anisoptera thurifera Bl. ... 

Do. 

Nibong . ... 

Oncosperma filamentosa Bl. 

House posts, flooring 

Nipah 

Nipah fruticans Wurmb. ...- 

Thatch and alcohol 

Para rubber 

Hevea brasiliensis M. A. ... 

Rubber 

Penaga 

1 Mesua ferrea Linn. 

Timber 

Pinang raja 

Cyrtostachys Lakka Becc. 

Ornamental palm 

Resak 

Vatica spp. 

Timber 

Rotan 

Climbing palms, var. spp. 

Canes 

Sena 

Pterocarpus indicus Willd. 

Timber 

Seraya 

Shorea Curtisii Dyer 

Do. 

Sundek 

Madhuca and Payena spp. 

Gutta perch a 

Taban 

Palaquium spp. 

Do. 

Tapioca 

Manihot utilissima Polil. ... 

Food 

Temak 

Shorea crassifolia Ridley ... 

Timber and damar 

Tembusu 

Fagraea gigantea Ridley ... 

Timber 

Ubi kembili ... 

Coleus tuberosus Benth. ... 

Food 



Annual Report on Forest Administration in the Straits 

Settlements for the Year 1930 


FART I 

EXTENSION AND CONSTITUTION OF RESERVED FORESTS. 

i. In Singapore Island an extension of 682 acres of fairly good, but 
immature, bakau* was added to the Tuas reserve. 


2. In the Dindings, as the result of resurvey, the areas of the Gunong 
Tunggal and Tanjong Hantu reserves were found to have been underesti- 
mated by 142 and 20 acres respectively. 

3. In Province Wellesley the Bukit Goa lpoh and Bukit Eangkap 
reserves, 292 and 231 acres respectively, were revoked and handed over to 
the Land Office for allotment to market gardeners. 


4. In Singapore Island the Bukit Timah reserve was revoked and 
reconstituted to include only forest land, all those paits of the 01 iginal 
reserve now occupied by squatters and the rifle range being excluded. I he 
valley in the south-west near Hampstead Bath contains a number of plants 
that now occur nowhere else in the island, and it is therefore hoped that .t 
will be found possible to retain the reconstituted reserve permanently under 

forest. 

5. Minor decreases totalled 94 acres, being accounted for by excisions 
for house sites and kampongs and by revisions of area on resurvey. 


6. The total area and distribution of reserved forests are shown in the 


statement below : — 


Settlement 

Total area 

Area of 

reserved forests 

Proportion 
to whole area 

Singapore... 

Penang 

Province Wellesley 
Bindings 

Malacca 

Total 

Square miles 

2 i 7 

108 

280 

183 

72c 

Square miles 

25'4 
! 9‘ 1 

5 *o 

52*5 

790 

Percentage 

* 

1 1 '7 
* 7*7 

i-8 

287 

1 1*0 


1 .8 1 *o 

12*0 


- Proposals for the abandonment of all the reserves in Singapore 
Island Bukit Timah excepted, were put up to the Goyernuient during the 
“I, are s till under consideration. Apart from Bukit Dinah as reconsti- 
tuted' the remaining forests are either given over to occupation by squatters 
nr rrnLt of scattered areas of immature mangrove, which have been badly 
damaged bv past overcutting. Even could the difficulties of protecting these 
forests against the depredations of fishermen and squatters be overcome, it is 
doubtful whether they could ever be made to pay. - 


botanical names of trees etc., mentioned in this report see Appendix. 


2 


DEMARCATION AND MAINTENANCE OF BOUNDARIES OF 

RESERVED FORESTS. 

8. 1 he total length of boundaries decreased from 6o6 to 6oo miles, of 

which about 130 miles are formed by natural features and require no upkeep. 
A length of 434 miles was repaired for $1,133, i.c., $2.61 a mile, much the 
same figure as in 1929. 


SURVEYS. 

9. By the Survey Department — In Malacca complete topographical 
surveys on the 4" to 1 mile scale with 25-foot contour intervals were made 
of the Ayer Panas, Batang Malaka, Berisu, Bukit Bruang, Bukit Senggeh, 
Kuala Linggi, Merlimau, Nyalas, Ramuan China and Sungei Udang reserves, 
J total area of 39,595 acres, at a cost of $30,079 or $486 a square mile, 
i hese surveys will greatly facilitate the development of the reserves. 

In the Dindings part of the boundaries of Segari Melintang and the 
whole of Tanj'ong Hantu were traversed at a cost of $2,211. The excision 
from the Ratu Undan F. R. was also surveyed. 

10. By the Forest Department : — In Malacca various small departmental 
surveys were made of paths, swamps and the like at a total cost of $65. 

In Penang and Province Y\ ellesley about 38 miles of enumeration surveys 
were made at a cost of $820 over the Pantai Acheh, Telok Bahang, Bukit 
Juru and 1 asek Gelugor reserves to obtain data of the growing stock on 
which to base a scheme for the improvement of the forests. The total area 
covered was about 5,100 acres. 

The compartment boundaries of Pantai Acheh were surveyed for $22. 


PART II 

MANAGEMENT OF FORESTS. 

11. The prescriptions of the approved working scheme for the Malacca 
forests were generally adhered to. All arrears from the previous year were 
cleared oft and the work laid down for 1930 completed with the exception 
of two compartments in which work is still in progress. 

The proposed compilation of a working scheme for the Kuala Linggi 
mangrove had to be postponed owing to delay in the survey of the revised 
boundaries. 

12. In the Dindings it was not found possible to follow the approved 
scheme for the Tanjong Burong mangrove owing to the lack of demand for 
firewood and poles. 

A proposal was approved to work on a 30-year rotation the mixed crop 
of bakau and tcngar on 380 acres in the Batu Undan reserve. Three sub- 
coupes were opened but work was not started until mid-December, only 44 
tons of firewood being removed during the year. 

13. In Penang and Province Wellesley a scheme for the improvement 
of the growing stock of the Pantai Acheh, Telok Bahang, Bukit Juru and 
1 asek Gelugor reserves was approved by the Government, the necessary 
Linds to initiate the work being provided for 1931. The enumeration 
surveys necessary to obtain data 011 which to base the scheme have already 
been referred to in paragraph 10. 

In Pantai Acheh an exceptionally fine crop of bintangor, damar laut , 
nteranti and merawan was found, although the larger girth classes, owing 
to heavy timber working in the past, are not well represented. 

1 he stand in 9 elok Bahang was found to be somewhat poorer in 
established regeneration than that in Pantai Acheh, probably because there 
lias not been the same long continued working of poles for fishing stakes, 
which has been such a feature in the former reserve. 


3 


] asek Gelugor was found to possess a much better crop than had been 
supposed, and, though the condition of the young regeneration cannot be 
legarded as satisfactory, there is every prospect of eventually converting 
the crop into a valuable commercial forest by silvicultural treatment 

Lukit Juru contains about 200 acres of good forest in which bintangor 
damar taut, medang and tampinis predominate. 

It is thought that tlieie is sufficient forest of g'ood quality outside the 
catchment aiea in Bukit Panehor to justify an enumeration survey, and 
this will be done during the current year. 


COMMUNICATIONS. 

14. In Malacca 16 miles of new paths were constructed at a cost of 
S695 and 146 miles of already existing' paths were repaired at a cost of $1,420. 

x 5- Penang and Province Wellesley 8 b miles of new paths were 
constructed for $291 and ij miles maintained at a cost of $4. 

16. In the Dindings 4f miles of new paths were made in the Telok 
Muroh reserve for $250. 

17. All other existing paths were kept in repair by the subordinate staff. 

BUILDINGS. 

18. In Singapore new quarters to accomodate two forest guards were 
erected by the Public Works Department at Pandan at a cost of $1,850. 

19. In the Dindings the Public Works Department completed the District 
h orest Officer’s quarters at Lumut at an additional cost of $2,736 (the total 
expenditure being $21,626) and a new forest office for $5,511. 

A sum of $8,959 was spent on quarters for two clerks, but' the building 
was not ready at the end of the year. 

Coolie-lines were erected departmentally in the Telok Muroh reserve. 

20. temporary quarters near the Bukit Beruang reserve to accomodate 
the subordinate in charge of the coolies were built departmentally at a cost 
of $36. 

2I * ^ le Public Works Department spent $1,526 on general repairs to a 
number of forest buildings. In Malacca a further sum of $109 was spent 
out ot forest votes 011 repairs. 


PROTECTION OF FORESTS. 

22. 1 he titles of various forest officers were changed in accordance with 

the instructions or the Secretary of State and effect w^as given to the change 
by Ordinance No. 4 of 1930. 1 ° 

. ^ T ° cases were pending from 1929. There were 86 new cases compared 

with 103 cases in 1929 and 76 in 1928. All were disposed of during the year 
there were small increases in the numbers of offences in the Dindings and 

Malacca, but in Singapore the number of detected cases declined from 
21 to 5. 


24. Twenty-five cases were taken to court, in 23 of which convictions 
were obtained. Fines inflicted totalled $320, Le.„ $13.91 per conviction 
compared with $1,518 and $58.39 in 1929. Twelve cases were dealt with 
departmentally and $116 w y as paid as compensation. The corresponding 
figures for 1929 were 13 and $137. J ° 


There was a decrease of 12 in the number of undetected cases. 

25 In Malacca there were 45 instances of breaches of felling leases and 
liquidated damages amounting to $421 were paid. 

In 1929 there were 31 breaches and damages amounted to $223. 


A 

/ 




26. Various small fires occurred in the Dindings and Penang but the 
damage caused was insignificant. 

27. Crabs as usual did some damage to planted bakau seedlings in the 
Tanjong Burong reserve in the Dindings. The sea is eroding the forest in 
the north-west of this reserve from Sungei Bruas to Sungai Banting, a 
distance of about three miles. A strip of forest chains wide was washed 
away during 1930. 


SILVICULTURE. 

(i) Natural Reproduction. 

28. Except in some parts of Malacca, the year 1930 was not a very good 
seed-year. In Malacca of the dipterocarps kerning fruited prolifically, parti- 
cularly in the Batang Malaka, Bukit Sedanan and Ramuan China reserves, 
and meranti in the Bukit Sedanan and Bukit Senggeh reserves. Mcrbau 
fruited well in Ayer Panas and Bukit Sedanan, while quantities of 
freshly-germinated seed of kempas and rengas were found in the Bukit 
Sedanan and Sungai Udang reserves. Taban fruited in May in the Telok 
Bahang reserve in Penang and in August in the Ayer Kroh plantations in 
Malacca. It is interesting to note that mahogany flowered in the Ayer 
Kroh plantations. Scraya fruited in the Bukit Timah reserve in Singapore. 
The Dindings report is vague, but in the latter part of the year meranti 
tembaga , merawan , penaga , sepctir, scraya and rengas are said to have 
fruited. 

(ii) Planting and Cultural Operations. 

29. No new planting was done in Penang. The plantations in Bukit 
Goa Ipoh and Bukit Langkap, referred to in paragraph 24 of the 1929 report, 
were abandoned on the revocation of those reserves. 

4 

30. In the Dindings an area of 1 acre in coupe 1/27 of the Tanjong 
Burong reserve, which had failed to regenerate itself naturally, was planted 
with bakau m inyak by patrol guards. The seedlings were all badly attacked 
by crabs and only 57 were alive at the end of the year. 

31. In Malacca the plantations at Ayer Kroh are reported all to be in 
poor condition. The m'erbau and penaga plantations of qi| acres were 
maintained at a cost of $339. 

An enumeration of all the trees in the plantations was made for $11. 
A sum of $170 was realized for the right to tap the Para rubber plantation 
and a further $121 from royalty on firewood and sale of poles. 

32. In Singapore the Para rubber plantation at Y eo Chu Kang was 
leased for 4 months only; the revenue realised being $120 and maintenance 
costing $248. 


(iii) Regeneration Fellings. 

33. These fellings are designed, by allowing the removal of unwanted 
species in the form of poles and firewood, to increase the proportion of 
valuable species, which are left to seed up the blanks caused by the removal 
of the unwanted species. Fellings of this type were in progress over a total 
area of 1,568 acres in the Pantai Acheh, Tasek Gelugor and Telok Bahang 
reserves in Penang and Province Wellesley. 

(iv) Regeneration Improvement Fellings. 

34. In places where there is no market for firewood it is not possible to 
get inferior species removed by contractors and it is therefore necessary to 
effect their removal by means of departmental fellings and girdlings. These 
operations are known as '‘regeneration improvement fellings”. Schemes 
for work of this kind are now in operation in the Dindings and Malacca, 
the former having been newly started during the year, 


5 


35 - In the Dindings an area of 119 acres in Telok Muroh was treated 
at a cost of $1,600, including the cost of tools and coolie-lines. The principal 
species favoured in these operations was daniar Jaut, which is very abundant 
and all size-classes being well represented. Other valuable species that are 
fairly common are bintangor, rengas and scpetir. 

36. In Malacca the scheme fellings originally started in 1928 were 
continued and completed over the following areas : — 

Ayer Panas 736 acres, Batang Malaka 314 acres, Bukit Sedanan 1,714 
acres, Bukit Senggeh 1 acre, Merlimau 971 acres, Ramuan China 781 acres 
and Sungai Udang 373 acres; in all 4,890 acres were treated at a cost of 
$26,502, }.e., $5.42 per acre. This figure is a reduction of $3.45 per acre 
from 1929 and is accounted for largely by the increased experience of the 
labour force. A total area of 10,693 acres of the Malacca reserves had 
been treated with improvement fellings at the end of the year. The results 
of the work are now becoming apparent and show distinct promise of 
success. 

EXPLOITATION. 

(i) Timber and Fuel. 

(a) From reserved forests. 

37. In Penang and Province Wellesley the outturn of timber and fire- 
wood was 367 tons and 499 tons as compared with 315 and 1,410 tons in 1929. 
The increased output of timber was due to the opening of the Telok Bahang 
reserve to pole working, and the large decrease in firewood is accounted for 
by decreased demand and by the revocation of the Bukit Goa Ipoh and 
Bukit Langkap reserve, the outturn from which (about 500 tons) is now 
recorded under that from “Crown and alienated lands”. 

38. In the Dindings the outturn of class I timber fell from 190 tons to 
81 tons and that of class 2 timber and poles showed a small increase from 
[40 tons to 165 tons. None of the reserves is open to regular cutting of 
class 1 timber and the whole outturn is derived from the removal of dead 
and fallen chengal and other timber from Segari Melintang and the areas 
destined for excision. 

A pole coupe was opened in Tanjong Burong for the supply of fishing- 
stakes and 40 tons of lenggadai poles were removed. 

The outturn of firewood dropped from 719 to 427 tons. Charcoal to a 
weight of 15 tons was removed from a area in the Lumut reserve destined 
for excision. 

39. In Malacca the steady demand for timber apparent at the end of 
1929 continued through the best part of the year, but latterly fell off. The 
outturn of class 1 and 2 timber was 2,551 and 2,991 tons compared with 2,083 
and 3,142 tons in 1929. There was a remarkable increase in the outturn of 
firewood, viz., from 12,737 tons in 1929 to 26,589 tons. It is chiefly ac- 
counted for by the removal for firewood of trees of inferior species felled 
and girdled in the departmental operations. Two hundred and twenty-one 
tons of charcoal were produced in the Malacca reserves. 

40. In Singapore 60 tons of class 2 Tmher were removed for trial in a 
local match factory. The outturn of firewood rose from 56 tons in 1929 to 
10,907 tons in 1930. This increase resulted from the sale of coupes in the 
most inaccessible of the mangrove forests, which it had been found 
impossible to protect. 

41. The total outturn of the Straits Settlements from reserved forests 
was 6,215 tons of timber and 38,422 tons of firewood as compared with 
5,870 tons of timber and 14,922 tons of firewood in 1929. 

(/;) From Crown and alienated land, 

42. In Penang and Province Wellesley the outturn of timber and fire- 
wood was 297 and 1,789 tons as against 168 and 1,516 tons in 1929. These 
increases are accounted for by the revocation of the Bukit Goa Ipoh and 
Bukit Langkap reserves, which were then exploited to their full capacity. 



6 


43. In the Dindings the outturn of timber and firewood was 1,787 tons 
and 1,928 tons as compared with 2,044 and 2,017 tons in 1929. Charcoa 
increased from 398 to 413 tons. 

44. In Malacca the outturn of timber decreased by 1.896 tons to 1,416 
tons, but firewood increased to 5,284 tons. 

4v In Singapore the outturn of timber and firewood was 60 and 7,840 
tons as compared with one and 14,400 tons in 1929* 

46 The total outturn of the Straits Settlements was 3,570 tons of timber, 
16,842 tons of firewood and 431 tons of charcoal, as against 5,698, 21,235 
and 398 tons respectively in 1929. 


47 - 


(c) General. 

The revenue derived from timber, firewood and charcoal was as 



Timber 

Firewood & 
Charcoal 

Total 


$ 

$ 

$ 

Penang & Province Wellesley 

IA 54 

; 69 

L 923 

Dindings 

5 ’ 3 20 

1,922 

7» 2 42 

Malacca 

19,180 

1 1 ,624 

30,804 

Singapore 

862 

10,722 

iLS&t 

Total ... 

26,516 

25-037 

5**553 


45. in Malacca many ui me apceiea ^ ^ > 

are not ordinarily in favour for conversion into timber, continue to he 
used. Notable amongst these are jambu kelnang, which is generally 
preferred to the common meranti , and kedondong. 


(ii). Other Forest Produce. 

(a) From reserved forests. 

49. Revenue fell from $4,001 to $3,611. There was however an increase 
in the output of damar temak in the Dindings, the revenue derived fiom 
which rose from $362 to $1,012, as was anticipated in the 1929 report. 

Xo jelutong tapping was done in Malacca*, the contractor who took 
out a permit and paid premiums in 1929, returned the permit before a single 
tree bad been tapped. 

(b) From Crown and alienated land. 

50. The revenue rose from $1,417 m l 9 2 9 to Ib^oi. 


PAET III 


FINANCIAL, 
(i) Revenue. 


-1. The following statement shows the revenue from 1928 to 1930 
inclusive. 


Settlement 

Revenue 

1928 

Revenue 

1929 

Estimated 

revenue 

1930 

Actual 

revenue 

1930 

Increase or 
decrease 
over 

estimates 

I ncrease 
or 

decrease 
over 1929 
actuals 

E J enang and Province 
Wellesley 

Dindings 

Malacca 

Singapore 

Total ... 

$ 

3,401 

18.300 

15.533 

26,074 

S 

2.870 

11,895 

29,554 

16.107 

S 

2,865 

14,580 

34,000 

14,100 

$ 

2,552 

10.849 

32,546 

20,913 

8 

313 

- 3,731 

- 1,454 

+ 6,913 

s 

- 318 

1,046 
+ 2,992 

+ 4 , 806 

63.308 

60,426 

65,445 

66,860 

4- 1,415 + 6,434 


7 


(ii) Expenditure. 

52. The expenditure from 1928 to 1930 inclusive is shown hereunder: — 


Settlement 

Expenditure 

1928 

Expenditure 

1929 

Estimated 

expenditure 

1930 

Actual 

expenditure 

1930 

Savings on 
estimates 

Increase 

or 

decrease 
over 1929 
actuals 


$ 

S 

$ 

$ 

$ 

$ 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley 

11,488 

12,308 

8,199 

10,645 

- 2,446 

- 1,663 

Dindings 

8,773 

9,099 

9,993 

11,879 

- 1,886 

+ 2,780 

Malacca 

35,897 

72,458 

88,343 

92,196 

- 3,853 

+ 19,738 

Singapore 

10,083 

11,216 

9,573 

11,052 

- 1,479 

- 164 

Total 

66,241 

105,081 

116,108 

* t 125,772 

- 9,664 

4- 20,691 


* Excludes temporary allowances amounting to $4,305. 

t Includes share of headquarters expenses, of local training of forest officers and the contribution to 
the Imperial Forestry Institute, Oxford. 


(iii) Comparative Statement. 

53. The results of the year’s working are shown in the following 
statement : — ■ 


Settlement 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1928 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1929 

Estimated 
surplus or 
deficit 1930 

Surplus 
or deficit 
1930 

Increase 
or decrease 
over 

estimates 

Increase 

or 

decrease 
over 1929 
actuals 


$ 

$ 


$ 

§ 


S 

S 

Penang and Province 
Wellesley 

- 8,087 

- 9,438 

— 

5,334 

- 8,093 

— 

2,759 

+ 1,345 

Dindings 

4- 9,527 

+ 2,796 

+ 

4,587 

- 1,030 

— 

5,617 

- 3,826 

Malacca 

- 20,364 

- 42,904 

— 

54,343 

- 59,650 

- 

5,307 

- 16,746 

Singapore 

4- 15,991 

+ 4,891 

+ 

4,427 

+ 9,861 

+ 

5,434 

+ 4,970 

Total ... 

- 2,933 

- 44,655 

- 

50,663 

- 58,912 


8,249 

- 14,257 


PART IV 

ADMINISTRATION. 

54. The writer was in charge of the department throughout the year. 
Singapore remained under the general supervision of the Deputy Director 
of Forestry with a Sub-Assistant Conservator in immediate charge. The 
State Forest Officer, Perak North, continued to supervise the forests of 
Penang and the Dindings. Throughout the year an Assistant Conservator 
with headquarters at Taiping was in charge of Penang and an Extra Assistant 
Conservator stationed at Lumut was in charge of the Dindings. Malacca 
continued to be in charge of an Assistant Conservator, with headquarters 
at Jasin, under the general supervision of the State Forest Officer, Negri 
Sembilan and Malacca. 


J. P. MEAD, 
Director of Forestry, 

F. M. S. and S. S. 


4 / 

- 


Kuala Lumpur, 28th February , 1931. 


8 


APPENDIX. 

List of trees, etc., mentioned in the report and forms. 


Vernacular or 
English name 

Botanical name 

Uses 

Bakau 

Rhizophora spp. 

Firewood, poles, cutch 

Rakau minyak 

Rhizophora conjugata Linn. 

d 

o 

p. 

O 

p. 

o 

Bertam .. 

Eugeissonia tristis Griff. ... 

Thatch 

Bintangor 

Calophyllum spp. 

Timber 

Chengal ... 

Balanocarpus Heimii King 

Timber, damar 

Damar laut 

Shorea glauca King 

Timber 

Jambu keluang 

Elaeocarpus spp. 

Do. 

Jangkang 

Dillenia reticulata King ... 

Do. 

Jelutong 

Dyera spp. 

Timber, chewing gum 

Kedondong, 

Canarium and Santiria spp. 

Timber, damar 

Keledang 

Artocarpus lanceaefolia Roxb . 

Timber 

Kempas 

Koompassia malaccensis Bcnth. 

Timber, shingles 

Kerning 

Dipterocarpus spp. 

Timber, wood oil 

Lenggadai 

Bruguiera parviflora Might, 

Fishing-stacks, firewood 

Mahogany 

Swietenia macrophylla King 

Timber 

Medang ... 

Litsea, Micropora and other spp. 

Do. 

Mengkuang 

Pandanus spp. ... 

Mats 

Meranti ... 

Shorea spp. 

Timber 

Meranti tembaga ... 

Shorea leprosula Miq. 

Do. 

Merawan 

Hopea intermedia King ... 

Timber, damar 

Merbau ... 

Intsia (Afzelia) spp. 

Do. 

Nibong ... 

Oncosperma filameiitosa Bl. 

House posts, flooring 

Nipah 

Nipa fruticans IVurmb. ... •••! 

Thatch , alcohol 

Para rubber 

Hevea brasiliensis M. A. ... 

Rubber 

Penaga ... 

Mesua ferrea Linn. 

Timber 

Pinang raja 

Cyrtostacliys lakka Becc. ... 

Ornamental palm 

Rengas ... 

Melanorrhoea, Swintonia & other spp. 

Timber 

Resak 

Vatica spp. 

Do. 

Rotan 

Climbing palms var. spp. ... 

Canes 

Sena 

Pterocarpus indicus Willd. 

Timber 

Sepetir ... 

Sindora spp. 

Do. 

Seraya 

Shorea Curtisii King 

Do. 

Sundek ... 

Madhuca and Payena spp. 

Gutta percha 

Taban 

Palaquium spp. 

Do. 

Tempinis 

Sloetia sideroxylon Tcysm. 

Timber 

Temak 

Shorea crassifolia Ridley ... 

Timber, damar • 

Tembusu 

Fagraea gigantea Ridley ... 

Timber 

Tengar ... 

Ceriops Candolleana Am. 

Poles, firewood, cutch 



Conserved by 


NATIONAL 
ARCHIVES 

OF SINGAPORE